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Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences (IJVS) is a global, scientific and open access journal. Publishing under the license of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY), this journal is published biannually by the College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Iraq since January 1988. We are using iThenticate to prevent plagiarism and to ensure the originality of our submitted manuscripts. A double-blind peer reviewing system is also used to assure the quality of publication. IJVS publishes original articles, review papers and case reports in the field of veterinary science. This...
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Protective effect of placental mesenchymal stem cells on histological changes of pancreas experimentally induced by alloxane in mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Rasha A. Al-Sabawy; Hamad J. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163563

In an attempt to find a treatment for diabetes by Placental mesenchymal stem cells, we induced diabetes in albino mice by injected them with the diabetic agent Alloxan intra peritoneal cavity dose 70 mg / kg of body weight for the group 1 and 2, then injection of the diabetic mice with Placental mesenchymal stem cells in the peritoneal cavity for the group 2 then the glucose levels in the blood of these mice were measured by using a GLUCOTREND 2, while group 3 was control injected with normal saline only. Pancreas tissue where tested by studying histopathological effect of Alloxan, the endocrine pancreas histologically showed decreased in the size and number of Langerhans islets with vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of almost all cells in the atrophied islets. Also, there was congestion of blood vessels in the interlobular space and there was distortion of exocrine pancreas. There was vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial cells of the acini, also there was atrophy of acini which lead to edema and dilatation of interacini space. Moreover, there was thickening in the wall of blood vessels, and there was thrombus in some blood vessels. In addition to the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interlobular septa. Compared with the section of pancreas of control group showed the normal structure of islets notice the normal cells shape surrounding by exocrine pancreas. Then the pancreas studied after injection of Placental mesenchymal stem cells, while there was regeneration of islets and acini which seem to be normal comparing with control group, there was improvement of normal histological appearance of mice treated with alloxan and then injected with placental mesenchymal stem cells. The results of the diabetic mice which treated with placental mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated present of significant differences (P≤0.05). Our conclusion of this study revealed that placental mesenchymal stem cells have a protective role against the histological changes of pancreas induced by alloxan.

The histological changes induced by Cytarabine on rabbits livers (with and without vitamin E administration)

Saif Al-Jammas; Ayad Al-Saraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 9-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163564

The present study was intended to determine the histological changes induced by Cytarabine drug on the structure of rabbit's livers and the protective effects of vitamin E on these histological changes. The treated group with daily intraperitoneal dose of (50 mg/kg body weight) of Cytarabine alone, showed a massive histological change represented by infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, epithelioid cell and Kupffer's cells in hepatic tissue. Fibrosis in portal area, congestion of blood vessels as well as hyperplasia of bile canaliculi and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes were also noticed in other sections. While the group that received protective (800 IU of vitamin E) prior to each Cytarabine injection, showed a considerable histological improvement than the group received Cytarabine alone, as the histological sections of this group showed a nearly normal histological architecture of the liver that represented by normal arrangement of hepatic cords, no fibrosis no congested blood vessels were seen. though distension of hepatic sinusoids and coagulative necrosis of some hepatocytes were still observed. The present study suggested that vitamin E is an effective chemo-protective agent against hepatotoxicity when used as a protective agent prior to Cytarabine drug taken.

Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in broiler and broilers farm workers in Duhok, Iraq by using conventional and PCR techniques

Mahde S. Assafi; Hishiyar A. Hado; Ibtessam S. Abdulrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 15-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125757.1145

Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a global public health concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence rates of MRSA infection amongst broiler chickens and broilers farm workers. The total samples used in this study were 306. Cloacal swab samples from 231 broilers and nasal swab samples from 75 broilers farm workers were collected from five farms in Duhok city, Iraq. Isolation and identification of MRSA isolates were carried out and the antibiotic susceptibility were screened. Molecular characterization of all isolates was performed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to detect the mecA gene.S. aureus was detected among 84% (63/75) of the farms workers samples and among 84.8% (196/231) of the broiler's samples. The S. aureus isolated from farm workers and broilers appeared resistant to oxacillin 28.6% (18/63), and 32.1% (63/196), respectively. MRSA colonization in farm workers and broilers was 24% (18/75) and 27.3% (63/231) respectively. The S. aureus isolates showed the most resistant to chloramphenicol and the least resistant to vancomycin. The results of the PCR assays revealed that 85.7% (12/14) of S. aureus isolates from farm workers and 44.4% (16/36) of S. aureus isolates from broilers were positive for the mecA gene. The direct handling of broilers by farm workers plays the important role for transport the MRSA isolates from broilers to broilers farm workers.

Influence of chitosan on hematological and histopathological changes in mice infected with Brucella melitensis immunized with Rev - 1 vaccine

Muna A. Al-Khafaji; Hamza H. Al-Sultany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163583

This study aimed to assess the changes of blood cells constitutions and study the histopathological sections of liver and spleen in dual sexes mice infected with brucella melitensis and the role of chitosan supplement with and without Rev-1 vaccine in enhancing the inflammatory proses, two experiments were undertaken on 100 albino mice, aged 8-10 weeks for 60 days, first experiment done on 50 males and second one done on 50 females. Results of hematological analysis showed that there are significant increase at P3), red blood cells count RBC (× 106), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular value (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocyte (LY%), granulocyte (GR) and lymphocytes m/mm3 (LYM) in males treated groups comparing with females, the highest values were in immunized infected mice with chitosan diet supplement compared to infected animals. The histopathological lesions recorded there is presence of chronic inflammatory reaction characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration with presence of granulomatous lesion in the liver of immunized animals, presence of mild to moderate lesions characterized by hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue in spleen and small granulomatous lesions in liver of immunized animals fed diet with chitosan supplement.

Evaluation of cardiac enzymes and acute phase response as biomarkers for rapid diagnosis of myocarditis in calves with FMD

Kamal M. AlSaad; Hasanin N. Al-Autaish; Jihad A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 31-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163584

Troponin-I, homocysteine, Creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase and acute phase response had been evaluated in calves with myocarditis due to FMD. The study was conducted on 52 local breed calves 1-6 months old and from both sexes, their dams have no history for vaccination against FMD and show classical foot and mouth disease signs. Ten clinically healthy calves of the same ages were considered as controls. Suspected calves neither show oral blisters, rope salivation, nor foot lesions. Diseased calves showed signs of dullness, in activity, panting with mouth breathing, unable to suck, recumbency, However, five of diseased calves were died within 24-72 hours and on macroscopic examinations of autopsied animals, necrotic myocarditis with pale foci with a zone of hyperemia which were present on the papillary and ventricular cardiac muscles, moreover, on histopathological examinations there were severe inflammatory cells infiltration in the interstitial of myocardial fibers with obvious area of coagulation of myocardial fibers and marked area of hyalinization, furthermore, severe mononuclear cells infiltration, mainly lymphocytes, with few neutrophils closed to necrotic myocardial fibers were also detected. Diagnosis of FMD virus was confirmed by using commercially NSP ELISA kits for foot and mouth. A significant increase (p>0.05)was encounteredin body temperature, respiratory and heart rates in diseased animals than in controls, Furthermore, abnormal cardiac sounds (organic murmurs) were indicated on auscultation of the heart. Results of hematological parameters shown a significant increase indicated in ESR values of diseased calves than in controls, moreover, total leukocyte count was increased significantly with significant lymphocytosis. Furthermore, the results were also showed significant increase in values of serum cardiac troponin, homocysteine, creatine kinase-myocardial band, lactate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and fibrinogen in seropositive calves for FMD compared with controls. It can be concluded that determination of cardiac biomarkers and acute phase response concentration in calves with myocarditis can considered as a guide to quantify early heart damage.

Estimation of some biochemical parameters and trace elements in sheep infested with Taenia hydatigena cysts in Sulaymaniyah province/Iraq

Aram A. Mohammed; Mohammed A. Kadir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125543.1065

This study was carried out in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq to estimate the concentration of some biochemical parameters and trace elements in the serum of sheep infected with the metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena. The present study included the measurement of some biochemical parameters as total protein, albumin and globulin and evaluation of trace elements as zinc, copper and iron using automatic analyzer and spectrophotometer respectively. For this purpose, up to 40 serum samples from sheep infected with T. hydatigena cysts and 10 serum samples from non-infected group had been used. The findings of the current study showed significant elevated levels in both total protein and globulin compared to non-infected group, where the total protein and globulin levels were 8.04 ± 0.275 g/dl and 5.90 ± 0.321 g/dl respectively, compared to the non-infected group 6.686 ± 0.409 g/dl and 4.124 ± 0.479 g/dl respectively. While, the mean serum albumin in infected sheep was significantly decreased 2.14 ± 0.224 g/dl compared to non-infected one 2.562 ± 0.152 g/dl. About the results of trace elements, the serum Cu was significantly increased in infected group 1.42 ± 0.466 mg/L compared to non-infected one 0.90 ± 0.171 mg/L, while the mean serum Zn concentration was significantly decreased in infected group 0.37 ± 0.230 mg/L compared to non-infected group 0.70 ± 0.108 mg/L. Although, the mean serum Fe of infected sheep 1.42 ± 0.388 mg/L was slightly lower than non-infected one 1.26 ± 0.490 mg/L, statistically there was no significant difference between them. It was concluded that T. hydatigena cysts had significant effects on serum total protein, globulin, Zn and Cu.

Effect of Prosopis farcta extracts on some complications (hematology and lipid profiles) associated with alloxan induced diabetic rats

Ismael H. Mohammed; Esmail S. Kakey

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 45-50
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125574.1089

This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethyl acetate Prosopis farcta extracts on some complications associated with diabetes in rats. The experimental rats of 1.5-2 months old that weighed 190-220 g were randomly divided into six groups of seven animals each. Body weight, serum glucose, hematological changes and lipid profiles were studied. Alloxan was used of induction diabetes in rats. 252 rats were used anddifferent doses of the ethyl acetate extracts of roots, fruits, and leaves of P. farcta were orally administered daily for 28 daysfornormal and diabetic rats and the effective dose was 200 mg/kg BW for each kind of extracts. The results showed that administration of root, leaves and fruit extracts of P. farcta caused improvement in body weight, blood glucose, red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), hematocrit (HCT orPCV) in alloxan diabetic rats in insulin like treatment manner, with the most effective improving effect for roots extract. Regarding to the effects on total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, administration of extracts caused decrease in the total WBC and neutrophil count. Administration of root, leaves and fruit extracts of P. farcta, showed suppression in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and increasing in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) of alloxan diabetic rats. In conclusion, the P. farcta extracts possesses properties of improving some health complications accompanied diabetes in rats.

Bioremediation of lead and cadmium and the strive role of Pediococcus pentosaceus probiotic

Raghad Jaafar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 51-57
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125581.1092

Consumption of food and water contaminated with heavy metals poses a huge threat to the life. Both of Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) are heavy metals and important environmental pollutants. Away from traditional treatments, the current study aims to adopt probiotic bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceu to treat heavy metal pollution. Present results indicated a good probiotic property of P. pentosaceus, where they were able to survive pH range from 3-9, during incubation periods 3 and 24 hours, and bile salt range 0.15-0.5% for the same period. The number of bacteria in gastric (pH 3) and intestinal juices (pH 8) after 24 hours of incubation was 390 and 205, respectively. Bacteria showed an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria Salmonella sp. The antibiotic susceptibility test revealed them resistant to clindamycin, intermediate resistant against benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, and their sensitivity to the rest tested antibiotics. Isolated bacteria identified based on their morphology, biochemical characteristic in addition to the use of automated instrument for bacterial identification (Vitek II), and depending on the results bacteria were identified as P. pentosaceus. In bioremediation study, the lowest inhibitory concentration of lead and cadmium and (MIC) was done, followed by assay the removal capacity by P. pentosaceus, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) analysis. Bacteria show high MIC (1800 and 150 ppm) for Pb and Cd respectively. With removal efficiency for Pb 62.10-68.39% in the concentrations 25 and 50 ppm, respectively, and for Cd 52.71-11.25% in the same concentrations. Depending on the present finding probiotic bacteria (P. pentosaceus) can apply in the bioremediation of heavy metals in the fish ponds when contamination occurs, in addition to their tradition used as safety additive to prevent fish disease and an enhancement agent .Finally the isolation of these bacteria from fish ponds can be considered as a good indicator for a healthy state of fish ponds in the studied area.

Isolation and detection of reovirus from arthritis in chickens

Safwan Yousif Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125580.1093

In this study 70 samples were collected from 14-26 weeks old egg laying hens. Clinical signs of infected chickens characterized by lameness, swelling in hock joint. Samples include blood for preparation of serum also hock joints and tendon for virus isolation. Hyperimmune sera was prepared by injection of broiler chickens four times with vaccine strain Reo 1133R 0.2 ml subcutaneously in the neck. Samples were processed and prepared for virus isolation by using 6 days old embryonated chicken egg which was inoculated in yolk sac four passages. Lesions in egg embryo was recorded for each passage then the isolates were diagnosed by using neutralization test using convalescent and hyperimmune sera. Clinical signs of infected birds characterized by swelling and enlargement and edema of hock joint, postmortem lesions revealed swelling and injury in tendon, ulceration and erosions in cartilage and discoloration in synovial fluid, hemorrhage in the leg and yellow necrotic foci in the liver, the result of virus cultivation in embryonated chicken egg show dwarfism in growth, death of embryo with subcutaneous hemorrhage, initiated in 2nd passage and subsequent passages, this lesion increase in severity with progress of passages and with decrease in death time in hours and increase in titer of virus particles. The virus titer was decreased when neutralized by using neutralization test it gives 22 isolates were positive from 34 isolates.

Haematological, oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations in puppies with canine parvoviral enteritis

Chigozie Ukwueze; Ekemini S Akpan; Romanus C Ezeokonkwo; Chika I Nwosuh; Boniface M Anene

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125582.1094

Haematological changes, oxidative stress markers and electrolyte alterations were evaluated in puppies infected with canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) that were presented to veterinary hospitals and clinics in South Eastern, Nigeria. Fifty-one dogs were used for the study and they were assigned into three groups. Group I consist of 21 diarrhoeic dogs naturally infected with canine parvovirus, groups II, were 15 diarrhoeic dogs uninfected with canine parvovirus and group III, were 15 apparently healthy dogs which served as the control. Immunochromatographic (IC) test was used to screen the dogs for canine parvovirus type 2 infections. The mean red blood cell (RBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were significantly lower in the diarrhoeic infected than diarrhoeic non-infected and the control groups. The mean catalase (CAT) of diarrhoeic non-infected group was significantly lower than diarrhoeic infected group and the control. The mean malondialdehyde (MDA) of both diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups were significantly higher than the control. The mean serum sodium (Na+) level of the diarrhoeic non infected group was significantly lower than the diarrhoeic infected group. The mean serum potassium (K+) level was significantly lower both in diarrhoeic infected and diarrhoeic non-infected groups compared to the control groups. It was therefore concluded that the levels of oxidative stress and electrolyte alterations may not be affected by the origin or aetiology of a disease (CPV-2), but on the severity of the infection.

Histopathological effect of fluoxetine drug on the brain of pregnant mice and their embryos

Baidaa Barwarei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 71-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125467.1006

The present study was designed to identify the histopathological effect of fluoxetine (fluoxetine hydrochloride) on the pregnant mice brain and their fetuses as well as recording weight changes at doses of 60 and 80 mg/kg of body weight which were administrated to the pregnant mice from the 7th up to the 18th day of pregnancy and once a day. The results showed histopathological lesions in the adult pregnant mice brain at the dose of 60 mg/kg. induced massive necrotic area of neurons in the cerebral cortex, necrosis of the molecular layer cells while the dose of 80 mg/kg the changes include vasogenic edema in the sub cortical area, severe degeneration and necrosis of the cortex. The lesions in cerebellum were more severe than recorded in the cerebrum. The results also showed the presence of many lesions in the fetus brain at the dose 60 mg/kg and they were degeneration, necrosis of many neurons in the cerebrum while at the dose of 80 mg/kg. There were increase of degeneration and necrosis in the cortical area of fetus brain. In conclusion, the use of fluoxetine in pregnant mice caused decrease in body weight and Histopathological changes in the brain of both of the mothers and their embryos, thus the use of antidepressant by pregnant woman can be harmful for the mothers and the fetus.

Diagnosis of reovirus infection in broiler breeders flocks by using PCR technique in Erbil province

Fanar Isihak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125469.1007

Avian reoviruses can infect birds without any clinical signs of infection, the infection may associate with different manifestations including viral arthritis/tenosynovitis and malabsorption syndrome. The objective of this study was to use advance methods representing by molecular methods (RT-PCR, RT-qPCR) in the diagnosis of ARV infection in broiler breeders' flocks. A 4 flocks of broiler breeders (ROSS breed) 39 weeks age with approximately10% morbidity rate due to Avian Reovirus (ARV). The clinical examination of 16 infected birds revealed unilateral lameness and swelling of hock joint. Blood samples were collected from wing vein of infected birds. Sera were tested for antibodies titer against ARV and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS). 5 of 16 positive samples were selected randomly for amplification by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. The results showed in postmortem examination of infected birds, unilateral arthritis with visible joint lesions. Antibodies titer measured by ELISA in the sera of birds after 4 and 20 weeks of infection with ARV was positive and high. In RT- PCR1 of 5 samples gave positive reaction for amplification while in RT-qPCR all five samples gave positive results for amplification in comparison with +ve and -ve control.

Detection of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in raw cow’s milk using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique

Ihsan M. Ahmed; Raad A. Al-Sanjary; Haiffa H. Alkazaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 83-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125556.1075

Paratuberculosis or Johne’s disease is a chronic debilitating disease mainly infects ruminants and caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Previous serological studies in Mosul city confirm the presence of positive reactants for paratuberculosis in cattle. However, culture methods to confirm the disease need a long incubation period and also special media. Raw cow’s milk is considered as potential source for transmission of M. paratuberculosis in cows’ herds. Accordingly, this study aimed to detect the presence of M. paratuberculosis specifically in the raw cow’s milk using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique as a rapid, sensitive and reliable method. A total of 50 samples of raw cow’s milk were collected from cows suffering from emaciation and unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. All the samples were subjected to DNA extraction and direct amplification PCR. The results showed that 3 (6%) out of 50 milk samples were positive for M. paratuberculosis. This is the first study in Mosul city that confirms the presence of M. paratuberculosis in raw cow’s milk using PCR technique. In conclusion, raw cow’s milk could be an important source for M. paratuberculosis infection in dairy cows, and also PCR technique could be helpful in rapid diagnosis of paratuberculosis.

Effect of β-mannanase, Lysolecithin and probiotic on some reproductive performance and hormone profile in female quail

Hadel M. Hameed; Fadwa Kh. Aga; Saeb Y. Abdulrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 87-93
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125587.1097

The aim of this study to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase. Lysolecithin and Probiotic on some reproductive performance and hormone profile in female quail. Six hundred one day - old quail birds were randomly divided to four treatments (60 birds/treatment) with 3 replicates for each group treatment (20 birds / replicate) and at three duration periods. The first period 1-7 weeks, second period 7 - 13 weeks, third period 1-13 weeks. The group of study were control was fed on a standard ration. the second, third and fourth treatments were given β-mannanase. Lysolecithin. probiotic 0.5 g /kg ration respectively. Blood samples wear taken for blood serum analysis. including estimation of follicle- stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. The results revealed that the treated groups showed a significant increase in relative weight of the ovary and oviduct compared with control group. β-mannanase and probiotic groups showed a significant increase in the oviduct length compared with the control and Lysolecithin groups. There was a significant increase in the numbers of growing and mature follicles and weight of large follicle in all treated groups compared with control group. The 3rd period showed a significant increase in the relative weight of ovary. oviduct and numbers of growing follicles. while the 2nd and 3rd period showed a significant increase in the oviduct length. About the interaction between treatments and periods. the best result appeared in the ovarian relative weight in the 3rd period for probiotic and β-mannanase. the 3rd period of probiotic showed a significant increase in the oviduct relative weight and for the oviduct length at 2ed and 3rd period for probiotic and β-mannanase. while 3rd period of probiotic show best interaction in the numbers of growing follicles, as 2nd and 3rd periods showed better increase in the mature follicle's numbers and for large follicle weight in 1st and 2nd period of probiotic. The result also showed a significant increase in the FSH and LH level in all treated groups compared with control group. The 2nd and 3rd period were better significantly in the level of FSH and LH. Probiotic at 2nd and 3rd period showed a significant interaction on the level of FSH. On the other hand, 2nd and 3rd period for the β-mannanase and probiotic showed a better significant in the LH level. In conclusion. β-mannanase. Lysolecithin and probiotic supplementation to quail ration improved the hormonal status and enhance reproduction.

Investigate the Toxoplasma gondii infection in the consumed beef in Al-Diwaniyah province

Farah M. Sakban; Noman N. A’aiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 95-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.164336

Toxoplasmosis is very important zoonotic disease in the world cause by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite called Toxoplasma gondii can infect human and all warm-blood animals, beef consider from most important source for infection with T. gondii and there is no really data and study about the rate of the infection in beef in Al-Diwaniyah province, so for this reason the aim of this work was designed. A total of 300 samples which collected from heart, tongue, muscles, of 100 slaughtered beef of local and imported cattle, throughout the period from September 2017 to May 2018, initially examined microscopically for searching on T. gondii bradyzoites then all suspected samples was subjected to conventional PCR technique through B1gene amplification to confirm the infection, in addition to analyzed the recorded data for each sample to determine the effect of some factors on prevalence of infection like organ, season and animal age. Out of 300 tested samples only 53 were confirm positive T. gondii DNA. The infection in local beef was higher (22%) than in imported (13.5%), while there is no difference in infection among different examined organs. Regarding to effect of some factors, the autumn season recorded highest rate of infection with significant differences rather than others seasons in both local and imported beef, whereas, age appears with no effect on infection. The local cattle meat is riskier than the imported due to the higher rate of infection with T. gondii, and the animal age cannot affect on the infection rate, in comparing with the season which play role in this rate.

Diagnosis and histopathological study of avian influenza virus-H5 (AIV-H5) in broiler farms

Fanar A. Isihak; Hana Kh. Ismail; Abed Alwaheed A. Wahid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 101-107
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125646.1120

This study was conducted for diagnosis and description of the pathological changes of AIV-H5 as the causative pathogen in Iraqi broiler farms. The current study was carried out on 84 broiler farms. Infected birds were tested for detection of the AIV infection from the tracheal swabs by rapid chromatographic AIV type A and H5 test kits. In RRT-PCR 8 samples (8 farms) of Trachea were selected to be tested by this assay. Samples of trachea, lung, and spleen from the dead birds with natural AIV-H5 infection were submitted for histopathological examination. seventy-two out of 84 farms tested for AIV-Type A gave positive results, and 58 out of 72 positives for type A-AIV gave a positive result for H5 antigen in a rapid chromatographic strip. The main gross lesions in the trachea of infected birds were severe congestion and hemorrhage. In the RRT-PCR assay, 8 out of 8 samples gave a distinct positive result for this test. The microscopic histopathological examination of infected tracheas showed obvious desquamation of lining epithelium with complete loss of cilia associated with congestion of blood vessels in lamina properia. Infected lungs revealed diffuse alveolar damage and severe multifocal vascular congestion. There was deposition of fibrinous material in the splenic tissue associated with the disappearance of the germinal centers. Thus, we concluded that AIV-H5 infection causes severe pathological and histopathological changes as a result of systemic infection. The RRT-PCR assay was highly sensitive and specific for the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtypes.

Some anti-diabetic properties of Prosopis farcta extracts in alloxan induced diabetic in adult rats

Ismael H. Mohammed; Ismail S. Kakey; Mahdi M. Farimani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 109-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125557.1076

Prosopis farctais belonged to Mimosaceae family, commonly known as mesquite. It was chosen to investigate their effect on α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (in-vitro), serum glucose and liver functions. Roots, fruits, and leaves of P. farcta, were extracted by n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. α-glucosidase inhibition was analyzed by using ELISA technique then half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 was found. The blood glucose levels were determined with a glucose analyzer model. The serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum total bilirubin (TB) were estimated by using the Cobas diagnostic kit with a fully automated chemical analyzer. Diabetes was done by a single dose of 120 mg alloxan/kg b.w with subcutaneously injection. Ethyl acetate extracts of P. farcta showed the higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, and the best one was root extract. Treatments of the alloxan-induced diabetes rats were done by daily oral administration of different concentrations with P. farcta extracts of ethyl acetate for 28 days and the dose 200 mg/kg BW was the effective one. The root extract was the best one for reduction of serum glucose followed by leaves then fruits. Administration of root extract of P. farcta showed a decrease in the levels of ALP and TB in alloxan-induced diabetes rats. The fruit extract of P. farcta showed decreasing in the level of ALP in alloxan-induced diabetes rats. In conclusion, the P. farcta extracts for ethyl acetate have properties of hypoglycemic effect as well as improving some parameters related with diabetic complications of liver functions.

Effect of probiotic acidophilus plus against infection with secondary hydatid disease in BALB /c mice

Suhayla Y. Yousif; Asmaa A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 115-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125613.1104

The current study investigated the effect of acidophilus plus probiotic in the immune activities in mice to infestation with the cystic echinococcosis. Two dilutions of the probiotic bacteria 9*106/0.1 ml, 30*103/0.1 ml CFU were used, by intraperitoneally injection in the experimental animals, pre and post infections with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus. Before infection remedy comprised injection by acidophilus plus twice with 72 hours interval, on the seventh day, animals were injected with protoscoleces intraperitoneally, after infection remedy implicated injection of animals with protoscoleces of Echinococcus protoscoleces first, next to 72 hours, probiotics were inoculated intraperitoneally. Many criteria were taken into consideration including, numbers, weights, diameters and percentage reduction of hydatid cysts of treated mice in contrast to the animals infested with only. The study showed a decline in cysts including their diameter, weighting, digit, accompanied by increasing the percentage reduction of hydatid cysts in treated mice, the highest percentage reduction was 98.03%, at both dilutions, 6 months post infection, and the minimum cysts number was 0.8 in comparison with the control group 39.4, with significant difference, in the same experiment. The minimum cysts weight was 0.0104 gm, 6 months post infection at the dilution 9*106/0.1 ml CFU, compared with the control group 0.442 gm. The smallest cysts diameter was 0.057 mm in comparison with the control group 0.882 mm at dilution 9*106/0.1 ml CFU, 6 months post infection. Acidophilus plus it may well be deduced that probiotic bacteria can be used as medicinal and remedial method against infection with hydatidosis.

Genotyping study of Fasciola gigantica isolated from cattle in Aqrah city, Iraq

Reedha N. Hamoo; Fouad S. Al-Rubaye; Nashaat G. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 123-127
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125621.1108

This study was conducted to investigate the 18S rRNA gene of Fasciola gigantica obtained from the liver of cattle live in Aqrah city, Iraq. Fifty-nine Fasciola flukes were collected through routine investigation from livers of naturally infected local cattle (42 cows), from May to August 2017, at the central slaughterhouse of Aqrah city, Kurdistan region of Iraq, the flukes were washed by PBS and then fixed in ethanol. Genomic DNA was extracted, and a 560 bp fragment was amplified by PCR, subsequent by sequencing of PCR products. A remarkable result of this project was the deposition of our gene isolate in GenBank (Accession No. MG786553). However, it was confirmed by the sequence results that isolate species was F. gigantica, and interestingly our samples sequences have alignment match of 100% with many international isolates, without genetic mutations or variations. It is concluded that molecular study could be utilized for both diagnosis and differential diagnosis of parasites with huge precise. Also, an 18S rRNA gene is a perfect fragment for molecular study and phylogenetic analysis of F. gigantica, also our samples have 100% alignment match with universal isolates.

Incidence of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors of dogs from Baghdad city: Clinical, cytological and histopathological features

Inam J. Lafta; Huda H. Alabbody

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 129-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125624.1111

The present study was conducted to estimate the incidence, clinical findings, cytological and histopathological characteristics of spontaneously occurring skin neoplasms in dogs. A total of 40 grossly suspected cases of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors were gathered during the period from July 2016 to August 2018 from male and female dogs in Baghdad city. Dogs with skin neoplasia revealed various clinical signs, and their ages were older than 5 years to 15 years. German shepherd 30% followed by Terrier dogs 25% were more influenced than other breeds. Concerning tumor features, the majority of neoplasms had solitary lesion 70%, regular shapes 65% with black color 55%. The tumors frequently occurred on fore-limbs and abdomen, and 80% of them lasted for 1-6 months. Cytological examination was valuable for initial evaluation of benign and malignant tumors. Its results were confirmed by the histopathology, in which the majority of neoplasms sized more than 5 cm and grade I. Nine different types of skin neoplasms were recognized, while 65% of them were malignant, the others were benign. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinomas were the most common comprising 35% and 25%, respectively.

Molecular characterization of heat shock protein 70 gene in Iraqi buffalo

Hassan N. Habib

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 139-143
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125633.1116

The heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) has important roles in protecting cells and keeping them alive when exposed to different stress conditions. The polymorphism of the hsp 70 gene could be linked with the ability of stress tolerance. This study aimed to determine the polymorphism of the hsp 70 gene in Iraqi buffaloes and study bits effects on the resistance to stress. This study was conducted during from November 2018 to February 2019. The number of buffalo females used was 35 at the age of 4 - 6 years, which belonged to the local farmers from Basra city, Iraq. The DNA was extraction from the blood samples then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed. The DNA sequences were analyzed by using bioinformatics analysis. The results of the molecular analysis showed that there were two groups of the hsp 70 gene as a compare with the same genes in GenBank due to silent and missense mutations. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the Iraqi buffaloes have adapted to the surrounding environmental conditions as a result of the action of HSP 70 proliferation. The hsp 70 gene was a useful biomarker of stress tolerance in buffaloes.

Pathological study of some esophageal lesions of slaughtered sheep in Mosul abattoir

Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 145-151
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125649.1121

This study includes collection of 120 samples of sheep esophagus from slaughtered sheep in Mosul abattoir from December 2013 to March 2014 for detection of lesions and their incidence. Total 85 esophagus samples showed lesions from the total collected samples. The revealed lesions included disturbance of cell metabolism manifested by coagulative necrosis, sloughing of epithelial lining the esophagus and vacuolar degeneration at incidence rate 67.7, 23.5 and 17.6% respectively, circulatory disturbances like petechial, diffuse hemorrhage and edema were noticed at incidence rate 7.05, 4.7 and 3.5% respectively. Also results showed epithelial hyperplasia, fibroplasia and hyperkeratosis at 47, 24.7 and 31.7% of the total collected samples respectively, whereas eosinophilic inflammation of esophagus appeared at 3.5% of collected samples. Jaundice represent the disturbance in pigmentation reported at ratio of 16.4%, also additionally there was parasitic infestation represented by sarcocystosis and worm infestation which impeded in muscularis layer of esophagus at percentage ratio 50.5% and 3.5% respectively and a single case of esophageal diverticulosis was recorded at percentage ratio of 1.17%. Section that stained which Masson trichrome stain showed fibroplasia with proliferation of fibroblasts that take a bluish green color between muscle fibers.

The inhibitory role of effective microorganisms on the growth of pathogenic bacteria

Mohammad A. Hamad; Saba A. Hussein; Ebtehal N. Mahmmoud; Ammar M. Al-AAlim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 153-158
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125653.1123

This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Effective Microorganisms (EM1®) for inhibiting the growth of some pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli were used in this study and isolated from pathological conditions. These bacteria were diagnosed in laboratory of microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. The colonies that taken from blood agar were 5-7 and cultured in the nutrient broth and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours. Bacterial growth was calibrated with the second tube of the McFarland tubes 0.5%. Several concentrations of EM product were prepared 1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125%. Decimal dilutions were done for each concentration of EM product with bacterial suspension, except control group was done for bacterial suspension with nutrient broth. The bacterial count was done on nutrient agar, milk agar and EMB agar. The results of this study showed that the product of EM1® within concentrations 0.5-1% was highly efficient in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria under study. The bacterial count of both S. aureus and E. coli was 54x107 and 52x107 CFU/ ml respectively at 1% EM1®, and 67x107 and 86x107 CFU/ ml respectively at 0.5%, while the counting of the control group was 42x109 and 67x109 CFU/ ml respectively. This study concluded that EM1® at low concentrations have a clear role in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria, particularly S. aureus and E. coli.

Prevalence, morphological and biochemical study of larval stage Coenurus cerebralis of Taenia multiceps in sheep

Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 159-163
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125660.1124

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Coenurus cerebralis of Tenia multiceps in sheep of Nineveh governorate. One handed and thirty-six sheep heads were examined for the presence of coenurus cysts 31 (22.8%) were infected. The younger were more affected than the adults. There were no significant differences between the number of infected males and females. The clinical signs varied from one animal to another which consisted of neurological disorders manifested by depression, bending of the head to one side, walking in a circular movement and paralysis in the hind limbs, while some animals did not give the clinical symptoms despite the existence of cyst. The number of cysts were ranged from 1 to 4 cysts/animal. The size of these cyst was ranged from 0.5 to 4 cm, and the volume of fluid in these cysts were ranged from 1 to 6 ml while the number of protoscolices in the cyst were ranged from 60 - 360 protoscolex, the mean length of large and small hooks was 179.95 µm respectively. The study also considered the identification of some chemical constituents of fluid of coenurus cyst such as glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, sodium, potassium, urea and pH.

Experimental infection in mice with Acremonium spp. mold and Rhodotorula spp. yeast isolated from cow's milk

Shaimaa N. Yassein; Zainab R. Zghair

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 165-171
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125718.1138

This study was performed in isolation of some pathogenic fungi from milk of apparently healthy cows. Eighty milk samples were collected from four quarters of twenty cows in the Abu Ghraib. Each sample was cultured on Sabouraud dextrose Agar at 28±2 ºC for 4-7 days. The most predominant mold and yeast were Acremonium spp. and Rhodotorula spp. that had used in the experimental infection. The number of experimental mice used in this study was 30 which divided into three equal groups. The 1st group was infected with Acremonium spp. by injection of 0.2 ml of 2*107 conidia/ml intraperitoneally. The 2nd group was inoculated with same dose and route with Rhodotorula spp., while the3rd group served as control group. All mice were sacrificed after 2 weeks of injection, Serum was obtained for biochemical analysis of hepatic and renal enzymes. Some of internal organs of infected groups were taken for histopathological study. The result recorded that the total percentage of fungal infection was 53 (66.3%) of these Acremonium spp. 9 (24.3%) and Rhodotorula spp. 7 (43.8%). Histopathological sections of the 1st group showed severe lesions in kidney than 2nd group although both groups showed lesions in most internal organs. Blood biochemical results showed the yeast has highest significant differences on ALT levels, while the mold has highest effect on serum creatinine, with insignificant difference on urea. In conclusion it could be said that in spite of Acremonium spp. and Rhodotorula spp. are considered as contaminant fungi, but they can cause disseminated mycosis in mice.

Some chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species as ectoparasites infested aquatic birds with a new record of three species from Al-Sanaf marsh/ southern Iraq

Zainab A. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 173-180
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125721.1139

The present study was carried out to determine additional chewing lice of aquatic birds and additional data on the prevalence of chewing lice in aquatic birds found on the Southern marshes of Iraq. Sixty-nine of different species of aquatic birds were randomly collected and examined for chewing lice in Al-Sanaf marsh, which is located in Thi-Qar province / Southern Iraq, between October 2016 and February 2017, the lice placed in tubes containing 70% ethanol after that they cleared, mounted and identified according to morphological features. Twenty-five (36.23%) out of 69 aquatic birds were infested with chewing lice, a total of six lice species were identified from birds in the current study included Piagetiella titan and Pectinopygus forficulatus infested White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus, Actornithophilus piceus lari infested Slender-billed Gull Larus geni, Actornithophilus himantopi infested Black-Winged stilt Himantopus himantopus, Rallicola fulicae isolated from coot Fulica atra and Rallicola parani infested moorhen Gallinula chloropus. Three lice species: Pectinopygus forficulatus, Rallicola fulicae and Rallicola parani were recorded in current study for the first time in Iraq. We need further investigations of Phthiraptera fauna are very important, not only to complete the list, but also to provide information about parasite-host vector relationships and phylogenetic relation among species.

Effect of supplementation of encapsulated organic acid and essential oil Gallant+® on some physiological parameters of Japanese quails

Hiyam N. Matty; Ashwaq A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125732.1142

The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplements of organic acid and essential oil Gallant on the growth hormone, glutathione, performance of growth, some biochemical parameters and intestinal histomorphology in quails. Japanese quails one-day-old (n=120) were distributed randomly into four groups included 10 / 3 replicates for each group. The G1, was control group that was fed on a basal diet. Quails of G2, G3, and G4 were fed on a supplemented diet Gallant 300, 600 and 900g/ton,respectively. Administration of Gallant 600 g/ton and 900g/ton to quail led to significant decrease in triglyceride while supplementation with 600 g/ton caused decrease in cholesterol. On the other hand, 300 g/ton caused an increase in final body weight and total weight through the duration of the experiment, as well as a decrease in total feed consumption and the best feed conversion ratio in all supplementation with 300 g/ton caused a significant growth hormone elevation. All feed additives didn't affect the level of glutathione. The addition of Gallant additive groups. Interestingly, the addition of different doses of Gallant to the diet increased villus length and width, crypt depth, villus / crypt ratio, percentage of goblet cell, apparent surface area, and intestinal epithelium thickness compared to the control group. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with different doses of Gallant improved growth hormone, growth performance and intestinal histomorphology in Japanese quails, and dietary supplementation with organic acid and essential oil as alternatives to the growth promoter of antibiotics.

Toxicological and neurobehavioral effects of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin insecticides in mice

Khaerea A. Mustafa; Banan Kh. Al-Baggou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125738.1144

The aim of the present study was to determine the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin in mice separately and to study their toxic and neurobehavioral effects. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin were determined depending on up and down method. The oral LD50 of chlorpyrifos was 193.05 mg/kg and of deltamethrin was 15.71 mg/kg in mice. The oral administration of chlorpyrifos 155 mg/kg and deltamethrin 12.56 mg/kg represent 80% of LD50 resulted in acute signs of poisoning that manifested by dyspnea, salivation and lacrimation at 100%, piloerection, straub tail, tremors, convulsions and death at 70% for chlorpyrifos and 60% for deltamethrin and writhing reflex at 20% for chlorpyrifos. Oral administration of chlorpyrifos 310 mg/kg and deltamethrin 24 mg/kg increased severity of toxicosis signs as a percentage of piloerection, straub tail, tremors, seizures and death 100%. As well as decrease the onset of tremors, convulsions and death, writhing reflex which appears at 20% for chlorpyrifos and 10% for deltamethrin. After three hours of chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin oral administration at doses represent 20% and 10% of LD50 there are significantly hypoactivation in open-field activity, significantly increased in the duration of negative geotaxis performance, significantly decreased in head pocking and swimming scores compared to control group. In conclusion we found that deltamethrin was more toxic than chlorpyrifos this is based on the LD50 value. However, the signs of toxicosis and neurobehavioral effects produced by both toxicants were not differential and could not be associated with the toxic level.

Levels of disaccharidases in the brush border membrane of equine small intestine

Miran A. Al-Rammahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 197-201
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125778.1152

The disaccharides, consisting of sucrose, lactose and maltose, are hydrolysed into monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose) by intestinal brush border enzymes: sucrase, lactase and maltase. The aim of this study to investigate changes in the brush-border membrane carbohydrate digestive enzymes. From intestinal mucosal scrapings of equine, brush border membrane vesicles were isolated. The results showed that sucrase, maltase and lactase are present in the equine small intestine. The activity of all three enzymes is highest proximally (in the duodenum and jejunum) and lower in the ileum. There was considerable variation between individual horses, however the majority showed highest disaccharidase activity in the jejunum, with some showing highest activity in the duodenum. Sucrase activity is highest in the jejunum and duodenum and lower in the ileum. Maltase activity is similar in all three regions, but slightly higher in the jejunum. Lactase activity is low in all three regions of the small intestine, slightly higher in the equine jejunum and duodenum than ileum. From this study, we can conclude that the equine small intestine digests disaccharides by the brush-border associated disaccharidases sucrase, maltase and lactase. Levels of sucrase and lactase are comparable to other species, but maltase is much higher.

Detection of the extended spectrum β-lactamase produced by Escherichia coli from dairy cows by using the Vitek-2 method in Tulungagung regency, Indonesia

Akyun R. Putra; Mustofa H. Effendi; Setiawan Koesdarto; Suwarno Suwarno; Wiwiek Tyasningsih; Acts T. Estoepangestie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 203-207
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125707.1134

The use of antibiotics in inappropriate on food producing animals can lead to resistance many of the pathogenic bacteria to the various types of antibiotics, one of which is the Escherichia coli (E. coli) which produces extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Antibiotic resistance in animals and humans has become a global problem that needs attention and immediate management by using specific antibiotics that used for therapeutic the infected animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and detect E. coli producing ESBL. All E. coli from the surface of dairy cow rectal swabs in Sendang District, Tulungagung Regency, Indonesia using the Vitek-2 method. The number of rectal swab samples used in the present study was 50. The results of this study showed that all the samples were suspected of being E. coli, based on the morphological growth of colonies on the EMBA media. The isolates were identified by using the biochemical tests. All the samples were positive. In this study the double disc synergy test (DDST) method was using to confirm the ESBL. The antibiotics were used amoxicylyn-clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefotaxime for DDST. In additional ESBL confirmation test was used the Vitek-2 method. The presence of ESBL producing by E. coli isolated from rectal dairy swabs in tulungagung was 6% (3/50).

The effect of nicotine per inhalation on the diameter and epithelium thickness of the seminiferous tubules of rats

Yew S. En; Hardany Primarizky; Widjiati Widjiati; Epy Luqman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 209-215
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125725.1141

This study aimed to assess the level of testicular damage by observing the changes in the diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in rats that exposure to nicotine per inhalation. Thirty adult male rats were used and divided into five equal groups and treatment as follows for 20 days; Control group NaCl 0.9%, P1 nicotine 0.5 mg/kg, P2 nicotine 1.0 mg/kg, P3 nicotine 2.0 mg/kg and P4 nicotine 4.0 mg/kg. All groups were given treatment per inhalation for twenty days. At the end of treatment and the rats were sacrificed testes were collected for histopathological preparation. The testes were processed for routine paraffin embedding and staining and the sections were examined for histopathological changes. There results showed that nicotine administration induced varying degrees of structural damage to the seminiferous tubules, as the decreased in diamater and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules. The diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in four experimental groups reduced compared to the control group. This study proves that nicotine administration does decreases the spermatogenesis of rats by reducing the diameter and epithelium thickness of seminiferous tubules in testes. It also proves that the level of testicular damage is directly proportional to the dosage of nicotine administrated to male rats.

Epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic study for mange in sheep of Anbar province- Iraq

Soad Sh. Shahatha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163587

This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of mange in sheep in Anbar province by examining 462 heads of sheep. The disease was diagnosed by examining the skin scraping taken from the infected animals in the laboratory. The results showed that sheep were infected with Sarcoptes scabiei parasite, and the total infection rate was 34.6%, and no significant difference was recorded between males 34% and females 35.2%, the highest rate was recorded in the month of January %56 and the lowest in the month of August 13.1%, and the highest rate of infection was 49% in sheep at the age of 6 months - 2 years and significant differences for the rest of the ages. Head and neck lesions recorded the highest infection rate of 28.7 and 34.3% respectively. The study also included the effect of the crude watery extract of Onobrychis ptolemaica on the parasite, concentrations of 2.5-10 mg/ml have significantly affected parasites, it was noted the greater the concentration, the greater the effect during the different treatment periods. The highest concentration of 10 mg /ml resulted in the disappearance of all scabies parasites on day 14 of the treatment. Results showed sheep infection in Anbar province with mange in both sexes, high incidence of infection in young ages, high rate of infection in the winter months, and head lesions recorded the highest percentage of infection, the results showed the effect of concentrations of the crude watery extract of Onobrychis ptolemaica plant largely on the parasite.

Detection of Shigella in raw bovine milk by polymerase chain reaction

Noor Soulieman; Aemaan Al-Mariri; Faizah Al-Atrash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 9-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125758.1146

Shigella is an intracellular bacterium can infect both human and animal. Its species especially Shigella dysenteriae cause shigellosis worldwide, with 165 million cases of severe bloody diarrhea and mucoid feces. The aim of this study was to find a rapid, sensitive and specific method for screening Shigella in raw bovine contaminated milk. For this goal, 70 samples of milk collected in sterile containers for isolating of Shigella and culturing it on selective media to identify and characterize its morphology, biochemical and molecular characteristics. This study was compared between three different DNA extraction techniques for polymerase chain reaction (direct DNA extraction using a kit, alkaline DNA extraction, and filtrated milk). Our results showed that PCR was able to detect Shigella in 15 out of 15 cases after the milk samples filtered. In other words, the filter technique can be used to detect Shigella in contaminated milk.

Uses of direct and indirect immuno-fluorescent techniques for demonstration of nematodes infection in sheep in Nineveh government

Enas S. Hussein; Sura S. Aghwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 17-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125482.1027

 This study was conducted for comparison between two different modern methods for the diagnosis of the nematode worms' infection in sheep we used acridine orange fluorochrome and specific staining kit in fecal samples. We examined 50 sheep fecal samples; the total infection rate was about 96% when was used lectin - fluorescein kit while the total infection rate was 74% when we used acridine orange fluorochrome technique. In conclusion of this study indicated that lectin - fluorescein kit is more effective than acridine orange fluorochrome in the diagnosis of nematode worms' eggs. Also, we conclude from this study the importance of using fluorescence - lectin kit technique in the diagnosis of nematodes eggs because they are distinguished by their speed, efficiency and accuracy, as they compare with the fecal culture technique to cultivate the larvae from eggs in order to diagnosed the type of nematodes eggs, the lectin - fluorescein kit technique is the first in Iraq.

Study on the blood protozoa in geese

Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125499.1028

This study included the investigation of blood parasites in 150 geese. The results showed a high infection rate of 70.7%. The infection rate in the geese with small ages was higher compared to the large ages with 84.2 and 47.3% respectively, with no significant difference in infection rate between males and females. The highest infection rate of the parasite is Aegyptianella sp. 26.4% followed by Haemoproteus sp., Plasmodium sp., Leucocytozoon sp. and Trypanosoma sp. with infection rates of 19.8, 18.9, 14.2 and 2.8% respectively, as well as micro larvae of Microfilariae sp. with an infection rate of 17.9%, the two-type infection was the highest, with 45.3%. Microscopic examination of stained blood samples during laboratory experiments showed microscopic developments of the ookinete, which appeared within five hours after blood exposed to air and the ookinete measurement rate was 19.5 × 2 microns.

The effect of Propolis addition to broiler feeds on some blood biochemical parameters and intestinal flora

Muntaha G. Hassan; Tuqaa A. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 29-35
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125483.1015

The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of adding Propolis to broiler feeds and the effect on some biochemical and biological parameters represented by its effect on the total bacterial count of intestinal flora as well as the antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and lactobacillus. We used 150 broiler chicks type Ross at the first day of age divided randomly into three groups each of 17 chicks with three replications, the first one is control group and the second and third group fed on feeds containing two levels of propolis 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively. Results showed that using propolis at 400 mg/kg in the diet lead to a significant decrease in level of triglycerides which was 34.58 mg/ 100 ml accompanied by a mathematical reduction in total cholesterol and LDL levels, while there was an increase in glucose level. The highest propolis levels were effective in significant reduction in total bacterial count of intestinal flora, especially in the seventh week 4.9 log10, represented by a significant reduction in counts of staphylococcus aureus, lactobacillus and Escherichia coli 2.6, 3.6, 3.1 log10 respectively.

The relationship between HSP70 and level of leptin and luteinizing hormones in female rats exposed to chronic and acute heat stress

Hiyam N. Matty; Ashwaq A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 37-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125565.1082

The current search experiments designed to study the effect of chronic and acute heat stress on the relationship between HSP70, leptin and luteinizing hormones level in female rats. 45 female pups were used in the age of weaning, were randomly divided into three equal groups. 1st group was a control group, 2nd group exposed to chronic heat stress at 38 ºC for 1hour a day since the age of weaning until onset of puberty and the 3rd group exposed to acute heat stress at 38 ºC for 4 hours per day for 5 consecutive days from 35 day age of rat and each group above were secondary divided into 3 age groups consisted of pre-puberty, at puberty and post-puberty. Results of study showed female rats exposed to chronic and acute stress led to significant increase in the level of luteinizing hormone at onset of the puberty. The result showed correlation coefficient between the level of HSP70 and leptin hormone significantly in the females acute stressed group at onset of puberty, as well as female exposed to chronic heat stress led to significant correlation coefficient between HSP70 and leptin hormone at post puberty. The result revealed significant correlation coefficient between HSP70 and luteinizing hormone in female control group at onset of puberty. It concluded from this study there is relationship between HSP70 and leptin hormone at onset puberty during acute heat stress and same relationship at post puberty during chronic heat stress.

Investigation of urinary bladder lesions of slaughtered local bovine calves in Mosul city

Mohammed G. Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 45-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125541.1063

One hundred fifteen samples of the urinary bladder were collected randomly from slaughtered local bovine calves in Mosul city during March 2018. Gross and histopathological changes revealed in 37 samples 23.1%. Gross changes represented by congestions, petechial hemorrhage, inflammation and cystic hernia. Histopathological changes included the disturbances of cell metabolism represented by cell swelling of transitional epithelial cells and smooth muscle cell 16.2%, and coagulative necrosis of epithelium of mucosa and Zenker's necrosis of muscular layer 40.5%. cell adaptation manifested by epithelial hyperplasia 18.9% and smooth muscle fibers atrophy 8.1%. Circulatory disturbances represented by hyperemia and congestion 51.3%, petechial hemorrhage, edema and thrombi 5.4% for each. Acute cystitis showed in percentage of 18.9% while chronic cystitis was 13% and fibrosis 21.6%. Congenital deformities represented by cystic hernia 13% and bladder wall intrusion 5.4%. This study concludes the presence of different types of pathological changes in the urinary bladder of slaughtered local bovine calves in Mosul city which indicates presenting different types of causative agents and infections.

Prevalence of the bovine adenovirus type 3 by using direct fluorescent antibody technique in calves in Nineveh province

Abdulhakeem A. Sheet; Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 53-57
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125476.1009

A total of 200 samples were collected from the calves for different ages from local and exotic breed by using nasal swabs, to investigate the prevalence of the bovine adenoviruses. The results showed that about 44% of the examined calves gave positive to immunofluorescence test, and the calves aged 6-9 months showed highly significant prevalence compare with other ages. The prevalence of virus infection in the exotic breed was 50.3% compared with local breed 22.2%. The calves with respiratory affections showed a higher prevalence from those which seem to be healthy. The current study concluded that the bovine adenovirus-type 3-virus has an effect on the breeding of calves in Nineveh Governorate.  

Prophylactic role of sweet almond (Prunus amygdalus) suspension in healthy and experimentally induced diabetic rats

Lubna Ahmed Kafi; Farah R. Kbyeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 59-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.164357

The current study aimed to determine some positive prophylactic effects of sweet almond suspension (SAS) on blood glucose and lipid profile of experimentally aloxan induced hyperglycemic male rats. Thirty male adult rats divided randomly into two equal groups, prevention group treated with sweet almond suspension for 60 days at two doses 1.42 or 2.84 g/kg of body weight (PD1 and PD2), and then hyperglycemia was induced by using single dose injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg of body weight). There was significant increase in means values of glucose and the concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), low density lipoproteins cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoproteins cholesterol (VLDL-C), and low rate concentration of cholesterol in high density lipoproteins (HDL-C) after five days of injection compared with pretreatment values and after 60 days of treatment with SAS values. In conclusion there was protective effect of sweet almond suspension on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in two experimentally groups, especially 2.84mg/Kg BW.  

Similarities and differences of COVID-19 and avian infectious bronchitis from molecular pathologist and poultry specialist view point

Waseem Al-Jameel; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126984.1426

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are important RNA viruses that affect respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary system of human being and birds. These viruses originated from the subfamily Coronavirinae which genetically includes Alphacoronavirus, Beta coronavirus, Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. The sequencing analysis of the genome showed that COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 belongs to Beta coronavirus genus and avian infectious bronchitis caused by IBV comes from Gamma coronavirus genus. Over the past few decades and until now, the world showed that endemic outbreaks of infectious bronchitis in avian caused by IBV. Once more, the world sees the emergence of another new human coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak due to a new strain called SARS-CoV-2. Whole genetic material and comparative genomic analysis exhibited that IBV and SARS-CoV-2 have particularly same genomic structures and characteristics. Both have a spike protein in the genome structure which allows that SARS-CoV-2 attaches to their human select cells throughout ACE2 receptors, that are notably reported in the lung and kidney. While IBV uses alpha (2,3) linked sialic acids-dependent manner for bind to the avian tissues which is notably reported in the lung and kidney. The two diseases are produced a pulmonary and urinary infection that lead to sneezing, gasping, respiratory massive destruction, severe pneumonia and renal failure. This review will introduce a general overview of two diseases and describe the phylogeny, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, autopsy report and microscopic lesions.

Some insights of novel COVID 19 virus: structure, pathogenicity and immunity aspects

Ammar M. Al-Aalim; Mohammad A. Hamad; Ali A. AL-ledani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126898.1408

COVID- 19 is highly infectious disease where the first infected case reported in Wuhan city-China, then it was spread worldwide. The causative agent belongs to novel enveloped single linear positive-sense stranded RNA Coronavirus, which is also called SARS-CoV-2 and has an affinity to lung cells. The genetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 suggested that this novehtm hgn l strain may be developed from the animal. origin by recombination between a bat SARS-like CoV and a coronavirus of unknown origin. The ability of rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus from person to other is similar or even more than to other human viruses like influenza or plague leadding to be announced as a pandemic by WHO in 2020. The mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 increased day by day and this led the scientists to search ways to control the virus. Most of the deaths in aged patients may be due to immune response complications where 70% of patients showed lymphopenia. This review, provided some details about structure, pathogenicity and immune response against SARS-CoV-2. The facts in this review lead to suggest that in most cases the death in SARS-CoV-2 may occur via loss of systemic inflammatory response control which leading to lung injury followed by pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure, hence the death especially in old patients. In concluding the early effective control of both innate and adaptive immunity may be the critical. key factor in protection against SARS-CoV-2.

Histological evaluation of the possible role of Na+/ H+ entiporter and anion exchanger in endochondral ossification activities of secondary bone healing in rats

Sahar Mohammed Ibrahim; Kareem Obayes Handool; Abubakar Adamu Abdul; jalila abu; Sabri Mohd Yusof; Mehdi Ibrahimmi; Loqman Yusof

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125832.1165

In secondary fracture healing, callus proliferate, undergo hypertrophy and the extracellular matrix becomes calcified. This step to some extent, recapitulates the embryological bone development with a combination of cellular proliferation and differentiation, increasing cellular volume and matrix deposition. The causes of the chondrocytes volume increase in secondary bone healing are poorly known, but cell membrane transporters perhaps could be implicated. We hypothesize that NHE-1 and AE-2 are among plasma membrane transporters that have a role in cellular differentiation and regulation of endochondral ossification for secondary bone fracture healing. Study of closed tibia fracture healing in 2 groups of 25 of 8-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were undertaken and histological evaluation were made at 5 different time points at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after induction of the fracture. Histological evaluation of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocyte zone area showed a significant difference in week 1 compared to other weeks. Immunohistochemistry study revealed a significant high level of labeling intensity of NHE-1 at the first four weeks. While labeling intensity of AE-2 showed moderate reaction at 1 and 2 weeks, that increased and reached the highest level at 3 and 4 weeks. These results suggested that NHE-1 and AE-2 had role in the endochondral ossification of secondary bone healing.

The antagonism effect of sodium nitrate by ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on neurobehavioral of mice

Halima O. Qasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125863.1169

Evaluates the neurobehavioral effects were resulted from dosing of sodium nitrate in mice. Mice were divided into 5 equal groups, the first group; control group was fed from concentrated feed (Barley, Wheat, Soybeans, Corn and Bran), the second group was added 0.2% sodium nitrate and the third group was added 0.2% sodium nitrate with 0.4% ascorbic acid, fourth group was added sodium nitrate 0.4% alone and the fifth group was added 0.4% sodium nitrate with 0.8% of ascorbic acid for five weeks. Sodium nitrate did not produce clear signs of toxicity, but a significant decrease in motor activity and standing on the hind legs (rearing) was observed in the open-field activity test, where the lowest level was reached in the fourth week of treatment, and these declines returned gradually to reach the control group level values at the end of the study period. Sodium nitrate was significantly delayed at the time of the negative geotaxis test at a 45 ° while returning to the control level in the fifth week, also showed that there was a significant increase in body weight compared to pre-treatment value. In this study 0.8% of ascorbic acid with 0.4% sodium nitrate in group 5 showed differed significantly with 0.4% sodium nitrate only in group 4, that means the ascorbic acid give a beneficial result when used for remedy of nitrate toxicity.

Molecular detection and seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province, Iraq

Farhad B. Mikaeel; Adel T. Al-Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125885.1173

Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease of mammals and birds; human infection occurs through consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Little was known about the infection rate of T. gondii among free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the infection rate in Duhok province by using ELISA (IgG) and conventional PCR. A total of 368 blood samples were collected from free range local chickens distributed in five different areas of Duhok province during the period from November 2016 to March 2017. The collected blood samples were from different sexes (hens and cocks) and from different age groups (less than 6 months and older than 6 months). The data found that the total infection rate was (84 / 368) 22.8% by ELSIA. The presence of the infection was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. In this study, there were differences from area to area in the infection rates, the highest rate was reported in Semel district at 33.7% which was significantly (p

Genetic detection to Aeromonas hydrophila proteolytic activity in milk samples (cows, buffaloes and goats) in Basra governorate

Rawa B Banay

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125888.1174

This study aim is to determine the incidence and the virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila in raw milk, randomly collected from Basra governorate by using of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. In this study, the total number of raw milk samples collected from cows, buffaloes and goats that kept from different the regions of Basra governorate were 90 samples. The PCR technique is modern method which regarded as a reliable tool to detect virulent gene of the A. hydrophila isolates. The PCR assays using the primers sets SerAh-F and SerAh-R resulted in the amplification of 650-bp bands from the targeted proteases gene of the A. hydrophil. The result of the present study showed that the results of PCR concerning the proteolytic activity of A. hydrophila in the tested raw milk samples according to animals' source. The higher percentage of the proteolytic activity was found in the cow's raw milk samples 40% and in the buffalo's milk samples was 26.7% while, the proteolytic activity did not find in the goat's milk samples. The association between the source of the milk sample and proteolytic A. hydrophila positive results was considered to be statistically highly significant. The higher percentage of the A. hydrophila isolates found in the raw cow milk was 40%, and the A. hydrophila isolates found in the raw buffalo milk was 26.7%, while, the A. hydrophila isolates did not find in the goat milk.

Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat raw milk

Zahra K. Saeed; Basil A. Abbas; Rasha M. Othman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125896.1176

The aim of this study was to identify the genetic diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from the local goat's milk. A total of 100 raw milk samples were collected from the different Basrah local markets. All the samples were cultured in the De man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) medium which enhances the growth of lactic acid bacteria. The result of the study showed that the only 64 lactic acid bacteria isolated gave the Gram-positive and catalase-negative were 64 (64%). All the suspected isolates were detected and identified by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S rRNA gene and DNA sequencing. The sequencing results showed that 9 strains belong to Lactococcus spp. and 6 strainsbelongto Lactobacillus spp. and all tested isolates had similarity over 99% with those recorded in the GenBank of The National Centre for Biotechnology.

Ovarian morphometric evolution in two consecutive estrous cycles of female rats treated with steroid-free bovine follicular fluid antiserum

Jabber A. Al-Sa’aidi; Areej H. Al-Charack

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125923.1186

The current study aims to investigate the role of steroid-free follicular fluid antiserum on ovaries morphometric growth and development in virgin female rats at two sequential estrous cycles. Bovine follicular fluid aspired from graafian follicles, steroids were removed by treatment with activated charcoal, in order to obtained steroid-free bovine follicular fluid (S-FBFF) which was used for immunization of male rabbits to prepare S-FBFF antiserum (S-FBFF-ab). Sixty virgin female rats were assigned into control and treatment groups (30 each), intraperitoneal injected with a single dose of distilled water 100µl/rat and S-FBFF-ab 100µl/rat at late metestrus, respectively. At the estrus phase of the first and second estrous cycle, 15 females from each group of each cycle were anesthetized and ovarian samples were obtained for histological examination. In comparison with control, the results of S-FBFF-ab treated female rats revealed a significant increase of relative ovaries and uteri weights at both estrous cycles. Morphometric examination showed progressive ovarian proliferation at the first estrus phase in S-FBFF-ab treated female rats through elevation of the number of primaries, graafian, and total follicles. In conclusion, passive immunization against endogenous inhibin using S-FBFF-ab could augment the reproductive fecundity through increase ovarian growth and development.

Effect of steroid-free follicular fluid antiserum on reproductive endocrine profile at estrous and metestrus phases in female rats

Jabber A. Al-Sa’aidi; Areej H. Al-Charack

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125925.1187

Inhibins are important ovarian hormones that control the action of the pituitary gonadotropins which regulate the ovarian cycle. The present experiment aims to study the role of steroid-free follicular fluid-antibodies (S-FBFF-ab) on the reproductive hormone levels at estrus and metestrus phases in cycling female rats. Follicular fluid was collected from mature ovarian follicles, centrifuged and treatment with activated charcoal. S-FBFF was isolated and used for immunization of adult male rabbits. After 5 injections, blood was withdrawn for separation of S-FBFF-ab. Eighty mature female rats were assigned into control and treatment groups (40 each). At late metestrus phase, females of the control were injected intra-peritoneally with 100 μL of physiological saline, whereas treated females were injected intra-peritoneally with 100 μL of S-FBFF-ab. At early estrus and early metestrus phases of each estrous cycle, serum concentrations of inhibin-B, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), and prolactin (PRL) were estimated. The results revealed that S-FBFF-ab has inhibin immuno-neutralization effect, which caused elevation in the concentrations of serum FSH and E2, and significant decline of serum PRL and inhibin-B, at early estrus, whereas significant elevation of E2 and PRL, and significant decline of serum FSH, at early metestrus. Furthermore, the results of gene expression revealed a significant elevation of ovarian aromatase gene at both early estrus and early metestrus phases, whereas pituitary PRL gene showed significant decline at early estrus phase and significant elevation at early metestrus phase. In conclusion, passive immunization against S-FBFF could augment the reproductive efficiency through increase reproductive endocrine activity.

Anticlastogenic properties of Quercus infectoria galls extract against DMBA induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice in vivo

Sherzad I Amedi; Bushra M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125930.1188

This study aimed to evaluate the aqueous extract of Quercus infectoria galls extract (QIGE) as anticlastogenic. The effect of QIGE was tested in mice (5 groups for each test) treated with 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA), the strong site-specific carcinogenic agent. In this study, the QIGE show no signs of toxicity, a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice caused a great increase in number of chromosomal aberrations, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) and reduction in the percentage of mitotic index (MI) (cytogenetic markers). Oral pre-treatment and post-treatment of QIGE for 14 days at dose 2 gm/kg b.w. daily to DMBA-treated animals greatly reduced in number of micronucleus formation, chromosomal abnormalities such as chromosomal break, chromatid breaks, ring chromosome, dicentric chromosome and fragments. Besides, mitotic index frequency increased comparing with the positive control. The data suggest that QIGE has potent anti-clastogenic effect against DMBA-induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of albino male mice and it may have a protective effect against the mutagenicity of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

Monitoring of Antibiotic Residues among Sheep Meat in Erbil City and Thermal Processing Effect on their Remnants

Dhary Alewy Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125814.1161

The occurrence of antibiotic residues in meat is considered a serious hazard to public health. This work was conducted to survey the occurrence of antibiotic residues among lamb meat and mutton in Erbil city. The effect of thermal processing on residues was also addressed. From July to December 2018, a total of 280 samples were collected from butcher shops in Erbil city and analyzed microbiologically in plates pre-inoculated with Bacillus subtilis by direct and extraction methods. The overall occurrence of antibiotic residues was (10.4%) and (13.2%) according to direct and extraction methods respectively. The highest occurrence rate was detected in December (22.2%). In terms of thermal processing, cooking for 45 minutes totally deactivated antibiotic residues against the challenged bacterium. In conclusion, the presence of antibiotic residues among sheep meat in Erbil city is high and their persistence is easily eliminated by cooking. The hygienic significance of antibiotic residues in sheep meat has been discussed particularly the major risks to human health, including those caused by toxic reactions, cancer cases, bacterial resistance or other risks.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

Study of staphylococcus aureus isolated from the mouth of canary

Saba Abdulraheem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125937.1192

The study was done for described genotypically characterize of Staph.aureus isolated from the oral cavity of canary birds in Mosul city using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique which was achieved by amplifying of the thermonuclear nuc gene specialized with Staph. aureus. Sixty birds were examined from variable ages of both sexes from different regions of Mosul City for the period of 1/5/2018-1/6/2019 was carried out. The results indicate that (35) samples gave Staph. aureus with the percentage of (58.4%). These isolates are positive for pigmentation of Mannitol Salt Agar; hemolysis on Blood Agar, catalase and coagulase-positive, gram staining and Oxidase negative. PCR technique indicate that all (35) isolates were positive for the nuc gene and produce amplicon of 166 bp. These results considered positive and it is very specific for bacterial isolates of staph aureus as well as may be used for strain isolation, characterization, and differentiation from other types of bacteria.

Effect of vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid supplementation on heat shock protein 70 in broiler chicken exposed to heat stress

Ashwaq Ahmed Hassan; Rana amer asim amer Al Suleman agha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125950.1195

The goal of the current investigation is to study the role of vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid for minimizing the effects of heat stress on blood constituent, growth hormone, HSP 70 and glutathione. Broiler chickens were randomly allocated to four groups: 1st group controlled, the 2nd group subjected to heat stress 40±2 C for 4 hours. / day, the 3rd group was subjected to heat stress and vitamin C (360mg/L) in drinking water and 4th group was subjected to heat stress and acetylsalicylic acid (0.03%) in drinking water. The result showed that exposure to heat stress decline in RBCs count, Hb concentration, PCV% and percentage of lymphocyte, furthermore elevation in of MCV, Heterophils, H/L ratio, and HSP70. Administration of vitamin C caused a significant rise in RBCs count, percentage of lymphocyte and reduces in MCV, MCH value, percentage of Heterophils and H/L ratio compared with the heat stress group. Administrations of acetylsalicylic acid significantly increase in the RBCs, and PCV% and decrease in MCV, MCH, MCHC values, and H/L ratio compare with the heat stress group. The results did not show significant changes between groups in the level of glutathione and growth hormone. It concluded that Vitamin C and acetylsalicylic acid administration as feed additive ameliorating the opposing effect caused by heat stress in broiler chicken; thus, its administration recommended during the heat stress.

Follow up the Antibodies Titer against Newcastle Disease Virus in Broiler Breeders using ELISA Test

fanar ablahad isihak; Salah Mahdi Hassan; balqees zaki shaker; yasir ahmad salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125931.1189

Abstract
The study period carried out from 25 April 2018 till 21 May 2019 through the rearing and production period including totally of 24000 birds (20800 females, 3200 males). The number of tested blood samples was 452 divided to 255 samples at the rearing period, 143 samples at the production period and 54 samples of offspring. The results of antibodies titer in the sera of non-vaccinated broiler breeders obtained by ELISA showed the maternal derived antibodies (MDA) titer for 28 samples at (0-5) (week/day) of age was (5716±612.7) , this titer decreased gradually at (3-1) (week/day) age till to (1075±234) , Then the titer was elevated increasingly after vaccination with both live attenuated and inactivated vaccines and reach to peak (37512±2049.4) at (20-1) (week/day) age. Whereas the bimodal graduation of antibodies titer showed at production period till to end of study. The mean of maternally antibodies titer in the tested sera of the offspring chicks (0-1) (week/day) that hatched from parent flocks at 32, 39 and 48 weeks of age was (9012±872.4) (6591±368.1) and (4831±982.7) respectively .Thus we concluded the repetitive vaccination of broiler breeders flock with live vaccine as well as inactivated vaccine is very necessary in endemic areas and ELISA is a good serological test for following, checking and monitoring of immune status of poultry flocks periodically.

Molecular Analysis of ompA Gene Pasteurella multocida Indonesia Local Isolates

A. T. Soelih Estoepangestie; Arini Rahmi Dewi; Suwarno Suwarno; Didik Handijatno; Rahaju Ernawati; Wiwiek Tyasningsih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125934.1191

The aim of this research was to analyze ompA molecular gene of Pasteurella multocida buffalo isolate and bovine isolate from Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia and Katha strain isolate from Haemorrhagic Septicemia Vaccine. Determinant of P.multocida local isolates ompA gene amplification sequencing PCR then conducted to see the sequence of nucleotide sequences of ompA gene. The results of PCR amplification showed an amplicon of 559 bp of all isolates. The homology analysis result of the isolates ranged from 93 – 100% with 13 P.multocida isolates from GeneBank, and phylogenetic tree analysis shows that buffalo isolate were closely related to Katha strains, Iran, India and China isolate. Whereas bovine isolate far enough with buffalo and Katha strain isolate. Nucleotide sequences were compared to amino acids then by the method of Kolaskar and Tongaonkar antigencity predicted antigens in P.multocida. Epitope predictions from local isolates and Katha strain were found in five peptides: QVSPVFAG, IPELALRVEYQ, GQSVYVPEVVSKT, LKSASVAVAG, and ANYLVAKG .

Using T cell Lymphokines to enhance the immune response against Newcastle disease in vaccinated broiler chickens under the effect of Mycotoxin

Basher Saud; mushtaq AL-Zuhariy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125977.1204

The current study aimed to reduce the toxic effect of Mycotoxins and enhance the immunity against Newcastle disease in broiler chickens by using lymphokines from hyperimmunized birds with salmonella typhymurium. The study included three stages, the first phase included isolating salmonella typhymurium from the infected birds and then determined the infected dose by injecting five groups of broiler chicks, each group included 5 chicks, the dose was 108, the second phase included after isolating the bacteria and determine the infected dose, was taken two groups of broiler chicks, each group included 20 chicks at one day, the first group was drinking orally three doses (7, 14 and 21) days. The second group not taken anything as considered a control group. At 35 days of age, T cell cells were collected from spleen of the infected bird, after it was destroyed and filtered (1500) rpm with centrifuge, and then grow T cell on RBM media and added Co-A to stimulate T cell to secretion the Lymphokines. Third and final phase of the study involved 250 broiler chicks at one day, divided into five groups each group 50 chicks, treated as follow: the first group was injected 0.5 ml intraperitoneal with Lymphokines at one day, after 30 minutes vaccinated with Newcastle (ND) vaccine (La Sota strain) through drinking water, the injection and the vaccine was repeated at 10 days.

Clinical , Serological and Antigenic study of Feline panleukopenia virus in cats in Baghdad / Iraq .

Amanee Mohammad Radhy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125960.1201

(FPL) is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates . This study was performed in the Baghdad capital city of Iraq from January 2018 -to- February 2019.
Fecal and blood samples were collected from both diarrheic and non diarrheic 180 cats , of both sexes . Hundred pet and eighty stray cats was divided into 2 groups according to their ages : > 1-year and < 1-year . Fecal sample were checked for presence of FPL virus antigens by rapid antigen test kit ( immuno chromato graphy assay) and blood samples were tested for presence of FPL virus specific antibodies by ( ELISA ) test as well as the study of blood parameters of cats.
Forty cats ( 22.2 % ) were infected with FPL virus by ICG assay , while a high percentage of total seropostive rate 65 ( 36.1% ) was founded by ELISA test . Significant (P ≤ 0.05) higher infection ( 27.5 % ) and seropostive ( 36.7% ) rates were observed in cats less than one year age . Clinically the infected cats showed multi-systemic signs and the vomiting was the more frequent sign ( 87.5 % ), hematological changes showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in heamogram values and prolonged clotting time , the total leukocytic count was lowered in infected cats and this owing to significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in absolute numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils .

Inhibition of Escherichia coli biofilm formation by Streptomyces sdLi crude extract

Ahmed Jasim Neamah; Abdul-kareem Salman Al-Yassari; Mohammed Hamed; Miran A AlRammahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125965.1202

Biofilm is a microbial-protecting environment initiated on surfaces that reveals major health problems such as biofilms represented by dental plaques.Fighting biofilm formation is a hugely demanded process. Here, the crude extract of Streptomyces sdLi (sediment lake Iraq-sdLi) was used to check the anti-biofilm formation bioactivity (ABFB) against Escherichia coli (Orooba Meteab Diwanyah 4, OMD4) isolated from milk samples. Using a cross-streak method, each strain of Streptomyces spp. was tested for the best broad-spectrum ABFB. A triplex polymerase chain reaction (TPCR) method targeted specific genes and a fragment (hemin receptor molecule (chuA), uncharacterized protein YjaA (yjaA), and chuA TspE4.C2) was used to categorize 18 isolated OMD4. Using the alcoholic extract of liquid growth of the best strain with ABFB, a crystal violet biofilm assay (CVBA) was employed to test the ABFB against OMD4. The results of the screening test revealed Streptomyces sdLi with strongest ABFB; however, ethyl acetate, as one of the sdLi extracting solvents, was the most potent in in inhibiting the biofilm formation.The TPCR resulted in 18 isolates categorized into four groups (A, B1, B2, and D) in which B2 and D are known for their significant pathogenic activities in humans and animals.The results of the CVBA showed that Streptomyces sdLi extract was potential for its ABFB.This study recognizes that the Streptomyces sdLi extract is potential for deactivating biofilm formation by pathogenic E.coli which encourages future studies to consider this microorganism and/or its extract as a cure for the treatment of E. coli related illnesses in humans and animals

Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Fish in Iraq

Nagham Mohammed Al-Gburi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125980.1205

Aim: There is alittle reports are available for detection of L. monocytogenes in fish in Iraq, however, the current study was undertaken to investigate the potential role of Listeria sp. in common carp fish in Baghdad province /Iraq.
Materials and Methods: A fresh raw common carp (Cyprinus carpio), thirty fish in total were purchased from fish sellers of various markets in Baghdad city. The viscera was removed and heamognized perior the bacterial isolation and identification that conducted by conventional culture method using Listeria selective media, biochemical tests and Vitek 2 Gram-positive (GP). Pathogenicity of isolates was in vivo applied by inoculated mice, targeting virulence associated genes used to detected the virulence genes and to confirmation the L. monocytogenes isolates. The L. monocytogenes isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by disk diffusion method, twelve types of antibiotics were chosen.
Results: Two isolates (6.67%) L. monocytogenes were identified from common carp fish visceras and the isolates were pathogenic in mice, L. monocytogenes virulence associated genes were detected in both isolates while L. innocua virulence associated genes not detected except Lin0372 was found in one isolate. The isolates were sensitive to 6 out of 13 antibacterial drugs including Chloramphencol, Methicillin, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacine, Amikacin and Ofloxacim.
Conclusion: our results suggesting that L. monocytogenes isolates have the potential role in public health hygienic in humans.

natural heavy infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp in sheep in mosul city

Nadia Sultan alhayali; manalhimmadi himmadi hasan; karam yahya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125994.1210

Abstract
This study included recording the natural heavy infection with immature macrocysts (Sarcocysts) of Sarcocytis spp. in sheep .In animal with one year of age which is slaughtered at butcher shop in Mosul city in May 2018. This is the first case recorded of natural infection with immature sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. In Mosul City . Multiple small nodules were observed during slaughter ,they were along the esophageal muscles with different sizes and shapes , they were distributed randomly throughout esophageal muscles. Most of the sarcocysts were small in size with mean size 20- 28×28-42 µm and histological examination showed that contained only metrocytes.This confrmed the diagnosis that the sarcocysts were immature macrocysts (sarcocysts) for the Sarcosystis spp. In our study, heavy infected case with Sarcocystis reveals the fact that large numbers of cats(final hosts) in contact with sheep in pastures is considered the main risk factor for infection and supply of raw meat from infected sheep, which is very important for carcass condemnation when the meat inspection if specific abnormalities are found which indicate that the part of carcass , is unfit for human consumption it is condemned, which means the economic loss for livestock.

Synergizing the deltamethrin larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus larvae using cinnamaldehyde in Diwaniyah, Iraq

Monyer Abdulameir Alfatlawi; Azhar Chafat karawan; Dhafer Rasheed Al-Fetly; Mansour Jadaan Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126026.1212

The current work on mosquito larvae was performed to evaluate the resistance status of larvae to deltamethrin (DM) and to detect if the larvicidal activity (LA) of this chemical could be synergized after exposing the larvae to cinnamaldehyde (CD). Here, 200 Aedes albopictus larvae were employed for the experiment and were divided randomly into 2 groups (100/each group and placed in petri-dishes (PD), 10 larvae/PD), and they are the DM group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l in 99ml of distilled water (DW) was placed to each PD) and the DM+CD group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l and 1ml of 0.9mg/l respectively were placed with 98ml DW in each PD). The experiment was lasted for 24hrs. Larvae were detected to have resistance against DM as 45% to 60% of the larvae were killed by the DM, 40% to 55% resistance rate. However, when evaluating DM activity with the use of CD, the LA was synergized showing mortality in 87% to 92% of the larvae in which a significant (p<0.05) increase in the mortality in DM+CD group was noticed more than that in the DM group. Furthermore, RT-qPCR was run to identify the expression status of the P540 monooxygenase gene, Cyp6p15, and found that the gene expression was significantly (p<0.05)

inhibited in the DM+CD group when comparing that in the DM group that showed overexpression of this gene. This work results provide viable information about the potential activity of the cinnamaldehyde in synergizing the larvicidal activity of deltamethrin.

Molecular characterization of fertile hydatid cysts from the liver of the Sheep and Cows and associated environmental influence factors

Sarmad Nagemaldeen Mageed; Renas Gshad Abdulla; Chawarwan Essa Obed; Jamil Abdulla Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126036.1213

The aim of the study is characterizing of Hydatid cysts that have been isolated from sheep and cow liver fertile hydatid cysts using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1(cox1) gene. DNA samples of nineteen sheep and one cow were extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers of the parasites in Koya city-Erbil, Iraq, using specific extraction procedures. Mitochondrial cox1 gene region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the expected gene sizes were confirmed by gel electrophoresis. All DNA isolates were then sequenced. Nucleotide sequence alignments were then performed to verify the sequenced isolated according to the database, which showed that all samples were belonging to the (G1) sheep strain. Phylogenetic analysis were also carried out for the sequenced isolated to find out the highest similarities with closest organisms to E. granulosus’ conserved gene and to reveal sharing common ancestor, which has been confirmed. Electrocatalytic reduction of DNA where detected through applying Cyclic-voltammetry technique, which referred to the environmentally strong protection features of these strains against any effects of external factors, such as heavy metals and has revealed the secret behind the potent preservation of the DNA structure of this parasite from being affect by mutations, or alterations, along the different lineages over a long period of time.

Functional morphology of the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel (Epixerus ebii)

CHIKERA IBE; Adanna Elezue; Ekele Ikpegbu; Uchenna Callistus Nlebedum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126047.1216

The study was initiated to contribute to the meager knowledge of the anatomy of the African palm squirrel. Skin of the trunk and paw pads was the subject of interest. Basic gross and histological techniques were employed. The dorsal fur was grey with golden brown free endings, while the ventral fur was greyish white. The fur covered the entire trunk, extended through the dorsal surface of the distal carpal joint to the dorsal surface of the digits. Five digital pads, three inter-digital pads and two metacarpal pads were observed on the forefoot. There was no observable digital pad on the hindfoot; four inter-digital and two metacarpal pads were observed.
Surface groves were evident in the cornified layer of the trunk skin, but not in the paw pad skin.
The mean thickness of the cornified layer of the epidermis of the palmar pad was 75.54 (± 3.45) μm, while the entire epidermis was 102.32 (± 4.23) μm thick. The non-cornified layer of the trunk skin was made of only three distinct layers, as the stratum lucidum was not evident. Conversely, the stratum lucidum was evident in the paw pad skin. Dermal papillae observed in the paw pad skin were more numerous and progressed deeper into the non-cornified epidermis than those observed in the trunk skin. There were more melanocytes in the dorsal than in the ventral trunk skin. The study concluded that the trunk and paw pad skin of the African palm squirrel enable its adaptation to arboreal habitat.

Molecular Detection Of Hammondia heydorni in Dogs In Mosul city

Wasan Amjad Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126052.1219

Through this study 122 individual fecal samples was collected from dogs , with different ages ,sexes, and breeding management ( stray and pet house hold ). some dogs were with healthy appearances while others were suffered from diarrhea ,anorexia ,depression , dehydration. Infection was investigated by light microscope after flotation technique by using Sheather's sugar solution. if the sample gives positive to oocyst (H. heydorni or other relative group),were mixed with potassium dichromate solution a rate of 2.5% for the stimulation of sporulation. DNA extraction was done using 2% sarcosyl ,pronase E followed by phenol/chloroform extraction then precipitation attempt using ethanol. DNA amplification was attempt using H. heydorni primers JS4 and JS5 n microscope examination give 78 sample positive to the presence of oocyst , while polymerase chain reaction showed total percentage of infection with H.hydorni was 34.6% ( 27 case give positive reaction to PCR). Dogs less than 6 months of age show high infective rate (17.9%), dogs which suffer from gastrointestinal tract troubles (diarrhea , anorexia and dehydration) gave high infective rate (24.4%). Stray dogs gave high prevalence of infection to H .hydoeni (25.6%) when compared with pet house hold dogs which recorded (9%) percentage of infection. This study is the first recorded H.hydorni in dogs in Mosul city.

Detection of lead, chromium and cobalt in meats of cattle and buffalo from retails of Mosul City

Hiba Salahaldeen Al-Naemi; Raad Abdulghani Al-Sanjary; Rana Aoni Faraj; Ahmed sadii sadii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126069.1224

Lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) were investigated in 160 local and imported meat samples of cattle and buffalo collected from markets of Mosul city by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results reported mean concentrations of Pb and Cr in local cattle meat (0.136) and (0.0651) mg/kg, respectively significantly higher (p<0.05) than that reported for Co (0.008 mg/kg). In imported cattle meat, results revealed that Pb presented a mean concentration (0.182 mg/kg) significantly higher (p<0.05) than that presented by Cr and Co (0.0486 and 0.00971 mg/kg, respectively). No significant differences (p<0.05) in the mean concentrations of Pb, Cr and Co in local buffalo meat (0.119, 0.0896 and 0.017 mg/kg, respectively) and imported buffalo meat (0.106, 0.102 and 0.041 mg/kg, respectively) were reported. The results revealed that 20% from each local cattle and buffalo meat samples, 12.5% from imported cattle meat and 22.5% from imported buffalo meat were exceeded the maximum permissible limit for lead in meat. Concerning Cr, 2.5% from imported cattle meat and 5% from each of local and imported buffalo meat surpassed the maximum acceptable limit. Ultimately, results showed that all samples of local and imported cattle and buffalo meat were within the maximum allowable limits for Co. The hazards of metals on public health was discussed.

Molecular study to detect the Eimeria Species in Sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province / Iraq

Noaman Naji A&amp;#039;aiz; Noora Majeed; Ahmed Neama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126064.1225

Sheep eimriosis is one of the most important and common disease which infects sheep in all ages but it is more effective in lambs. The diarrhea with or without blood is the main signs of infection. Eimeria protozoan required single host to complete its life cycle which pass in different stages including schizogony, gametogony and sporogony. The study was designed for detection of sheep Eimeria species through the molecular method.
This study was conducted in Al-Diwanyah province during the winter months of 2019. In which 200 sheep fecal samples were collected and examined traditionally to investigate the Eimeria oocytsts. Ninety seven samples of highly intensity infection with Eimeria oocysts were selected to subject for DNA extraction process. The extracted DNAs were tested through amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene by conventional PCR, and then phylogenetic analysis was made to diagnose the sheep Eimeria species.
All samples that examined microscopically were showed positive results of infections with Eimeria protozoan. Out of 97 molecularly examined samples, forty five (46.39%) were given positive result in conventional PCR technique, where Eimeria spp. detected through succeeded amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene. Then phylogenetic analysis referred to that there are five species of Eimeria confirmed in sheep in Al-Diwanyah province including 6 (33.33%) samples diagnosed as E. ahsata , 4 (22.22%) samples E. weybridgensis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. ovinoidalis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. bovis and 2 (11.11%) samples E. auburnensis.

Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of xylazine and its interaction with metoclopramide in acute pain model in mice

Khalid ahmed Shaban; Muna Alzubaidy; Gada abdul-munem faris

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126070.1226

The study was designed to qualitative and quantitative evaluation of antinociceptive effect of metoclopramide and xylazine each alone or as a concomitant administration in mice. Adult albino Swiss mice weighing (20-30)mg used in all experiments. By using hot plate test ,the individual analgesic dose (ED50) of metoclopramide and xylazine detected depending on up and down method . Isobolographic analysis used to evaluate the type of interaction between two drugs at ratio 0.5:0.5 of individual ED50 for each drug at level of antinociception effect. Simultaneously administration of double dose of individual ED50 and low doses (sedative, non-analgesic doses ) of both drugs, also evaluated at level of central and visceral analgesia using hot plate and writhing response test respectively. The individual ED50 of xylazine and metoclopramide was 10.8 and 25.6mg/kg,i.p. respectively . Asynergistic interaction at level of analgesia explored between two drugs at ratio 0.5:0.5 which represented as decreased in ED50 of metoclopramide and xylazine by 58.75 and 58.15% respectively . The animal suffered from only slight sedation and docile. Simultaneously i.p. administration of xylazine and metoclopramide at double dose of ED50 for each drug induced significant increase in latency time of thermal response , As well as significant decrease in writhes number, which induced by acetic acid in comparism with control groups. The percentage of analgesia at subanalgesic doses of aconcomitant administration of both drugs was 100% in comparism with each drug alone. This results suggested safe and good use of both drugs in veterinary medicine

Development of In-house Taqman qPCR assay to detect Equine herpesvirus-2 in Al-Qadisiyah city

Mohammed Al-Saadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126076.1229

EHV-2 is distributed in horses globally. It is clustered within gamma-herpesvirus subfamily and percavirus genus. EHV-2 infection has two phases: latent and lytic. In the later, EHV-2 mainly associated with respiratory and genital symptoms. However, in the quiescent phase of infection, EHV-2 stay dormant in the host till viral reactivation. Our previous study has showed that EHV-2 can be harboured by equine tendons, suggesting that leukocytes possibly carrying EHV-2 for the systemic dissemination. So far, numerous PCR protocols have been performed targeting the gB gene. However, this gene is heterogenic. Therefore, there is a need to develop a quantitative diagnostic approach to detect the quiescent EHV-2 strains. To do this, Taqman qPCR assay was developed to quantify the virus. This was performed by targeting a highly conserved gene known as DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene using constructed plasmid as a standard curve calibrator. The obtained results showed an infection frequency of 33% in which the EHV-2 load reached 6647 copies/100 ng DNA whereas the minimum load revealed as 2 copies/100 ng DNA. The median quantification was found as 141 copies/ 100 ng DNA. Establishment of a credited qPCR assay to quantify EHV-2 could be helpful in the control of the disease.

Detection of similarity and genetic distance between Iraqi chicken varieties and different standard strains

Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126109.1235

Forty-eight wing vein blood samples were collected from different locations of poultry rearing farms and back yard chickens of Nineveh governorate from the of local and exotic chicken. The chicken divided into twelve groups four birds each according to colors and phenotype for the local and exotic chicken respectively. Blood DNA was extracted and amplified by thermocycler apparatus and the electrophoresis was done using 1.2% agarose gel for DNA bands exhibiting. The results showed high genetic similarity within the local chickens ranged between 0.78- 0.96 at an average of 0.88, while it ranged between 0.73- 0.86 at an average of 0.78 in exotic breeds. The degree of similarity between Iraqi and exotic breeds was 0.74-0.88 at average of 0.80. The calculated average of differences among each of Iraqi and exotic chickens and in between were 0.12, 0.22 and 0.20, respectively. However, the genetic distance within the local chicken, exotic breed and in between them was 0.128, 0.24 and 0.21 respectively. The study concluded that the genetic similarity was higher within local chicken groups than those of exotic breeds.

Histological alteration of male and female reproductive systems induced by alloxan in rats

Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126626.1351

The objective of this study is to determine the effect of oxidative stress experimentally induced by alloxan 100 mg/kg bw on the histopathological structure of reproductive organs of male and female albino rats. The results showed that treatment with alloxan cause alteration on tests include irregular shape and size of seminiferous tubules, irregular division of spermatid cells, degeneration and necrosis of Sertoli cells with paucity of sperms into the lumen of tubules. While histological examination of epididymis showed the lumen of it free from sperms, thickening of muscular layer and interstitial tissue between the epididymis canal. As for the histological alteration of female reproductive organs include disturbances in development of primary follicles of ovaries, hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue as well as atrophy in the uterine glands with hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of uterus. The conclusion of this study showed that alloxan cause histological alteration in reproductive organs of male and female rats.

Assessment of the withdrawal period for ractopamine hydrochloride in the goat and sheep

Mochamad Lauardi; Bambang Hermanto; Tjuk Imam Restiadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126114.1237

Ractopamine hydrochloride often used as a bronchodilator, but its β-adrenergic agonist effects on un-striated muscle and its withdrawal time have not been assessed for Etawah goats and sheep. The aim of this study was to determine the safe time to slaughter goats and sheep post-treatment with ractopamine. Five clinically healthy adult goats and sheep (20 kg body weight) were treated with a single dose of ractopamine (1 mg, intravenously). Whole blood was sampled from the jugular vein at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min post-treatment. Ractopamine as a veterinary drug was analysed using HPLC at wavelength 225 nm. The concentrations at 120 min, 180 min and 300 min were 817.156 ± 13.460 µg.mL-1, 554.468 ± 50.157 µg.mL-1, and 294.588 ± 52.845 µg.mL-1 in goats and 706.266 ± 89.856 µg.mL-1, 579.194 ± 45.664 µg.mL-1, and 209.36 ± 54.797 µg.mL-1 in sheep, respectively. The withdrawal times in goats and sheep were 1141.710 ± 255.85 h and 989.741 ± 167.633 h, respectively, no drug residues detected. The safe time to slaughter goats after administration of 1 mg of ractopamine was approximately 3 months and 5 days post-treatment at a safety factor of 2, which was later than the sheep at 2 months and 22 days by a safety factor of two (p> 0.05).

Detection of hbl complex genes in Bacillus cereus isolated from cow raw milk in northwest of Iran

Saman Mahdavi; Reza Alipour Banaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126120.1238

Bacillus cereus is a gram positive and spore-forming bacterium which is widely distributed in nature. It also has been known as a major food borne pathogen that often plays a role in the contamination of ready-to-eat and dairy products. It causes two different types of food poisoning in human: the diarrheal type and the emetic type. The aim of this study was detection of hbl complex genes in B. cereus isolated from cow raw milk in northwest of Iran. 120 B. cereus strains isolated from cow raw milk that already had been identified phenotypically, were assessed for molecular confirmation by PCR method. Then, they were evaluated for determination of presence of hbl genes complex by specific primers. Of 120 B. cereus strains, 117 strains were confirmed molecularly. The frequency of hblA, hblC and hblD genes were reported 105(89.7%), 102(87.1%) and 102(87.1%), respectively. 99 strains (84.6%) harboured 3 tested genes simultaneously. 12 B. cereus strains (10.25%) lacked these genes. The results of current study showed that B. cereus strains isolated from raw milk have high potential in causing diarrhea poisoning and therefore the use of procedures to reduce the bacterial contamination during the processing of dairy product is required.

Effect of Saponins Extract of Glycyrrihiza Glabra in Activities of Hepatic Enzymes and Some Biochemical Parameters in Serum of Adults Ovariectomized Female Rats

Hadeel mohammed Al-hashemi; Ameera Hamdoon; Elham M. Al-Khashab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126127.1239

This research was planned to verify the infuence of saponins, that extracted from Glycyrrihiza Glabra in activities of hepatic enzymes and some biochemical parameters of serum ovariectomized adult female rats. Adult female rats (15) were randomly divided into three groups. which included sham–operated (sham), ovariectomized (ovx),and ovariectomized rats treated orally with (250 mg/kg/day) of saponins extract for (25) days .The results revealed ,that ovx rats showed a significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Calcium level , a significant reduction in activities of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate amino transferase (AST), ᵞ-Glutamyl transferase(GGT), and level of albumin, creatinine without any significant change in alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity and magnesium level comparison with sham –operated rats.Treatment ovx rats with 250 mg/kg of saponins caused a significant reduction in ALT and CK activities, and elevation in albumin and creatinine levels , and AST,GGT activities. In conclusion, the present results revealed that, saponins extracted of Glycyrrihiza Glabra have an effect in hepatic enzyme activities and some biochemical parameters in ovariectomized female rats with osteoporosis results from reduction in estrogen level.

Application of ultrasound contra infection with secondary hydatidosis in mice

براء باسل; Asmaa Abdul Aziz Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126132.1240

The present research explained the impact of ultrasound on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vitro by the waves application of fixed frequency (20000 pulse/sec ) (18w/cm2) for all treatments , with different exposing periods, thirty, twenty ,fifteen , twelve ,ten and five seconds respectively , subsequently prevention of mice against interjected with minor hydatid cysts, in comparison with the control animals (infested with protoscoleces without exposure to ultrasound waves), depending on many criteria including , numbers , weights and diameters of developed metacestodes , in addition to the percentage reduction, The results displayed an obvious increase of ultrasound waves impact on of their numbers Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces viability by increase of period in vitro , the results also manifested %100 decrease of metacestodes numbers in the dealt ones (with%17 fertility exposed for 20 seconds), whereas showed %99.23 decrease with group of fertility %34 (exposed for 15 seconds) four and five months post infection .

Molecular detection of pathogenic Entamoeba spp. and Genotyping of Entamoeba histolytica in Hemorrhagic diarrhea samples of humans, cows and sheep.

hassan hachim hachim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126135.1242

Abstract :
The present study was carried out to detect the genotype of Entamoeba histolytica that found in human fecal specimens and animals feces with Haemorrgic diarrhea by amplifying the SREHP gene, using Real Time PCR technique, Cyber green dye and by fusion curve analysis. The study also included molecular detection of amoebic parasite species using PCR technology, this technique based on 18S rRNA genes responsible for the diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica; Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba bovis. The study recorded presence of parasites (Entamoeba histolytica; Entamoeba dispar; Entamoeba bovis) with total infection rates (82.9% ; 26.8 % ;4.9 % ), respectively. The study revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica parasite in five different genotypes (I, II, III, IV, V) with rate presence (9.75% ; 53.65 % ; 19.5% ; 9.75% ; 7.3%), respectively. In conclusion, There are five genotype of Entamoeba histolytica , in human and animals , most of these genotype may be infect any host , Entamoeba bovis was record in sheep and cows .

Administration of Nitrobacter as Ammonia Decomposer in Maintenance Media of Clarias gariepinus with Aquaponics

Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja; Adinda Septyasari Taragusti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

Abstract. Many Indonesian catfish farmers apply the aquaponics system to overcome the problem of limited cultivation land. However, the use of high-stock solid method on aquaponics system causes a decrease in water quality due to the accumulation of fish feces and food scraps that are not consumed by fish and are left to pile up and turn into ammonia. Ammonia in water is toxic and dangerous for fish health. This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias sp.) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The control group were treated without Nitrobacter administration and 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters observed were SGR, SR and FCR. Whereas, the supporting parameters were water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) plant growth and water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in chicken in Al-Diwaniya province

Noor Jarad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126159.1249

This study were conducted in Al-Diwaniya province, in south Iraq during the period from February to July (2019) to determine the rate of infection of Cryptosporidium parvum in domestic chicken, study the effect of some epidemiological factors such as sex and months on the rate of infection, addition to the molecular Identification of Cryptococcus parvum by amplification HSP70 gene by conventional PCR for first time in Iraq. Number of collected fecal sample was (210) from domestic chicken and processed by Ziehl-Neelsen method. The results of the microscopic examination showed that 108 (51.4 %) out of 210 fecal samples were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. The statistical analysis founded no marked difference in prevalence of infection between sexes. Significant difference (P<0.05) was recorded between infection rate during the months of the study and higher prevalence of infection rate was observed in March (11.9%), while lowest infection rate was observed in July (5.23%). and June (5.23%). Genomic DNA was Genomic DNA was extracted from 108 fecal samples and HSP70 gene for C. parvum was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR technique is showed that out of 108 fecal samples (21.3%) were positive for C.parvum.

The Effect of Cinnarizine on Histological Outcome, Oxidative Stress Markers and Adhesion Molecules in Experimental Colitis in Rats

Rana Atarbashe; Ahmed Abu-Raghif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126170.1254

Ulcerative colitis is chronic, intermittent illness. The current treatment failed to cure the disease which made a need to investigate other drug with minimal side effects. The goal of the research is to assess the histological outcome, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Cinnarizine in comparison with that of sulfasalazine in experimental colitis in rats. Acetic acid 4% (vol/vol) was used rectally to induce experimental colitis in rats. After induction, rats were administered either sulfasalazine 100mg/kg or cinnarizine 20mg/kg orally for one week. There was estimation of histopathological and macroscopical parameters also the expression of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-4), oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1and E-Selectin) in the colonic tissue. Results showed that both cinnarizine and sulfasalazine significantly reduced the macroscopical and histological injury in colon that induced by acetic acid. Inaddition to the downregulation of the increased colonic proinflammatory cytokines, MDA, MPO parameters and adhesive molecules.These results concluded that cinnarizinehad effective role in experimental colitis in rats through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions with downregulation the colonic adhesive molecule.

Phylogenetic analysis of jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in Iraqi Awassi sheep

Saad Hashim Al-Husseiny; Asaad Jassim; Khalefa Ali Mansour; Qassim Haleem kshash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126172.1255

Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection in sheep results in contagious ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA). The aim of this study was to detect the presence of JSRV in Iraqi Awassi sheep of Al-Qadisiyah Province using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Lung secretion samples from 50 adult sheep (1.5–2 year old) during 2016-2018 that were suffering from chronic respiratory distress with suspected clinical OPA were collected. RT-PCR assay for detection of JSRV was conducted using primers specific for its 382 bp envelope protein gene. The results showed that 22 of the 50 (44%) lung secretion samples were positive for JSRV. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed the JSRV sequence detected in the local Iraqi sheep population was closely related to NCBI BLAST locus isolates KT279066.1 and KT279065.1. The study found that the JSRV disease is prevalent in the Iraqi Awassi sheep flocks and that the local JSRV isolate is genetically divergent from most other global isolates.

Improving Light Microscopic Detection of Collagen by Trichrome Stain Modification

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126176.1256

In present study we aimed to introduce modifications in classical protocol applied to stain collagen fibers by Masson's trichrome stain, in order to decrease time and concentration of different steps and chemical in this traditional protocol. The experiment design contains a series of successive amendment steps based on previously successful steps, in which every step where be modified to get the best result, then the next step of staining protocol will be modified in the classical Masson's trichrome staining protocol in a samples of tissue from liver, heart and intestines of sheep diagnosed with chronic fasciolosis. The result showed that the new modified protocol gives the same staining efficiency to collagen fiber when we used Harris hematoxylin as a nuclear strainer or even excluded this stain from staining protocol. In conclusion this new modified staining protocol give a perfect staining reaction to collagen fibers in pathological samples which is similar to that obtained by Masson's trichrome stain, also this new modified procedure is less time consuming and less toxic effect on human and environment than other trichrome stains, and can be easily conducted either by the technician or the pathologists.

Are promising mechanisms of Hydroxychloroquine abolish COVID-19 activity?: A review study

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood Basher Mahmood; Fanar Ablehed Isihaq; Ammar Ahmed Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127049.1449

To explore the benefits of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (which is an antimalarial agent that has shown effective pharmacological properties in different malarial conditions and immunological disorders, particularity in chloroquine-sensitive malaria) in the treatment and prevention of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because HCQ was recently advocated to minimize the pathogenicity of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to shed the light on a possible mechanism by which HCQ can defeat the COVID-19, a disease characterized by the WHO as a pandemic. Literatures from Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were cast-off to search the literature data. The keywords used are antimalarial agent, COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine, SARS-CoV-2 and Zinc sulfate. The review summarizes the benefits of using HCQ against COVID-19 through exploiting the ability of this antimalarial agent in ameliorating the body immunity, inhibiting and/or delaying the viral glycosylation by increasing the pH inside the host cell and also via suppressing the viral transcription and replication through the formation of a complex structure after binding with Zinc. We concluded that these interfering properties of HCQ support human immunity to fight against the progression of COVID-19. We hypothesize that the therapeutic efficiency of HCQ against the COVID-19 can be enhanced by the concurrent administration of Zinc sulfate.

Levels of disaccharidases in the brush border membrane of equine small intestine

Miran A. Al-Rammahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 197-201
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125778.1152

The disaccharides, consisting of sucrose, lactose and maltose, are hydrolysed into monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose) by intestinal brush border enzymes: sucrase, lactase and maltase. The aim of this study to investigate changes in the brush-border membrane carbohydrate digestive enzymes. From intestinal mucosal scrapings of equine, brush border membrane vesicles were isolated. The results showed that sucrase, maltase and lactase are present in the equine small intestine. The activity of all three enzymes is highest proximally (in the duodenum and jejunum) and lower in the ileum. There was considerable variation between individual horses, however the majority showed highest disaccharidase activity in the jejunum, with some showing highest activity in the duodenum. Sucrase activity is highest in the jejunum and duodenum and lower in the ileum. Maltase activity is similar in all three regions, but slightly higher in the jejunum. Lactase activity is low in all three regions of the small intestine, slightly higher in the equine jejunum and duodenum than ileum. From this study, we can conclude that the equine small intestine digests disaccharides by the brush-border associated disaccharidases sucrase, maltase and lactase. Levels of sucrase and lactase are comparable to other species, but maltase is much higher.

Fetal anomalies in prolonged gestation in Awassi ewe: A case report

U. T. Naoman; B. D. Al-Watar; E. H. Lazim; E. K. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 195-197
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153849

This report was described the observation of five types of congenital anomalies with a Hydramnios Syndrome in prolonged gestational (6 months) three years old awassi ewe bearing an abnormal fetus for first time, ultrasonography revealed signs of pregnancy with numerous small cotyledon, high amount of bright turbid fluid (Hyper-genic), with no signs of heart beat and small abnormal ribs. Vaginal examination indicated that complete closure cervix with pale mucous membrane.

Effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) barks of root and stem (alcoholic extract) on the viability and fatty acids content of Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices in vitro study

R. S. Al-Juwary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 189-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153848

The present study was aimed to determine the scolicidal effect of stem and root alcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Pomegranate) on the viability and fatty acids content of Ecinococcus granulosus protoscolices. The study elucidate the scolocidal effect of both stem and root extracts. Its seemed that the scolocidal effect of root extract was higher than that of stem extract ie. LC50 and LC90 of stem extract were 5 and 9 mg/ml respectively while LC50 and LC90 of root extract were 3 and 8 mg/ml respectively. GLC analysis of E. granulosus protoscolices was stated presence of nine fatty acids esters, which were Lauric (C12:0); Myrisitic (C14:0); Palmatic (C16:0); Stearic (C18:0); Archidic (C20:0); Behenic (C22:0), which were saturated fatty acids, and Oleic (C18:1); Linoleic (C18:2); Linolenic (C18:3) which were unsaturated fatty acids. Treating E.granulosus protoscolices with LC50 of pomegranate stem bark was showing slight and swing effect on fatty acid content, while treated the protoscolices with LC50 of root bark were resulted in obvious increase in short length fatty acids like Lauric, Myrisitic and Palmatic in compare with control group. In contrast the long chain fatty acids concentration like Oleic, Linoleic and Linolenic were decrease.

Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital

L. J. Shaebth

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153847

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and16SrRNAgenes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153846

Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results of the collections show that all the dogs, which were the subject of this survey, are infested by ticks during the period between March and August in different areas of the northeastern of Algeria. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the predominant tick species. It has been observed with a frequency of 88 % in the area of El-Tarf, 100 % in Souk-Ahras, 95 % in the Tébessa region and 72 % in Guelma, (average of 89 %). Climatic conditions seem to play the essential role for this distribution of ticks. The other tick species collected are: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Hyalomma anatolicum. The latter were present with very low a proportion, which gives them the appearance of accidental parasitism in dogs. Rhipicephalus sanguineus has significant infestation intensity in spring and summer, peaking in August in the semi-arid region (Souk-Ahras). In humid regions (El-Tarf), the peak of infestation recorded by this arthropod is in April. The second aspect of study of the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus shows the seasonal nature (Spring-Summer) of the brown tick of dog.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Lambing and mortality rate in Ouled-Djellal sheeps in Tebessa region-Algeria

M. Douh; C. Aissaoui; A. Hicher; S. Abdelmajid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 267-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153863

The aim of this work is to study lamb births and mortalities in Algerian sheep Ouled Djellal breed distributed in different zones of Tébessa region, which is divided according to bioclimatic stage, staff in livestock and area agricultural vocation, into four distinct zones: northern (A, B), middle (C) and southern zone (D). During two years 2015-2016, birth numbers (BN) and mortality rates (MR) of 355 sheep flocks were recorded using a questionnaire. Concerning BN the total number was 21244 lambs representing a mean 59±31 per flock. No significant differences between the birth means of C and D (75±28 vs 83±30) were registered. Birth mean was significantly higher (P<0,05) in B (40±17) than A (29±10), when comparison with C and D, the births of A and B were highly significantly (P<0,001). According to (BN) the studied region were classified into 3 zone groups: (a) with high lambing rate (C, D); (b) with medium lambing rate (B); (c) with low lambing (A). In regard to mortality rates, the total rate was 24±6%. The (MR) in A (27±5%) was significantly higher (P<0,05) as compared to other zones (B) 24±4%, (C) 23±7% and (D) 22±4%. However, no significant differences between B, C and D were revealed. According to the results of (MR) the studied region was classified into two groups: (a) with low MR (C, D), (b) with high MR (A, B). Our result showed that zones influence the (BN) and (MR) in Tébessa region, and southern zones especially D seems the appropriate to practice breeding of Ouled Djellal breed.

Commercial oil of Nigella sativa as growth promoter in lambs rations

S. El-Naggar; J. A. Abou-Ward; A. Y. El-Badawi; A. M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 199-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153850

This study aimed to investigate the impact of supplementing different levels of Nigella sativa oil in rations of growing lambs. In a feeding experiment lasted 90 days, 18 growing Ossimi lambs (6-7 months old) were randomly divided by weight into three equal groups (6 animals each). Individual animals in all groups were fed a uniform total mixed ration, offered at 3% of body weight, where the first group was without supplement (R1), while Nigella sativa oil was supplemented at 0.1 (R2) and 0.2% (R3) of dietary DM. Results indicated that additions of N. sativa oil didn’t influenced feed intake, but it increased average body weight gain and feed efficiency. Nutrients digestibility values and dietary nitrogen utilization were higher with N. sativaoil rations than control. Ruminal fermentation parameters showed comparable pH values among groups at 0, 3 and 6 hrs. of feeding. Ruminal NH3-N concentration was lower and TVFA concentration was higher for animal fed R2 and R3 rations than control. It’s concluded that N. sativa oil could be added at 0.2 % of the daily feed as a natural growth enhancer of lambs.

The effect of autotransplantation of bone marrow with laser irradiation on the healing of non-union fractures in the femoral bone of dogs

O H Al-Hayani; B T Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 2, Pages 109-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.46747

In this study, the effect of autotransplantation and laser irradiation on the healing of experimental induced non-union fractures in the femoral bone were investigated clinically and radiographically in 12 dogs. The fractures were left without fixation for 40 days and over, and following the occurrence of non-union state the fractures were treated at 3 different schedules in the experimental animals, which were divided into three groups, each containing 4 dogs:
Group 1 (control): the non-union fractured femoral bones were treated by the routine surgical procedures using intramedullary fication achieved with Steinmann intramedullary pins.
Group 2 (intramedullary fixation with autotransplantation of bone marrow): following the surgical treatment of non-union fractured femoral bone and their fixation by the Steinmann intramedullary pins (by the same procedure applied in group 1), 4-6 ml of fresh bone marrow was implanted at the fracture site. The bone marrow was aspirated freshly and aseptically from marrow cavity of the opposite femur from the same dog.
Group 3 (autotransplantation of bone marrow with He:Ne I.R. laser irradiation): in addition to the procedures applied in group 2, the surgical site was exposed to laser irradiation type He:Ne I.R. with a total dose of 2.7 J/cm2 for 12 irradiation sessions. Each daily irradiation session was for a period of 5 min for 3 successive days, followed by one-day rest.
The concluded results were:
1-autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow at the site of the treated non-union fractures has a role in accelerating or improving the healing process, by promoting excessive callus formation, whereby the fracture line disappeared at the end of the 4th post-treatment week.
2-the use of laser irradiation with autotransplantation of fresh bone marrow, greatly improved the healing process by increasing the periosteal reaction and callus formation, and lead to disappearance of the fracture line at the end of the 3th post-treatment week. Furthermore, this technique improved the functional use of the affected limb in comparison with groups 1 and 2.
3- the laser irradiation made the remodeling stage shorter (finished within about 3 months) in comparison with group 1 and 2, in which it continued for more than 3 months.

Evaluation of the isolation protocols of primary cells from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) skin tissue

M. Hasoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 119-125
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153837

In this study, pieces of skin from common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish were collected freshly from juveniles from a privet fish farm in Duhok city, Kurdistan-Iraq. Those pieces of skin were cultured In Vitro by using two methods of explanting; direct explants and enzymatic pre-digested explants of tissue fragments. The results showed a highest cell yield (5×103 cell/ml) on passage 2 of enzymatic pre-digested tissues and higher cell growth rate in compare with cell yield (38×102 cell/ml) gained from direct explant tissues. Both procedures showed forming of clumped cells colonies in initial passages (P1 and P2), and the morphological changes were developed in both cells to show a fibroblast like appearance thereafter. Such findings are important and advantageous to suggest a faster and more efficient protocol for tissue culture cells isolation with lower cost and better isolation success as well.

Protective effect of placental mesenchymal stem cells on histological changes of pancreas experimentally induced by alloxane in mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Rasha A. Al-Sabawy; Hamad J. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163563

In an attempt to find a treatment for diabetes by Placental mesenchymal stem cells, we induced diabetes in albino mice by injected them with the diabetic agent Alloxan intra peritoneal cavity dose 70 mg / kg of body weight for the group 1 and 2, then injection of the diabetic mice with Placental mesenchymal stem cells in the peritoneal cavity for the group 2 then the glucose levels in the blood of these mice were measured by using a GLUCOTREND 2, while group 3 was control injected with normal saline only. Pancreas tissue where tested by studying histopathological effect of Alloxan, the endocrine pancreas histologically showed decreased in the size and number of Langerhans islets with vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of almost all cells in the atrophied islets. Also, there was congestion of blood vessels in the interlobular space and there was distortion of exocrine pancreas. There was vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial cells of the acini, also there was atrophy of acini which lead to edema and dilatation of interacini space. Moreover, there was thickening in the wall of blood vessels, and there was thrombus in some blood vessels. In addition to the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interlobular septa. Compared with the section of pancreas of control group showed the normal structure of islets notice the normal cells shape surrounding by exocrine pancreas. Then the pancreas studied after injection of Placental mesenchymal stem cells, while there was regeneration of islets and acini which seem to be normal comparing with control group, there was improvement of normal histological appearance of mice treated with alloxan and then injected with placental mesenchymal stem cells. The results of the diabetic mice which treated with placental mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated present of significant differences (P≤0.05). Our conclusion of this study revealed that placental mesenchymal stem cells have a protective role against the histological changes of pancreas induced by alloxan.

The possibility of using Acridine orange compared to Giemsa stain in the diagnosis of parasite Babesia spp in cattle

E. G. Suleiman; A. F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153870

The current study included the possibility using fluorescent Acridine orange stain in the diagnosis of Babesia spp in cattle in Mosul city/Iraq, this dye is easily applied and takes no more than 2-5 minutes in the diagnosis of Babesia spp using of fluorescent microscope versus 45 minutes of Giemsa stain by using light microscope. The benefit of Acridine orange stain is in its uses in epidemiological and survey studies and for the control programs against Babesiosis but it is considered to be of little value in study of morphological features of small blood protozoa with low parasitemia comparing with the golden Giemsa stain in the study of morphological and specifications of Babesia spp.

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum in spermatogenesis and antioxidant status of adult rats exposed to carbon tetrachloride

Measer Abdullah Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125509.1031

This Study aimed to investigate the efficiency of aqueous extraction of Alhagi maurorum leaves against oxidative stress induced by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) on spermatogenesis and the level of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde in adult rats. Plant Leaf's dried and then extracted. Experiment included 24 male rats divided into 4 groups 6 subjects in each group. groups treated orally for 30 days as following: first was control group which administered with 1ml of physiological saline 0.9%, second group administered once with CCl4 3ml/Kg, third and fourth groups administered with aqueous extract 300 mg/kg and aqueous extract together with CCl4 respectively. The results showed that CCl4 caused a significant decrease in sperm count, sperm vitality, normality, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), significant increase in sperm mortality, abnormality and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with control group. While aqueous extract treatment caused no significant difference in compare to control group. Groups treated with aqueous extract together with CCl4 showed a significant increase in sperm count, vitality, normality and GSH and decreasing in mortality, abnormality and MDA in compare to CCl4 group. It could be concluded that the aqueous extract of Alhagi maurorum have a positive effect on male reproduction and antioxidants in rats exposed to oxidative stress.

Effect of microalgae Spirulina spp. as food additive on some biological and blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Nasreen Muhialddin Abdulrahman; Hawkar Jaafar Hama Ameen; Shamal Rasul Hama; Bakhan Rafiq Hassan; Pola Jalal Nader

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125527.1049

This study was carried out to study the effect of adding different levels of the microalgae Spirulina spp. in fish laboratory of Animal Sciences Department, College of Agricultural Sciences of Sulaimani University, Sulaimani, Iraq. A total of 72 common carp fingerling weight 45±2 gm used to detect the effect of three different levels of the algae Spirulina spp. The control treatment T1 with 0%., T2 with 3 gm /kg diet and T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet. Each treatment in three replicates in which six fingerlings common carp were stocked in each aquarium. Results indicated no significant differences at PSpirulina) in T3 was higher significantly at PSpirulina was higher significantly at PSpirulina to common carp diets in different levels leads to significant differences in differential WBC counts, T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet was higher in WBC counts. Lymphocytes were higher in each of control and T3. Monocytes were higher in control, granulocytes in T2 with 3 gm Spirulina /kg diet. Adding of Spirulina affected significantly in cholesterol as compared to the control. Triglyceride was higher in control and T2. T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet leads to higher and lower significantly in HDL and LDL respectively. T1 and T3 were higher significantly in spleenosomatic index. Inclusion of S. platensis in fish diet as a feed additive or as a partial replacer of the expensive fishmeal imposes significant promotions in fish growth, coloration, reproduction and flesh quality.

Comparative study of some local therapeutics for endometritis in cows

M. B. Taha; E. B. Basheer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2008, Volume 22, Issue 2, Pages 89-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2008.5721

The present study was conducted on 57 local breed cows suffering from various degrees of endometritis. The clinical examination included visual examination of vagina supported by uterine palpation per rectum; the laboratory examination included the bacterial isolation from the uterine swabs and histopathological examination of the uterine biopsies. Animals were randomly divided in to three groups of 15 cows each and 12 cows were considered as a control group received no treatment and observed for three consecutive estrous cycles. The first group was treated with a mixture of oxytetracycline (4 g) and tylosin (2 g), second group was treated with cephquenome sulfate 0.5 g, and the third group was treated with lugol's solution (30 ml) 2 %. These treatments were applied as a single intrauterine infusion and the clinical recovery was evaluated at the next estrous cycle by considering the absence of abnormal vagina discharge as an indicator of clinical recovery. Cows that showed clinical cure were inseminated artificially and the pregnancy diagnosis was preformed at least 75 days after insemination by rectal palpation. Retained placenta was the most important predisposing factor of endometritis 50.8 %, results of the bacterial examination demonstrated that E. coli was the most prevalence bacteria (27.4 %). Histopathological examination of uterine biopsy showed a high incidence ratio of chronic endometritis (42.1 %). Results of the treatment showed a higher response and conception rate in the second group (using of cephquenome) 73.3 % and 63.3 %, respectively, followed by first group (using mixture of oxytetracycline and tylosin) 60 % and 55.5 %, respectively, then the third group (using of lugol's solution) 40 % and 50 %, respectively. The lowest cure and conception rates were observed in the control group 25 % and 33.3 %, respectively. This study pointed out a positive relationship between the nature of the vaginal discharge and each of the bacteriological and histopathological examination and revealed the importance of the early treatment of endometritis especially using of cephquenome sulfate.

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