The aim of this study was examination of normal and abnormal cow reproductive system using the ultrasonography. Twenty one Iraqi local breed cows were examined; 6 cows were normal with different phases of estrus cycle, 6 cows were pregnant at different stages, one cow at postpartum period, 4 cows suffering from metritis, 3 cows with pyometra and one cow having luteal cystic ovary. The cows were examined transrectally using the 7.5 MHz linear transducer. Results of study showed, that presence of small black spots on the ovary at proestrus which were indicated that presence of growing follicles, while the black area at the ovary was large at the estrus phase which was an indicator for mature follicles. The ovary of cow with luteal cystic ovary appears larger than normal ovary and has a large gray structure. The normal uterus appears with thin uterine wall and narrow uterine lumen, while in metritis the uterine wall was thicker about 2-5 times than normal uterus, also the thickness and ecogenisity of the cervix was increased. There was an excessive accumulation of fluid in the uterine cavity which was appearing in grayish color, while the accumulated fluid in cases of pyometra was unhomogenized and more ecogenic. Pregnancy diagnosis was very easy by using of ultrasonography, the pregnant uterus has a thin uterine wall and large black area which was the first indicator for pregnancy, also presence of caruncles was an indicator for pregnancy, while appearing of ecognic fetal parts was the best indicator for pregnancy diagnosis. We concluded that ultrasonography is a very useful tool for pregnancy diagnosis and reproductive disorders differentiation in cows.