Volume 37, Issue 1, Winter 2023, Page 1-304

Food safety and sanitation practices survey in very small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States

Omar A. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133219.2191

To determine food safety and sanitation practices and compare small halal and non-halal beef slaughterhouses in the United States, we conducted two web-based surveys using a similar questionnaire and data collection methods. Among the 80 halal slaughterhouses included in this study, 56.25% (45 out of 80) participated, while 63.75% (51 out of 80) participated in the non-halal slaughterhouse survey. This study showed no significant differences between halal and non-halal slaughterhouses regarding food safety and sanitation, food safety technologies, and microbiological testing practices. All halal and non-halal slaughterhouses conducted generic E. coli (100%) for beef carcasses. The most common interventions used in halal slaughterhouses were a combination of treatments (cold water + hot water (180 °F) + organic acid) 31.1%. In contrast, the most common interventions used in non-halal slaughterhouses were only hot water (180 °F) (33.5%). The findings of this study can be used to describe food safety and sanitation practices in the halal meat industries and find areas for improvement.

The molecular identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from meat and meat products

Yousra A. Abdlla; Raad A. Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 9-15
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133244.2192

The present study aims to diagnose diarrheagenic E. coli in meat and meat products by the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique using the uidA gene to confirm the existence of the bacterial isolates as E. coli. The multiplex PCR technique is adopted to detect the virulence genes of these bacteria using two groups of primers for detecting the gene (stx1, stx2, aggR, esth, eae, invE, daaC, estp, elt, and bfpA). This study applies these primers to 100 E. coli strains isolated from 782 samples of meat and meat products (fresh, minced, burger, pastirma, and chicken) from February to November 2020. The results of the present study show that all E. coli isolates are positive to have the uidA gene (147 bp). The study also detects 95/782 (12.15%) pathogenic species related to virulence genes by using multiplex PCR. The highest percentage of pathotype is ETEC, 46.32%, and the lowest is the DAEC type 1.05%. In addition, the other pathotypes are 20.05, 14.74, 6.32, 6.32, and 5.26% of STEC, EHEC, aEPEC, EAEC, and EIEC, respectively. The high contamination rate with DEC reported in this study is associated with the poor hygiene conditions of slaughtering and meat storage in shops and markets, resulting in health risks to consumers. 

Effects of ProbChick® on the immunological response after new castle virus using LaSota stain vaccination in broiler

Ali R. Mohammed; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 17-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133248.2193

The vaccination process and immunological status of chickens during their life period have great importance in the poultry industry. We aimed in the current study to evaluate the effect of ProbChick® on the immunological status of broiler chickens after vaccination with Newcastle vaccination using the LaSota strain. A total of 200 one-day-old chicks were divided randomly into five groups. The first group is the control group, while the second group consumes ProbChick® with drinking water. The third group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine (LaSota strain), and the fourth group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine after 7 days. The ProbChick® was consumed. The fifth group was vaccinated with the Newcastle vaccine and consumed ProbChick® on the same day. The result showed that ProbChick® enhances the weight gain, food conversion ratio, and relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and spleen. In addition, ProbChick® will enhance the antibody titer if it is added to drinking water on the same day of vaccination and give suitable antibody titer compared to control groups and in comparison, to a group where it is added to drinking water after 7 days of vaccination. We conclude that adding ProbChick® to the broiler at 1 g/litter of drinking water at the same vaccination by Newcastle vaccine using the LaSota strain will enhance the immune response during and after vaccination. This will improve the efficiency and titer of antibody production.

Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae amino acids as anti Aeromonas hydrophila enterotoxin in vivo

Dahliatul Qosimah; Sanarto Santosa; Maftuch Maftuch; Husnul Khotimah; Loeki Enggar Fitri; Aulanni am Aulanni am

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133332.2205

Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic freshwater. These bacteria cause gastroenteritis and septicemia in animals and humans. Hemolysin and aerolysin, are important in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila. Prepupae Black soldier fly (BSF) can be used as an antibacterial using its active substance against hemolysin and aerolysin. This study aimed to determine how the interaction of prepupae BSF amino acids with A. hydrophila enterotoxin in silico and protein level in various substrates in vivo. The study consisted of BSF larva of T1 (fed fruit waste), T2 (fed fermented fruit waste), T3 (fed tofu waste), T4 (fed fermented tofu waste), and T5 (fed fermented fruit waste and tofu waste). Data on the difference of protein level of prepupae among groups were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA test. The study showed that the highest protein content of BSF prepupae was found in treatment T3 dan T4. Protein docking analysis showed that L-arginine had the most hydrogen interaction (11 H-bonds) with aerolysin and 10 H-bonds against hemolysin, indicating an antibacterial role. The most favorable interacting residues of 17 amino acids against hemolysin were ARG73, ASP74, THR541, ALA523, and ASN483, while the residues of the active site against aerolysin were ASP92, ARG394, SER354, TYR348, ARG356, VAL396, PRO395, and ASP350. Amino could inhibit the hemolytic toxin of Aeromonas by interacting with binding site residues. The better the nutritional value of the substrate given to BSF larvae, the higher the protein content of BSF prepupae. Proteins from BSF prepupae can be antibacterial candidates against A. hydrophila

Prevalence and some risk factors with therapeutic trial of sheep dermatophytosis in Egypt

Elshaima M. Fawzi; Mohammed M. Abd-Elmegeed; Mamdouh F. El-Mekkawi; Eman M. El-Diasty; Abdelkarem M. Morsi; Eman B. Abd-Elfatah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 31-38
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133376.2214

Dermatophytosis is a fungal disease that affects the superficial skin layers and hair of farm animals all over the world including Egypt. Despite being a self-limiting disease, it has serious effects on public health and devastating economic losses due to its serious skin damage, a long course of treatment, and loss of weight. This study determines the most prevalent species of dermatophyte in sheep and identifies the incriminated species by both microscopic and culture methods with an assessment of animal and environmental risk factors. Moreover, it evaluates the effectiveness of three antifungal compounds (tioconazole cream and clotrimazole spray, and fluconazole capsule), on twenty-four naturally infected sheep. One hundred and three sheep from Sharkia and Dakahalia governorates were examined with clinically suggestive lesions from 2018 to 2019. 47.6% of the cases were positive for the dermatophyte infection either by clinical signs, microscopic or culture, or both. The highest registered infection rate is in males, at the age of ˂ 6 months, and in the winter season. Three antifungal medications are used for the first time in the treatment of ovine dermatophytosis. They are proved to have been effective in subsiding skin lesions with hair growth to return to its normal clinical state with a 100% curative rate. The treatment with preferable and easily applicable topical cures, especially tioconazole cream, is highly effective in the short run. This cream treatment is easily applicable and provides a good alternative to the traditional antifungal medication for sheep. Consequently, such treatment can reduce the possibility of spreading the infection by other animals, and may allow the adaption of efficient control measures.

Molecular and Serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii in three species of wild birds of Babylon province, middle Iraq

Ameer I. Alanad; Basim H. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133394.2219

Birds are intermediate hosts and important reservoirs that play a significant role in Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae) epidemiology and infection transfer to humans by eating their raw or undercooked meat. The aim of this study is to diagnose the Toxoplasma gondii infection in three species of wild birds (Columba livia, Streptopelia senegalensis and Passer domesticus) in the province of Babylon from May 2021 to August 2021, using a latex agglutination test and molecular diagnosis with nested PCR for SAG1 gene identification. Results showed that antibodies were detected in 56/144 (38.88%) samples. Furthermore, results of the nested PCR technique for detection of SAG1 gene revealed that 41 (73.21%) of the samples positive for the latex agglutination test were only found in three species of birds. These three species of birds were found infected with T. gondii with possible transmission to human beings. For the first time, a S. senegalensis, was infected with the T. gondii in Iraq.

Histochemical study of the hepatic metacestodes in sheep infected with hydatidosis

Buthaina H. Al-Sabawi; Hanan S. Sadoon; Mohammed G. Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 45-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133402.2222

This study aimed at detecting the liver histopathological changes of hydatid cysts sheep infestation. Seventeen sheep liver's samples, infested with hydatid cysts, were collected from the local butchers. The specimens sectioned, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and some special stains such as Gomori's aldehyde fuschin, Van Gieson, Toluidine blue, Alcian blue, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Mansso's trichrome. The results of haematoxylin and eosin stain of infected groups revealed the presence of the laminated membrane of hydatid cyst in different spots of hepatic tissue encircled by infiltration of inflammatory cells, an increase in fibrous tissue and severe necrotic hepatic tissue. The special stains as in Gomori's aldehyde fuschin revealed the protoscolex in green colour and elastic fibres of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst with its laminated membrane in purple colour. Van Gieson stain showed dark brown-purple colour of the elastic fibres reduplication of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst, while Toluidine blue stain sections revealed the dark blue stain of acidic components of hydatid cyst laminated membrane and necrotic hepatocytes. Alcian blue stain revealed the blue colour reactivity of the proteoglycans of the connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst. PAS reaction stain revealed the magenta colour reaction of the intact hepatocytes in the control group comparing with depletion of magenta colour in necrotic hepatocytes surrounding hydatid cyst. Masson's trichrome stain revealed increased collagen fibres of the connective tissue. At the conclusion, it’s evident that infection with hydatid cysts causes a variety of histopathological alterations that appeared through several tissue stains.

Neurobehavioral toxicity of copper sulfate accompanied by oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in chicks' brain

Shahad I. Alnuaimi; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 53-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133416.2224

The aim is to investigate the sub-acute neurotoxic effects of copper sulfate in chicks on motor and neurobehavioral activity and its relation to oxidative stress and histopathological changes in chick brain tissue. Thirty chicks were employed in this experiment, randomly separated into 5 groups of 6 chicks. They were given the following concentration 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% of LD50. Each of the chicks is put through the following behavioral tests response to tonic immobility test, righting reflex, testing the motor activity of the chicks inside the open field box. Orally LD50 was 772 mg/kg, Recording an inhibition in the animal's movement in the open field and an increase in the chicks' dormancy duration. The effects are directly proportional to the increase in the chicks' dose. Copper sulfate in 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% of the LD50 showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration, while 15% of LD50 recorded a significant decrease in glutathione and cholinesterase activity. All doses substantially decreased total antioxidant capacity in brain and liver tissue. Chick brain of copper sulfate 15% of LD50 shows in the cortex of cerebrum severe gliosis, satellitosis, perivascular and periaxonal edema, necrosis (karyorrhexis) of neuron, and apoptosis. The rest of the concentrations had histopathological alterations proportionate to the rise in the given dose. We concluded from this work that high concentrations of copper sulfate in the brain generated oxidative stress and histopathological alterations, which influenced chicks' neurobehavior and motor activity in the open environment. 

Microscopic and molecular detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in female camel from Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Ghaidaa A. Jasim; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Zainab H. Chaid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133428.2226

This study identified the etiological pathogens responsible or protozoal-like disease conditions in female camels from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. For this reason, 125 female camels (one blood sample per animal) that showed signs of weakness and pale mucus membranes were considered for the study. The samples of stained blood smears were explored microscopically and via a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that the targeted glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSII) gene for identifying Babesia bovis and 18S rRNA gene for detecting B. bigemina. The results of the microscopic technique uncovered the occurrence of Babesia spp. in 76 (60.8%) of the examined samples, which encourage the use of PCR to identify the protozoal species. The PCR findings demonstrated that B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 8 (8.9%) and 11 (12.22%), respectively, of the positive microscopic samples. The study findings reveal that weakness and paleness of mucus membranes in camel females can be attributed to the presence of infections by blood protozoa, mainly Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina.

Morphometrical and Histochemical study of glandular stomach (Proventriculus) in local domestic male ducks (Anase Platyrhchos)

Ghada A. Sultan; Ammar G. Al-Haaik; Adnan A. Alhasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 65-71
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133451.2233

The present work explores morphometric and histochemical foundations of the wall of proventriculus in adult domestic male ducks. To achieve this study, six healthy adult ducks were purchased from local vendors in Mosul province. All birds were sedated. Their stomachs were removed after being dissected to achieve the gross description and measurements of the proventriculus, including the length and diameter of cranial, middle, and caudal regions of the proventriculus. Small tissue pieces 6-8 mm in length from three regions of proventriculus were processed for histomorphological studies using hematoxylin and Eosin stain, combined PAS-AB pH 2.5, toluidine blue, and Masson's trichrome stains. The finding showed that the proventriculus connects with the esophagus from the cranial side and the muscular stomach from the caudal side. It was a thin elongated oval tubular organ. Histologically, the mucosa of the proventriculus revealed the presence of folds and sulci-like structures covered by simple columnar epithelium. The tunica submucosa consisted of many signs of profound and straightforward sub-mucosal glands supported by connective tissue septa and extended from the basal part of the diverged gland through the lamina propria, which was organized in a conical manner (adenomere). Tunica Muscularis appeared as a double-layer coordinated in the form of inner longitudinal and outer circular ones. Finally, serosa consists of fibrous tissue, vessels, fatty tissue, and nerve plexuses studded by the mesothelial cells. The highest thickness of the four layers of mucosal, submucosal, muscular, and serosal layers in the distal part of ‎the proventriculus. Histochemical PAS staining positively reacted with epithelial tunica mucosa and wall of proventricular glands.

Curative and protective potentials of Moringa oleifera leaf decoction on the streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in albino rats

Nahla A. Refat; Moustafa S. Abou El-Fattouh; Mohamed M. Mohamed Metwally; Tarek Khamis; Mohamed A. Abdalla

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133509.2242

The present study was designed to investigate the protective, and curative potentials of Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves powder against streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in rats. Fifty adult Wistar male albino rats were randomized and divided into five equal groups: The normal control group, the Moringa group, The diabetic group, the therapeutic group, and the diabetic rats (3 days after STZ injection) were received-MO-for successive 8 weeks and the prophylactic group, the rats were received-MO-for 2 weeks before STZ induced diabetic rats and lasted for 8 weeks. The protective or treated oral administration of 1 ml freshly prepared aqueous leaf decoction of-MO-revealed a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of PDX-1, Ngn3, VEGF, IGF-1, and GLUT-2. Additionally, it induced a significant downregulation of FBG level compared to that of the diabetic group, a significant reduction in MDA level and a significant elevation in the TAC level. Furthermore, the histopathological observations of pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues affirmed the improvement in treated and prophylactic groups compared to STZ-diabetic groups, and the improvement in the prophylactic group was more distinct than the treated group. MO-aqueous leaf extract can treat and protect against STZ-induced T1DM; via its antioxidant action (increase the TAC and decrease MDA). Thus, it has the potential for utilization as a prophylactic against diabetes.

Effects of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac in chicks

Rafal L. Abdulah; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 83-88
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133592.2260

The aim was to determine the impact of oxidative stress (OS), induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on the ketorolac plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics in the chicks. A significant decrease was observed in the total antioxidant status (TAS) measured on day 7th, 10th, and 14th of chicks age by 39, 29, and 41%, respectively compared to the control (H2O) group. By measuring the analgesic median effective dose (ED50), ketorolac’s analgesia amplified 16% in the stressed (H2O2) group. Ketorolac concentration in plasma was investigated at measured multiple times at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after the administration (14 mg/kg, IM) to 110.38, 181.46, 66.24, 13.08, 10.11, and 4.12 µg/ml at the H2O group and significantly elevated in all times measured except 0.25 and 24 h after ketorolac administration by 24, 38, 54, 199, 93, and 59 % to be 136.45, 250.88, 102.03, 39.13, 19.55, and 6.55 µg/ml in the H2O2 group, respectively. The values of AUC0-∞, AUMC0-∞, Cmax, and Kel in the stressed chickens that were administered ketorolac were elevated by 59, 19, 38, and 43%, respectively, whereas other parameters like MRT, t1/2β, Vss, and Cl were reduced by 25, 30, 56, and 37% respectively compared to H2O group. The results showed that the H2O2-inducedOS amplified the analgesic action of ketorolac in a chick model, besides its modification of the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac. 

Molecular evaluation of E198A SNP in the iso-type 1 β – tubulin gene of Haemonchus contortus isolated from sheep in Al-Diwanyiah, Iraq

Akram M. Amana; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 89-94
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133596.2261

This study investigated the benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus parasitic nematodes from sheep from October 2021 to December 2022 in Al-Diwanyiah city/Iraq, and samples were processed at the laboratory of Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine College of Al-Qadissyiah University through the detection of E198A mutation and SNP polymorphism of the β-tubulin gene at this codon position. Ninety adult H. contortus samples were collected from the abomasum of sheep (n = 400) and then tested by qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Of these, three different genotypes have been found for E198A SNP: heterozygous (RS), homozygous (SS), and homozygous resistant genotype (RR). The frequencies for these genotypes were 31.11% heterozygous, 57.77% homozygous, and 11.11% homozygous resistant. The current study indicated the spread of benzimidazole resistance for H. contortus of sheep in Iraq, Al-Diwnayiah by utilizing qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for the first time. It is speculated that the BZ-resistance is due to excessive and irregular H. contortus drug abuse and inter-species transfer between ruminants at the commonly grazing pastures and from imported sheep. 

The amelioration of vitamin E on histological changes of rabbit’s brain treated with zinc oxide nanoparticles

Atheer N. Taha; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 95-104
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133599.2265

Zinc-oxide in nanoparticles is suggested to be one of the crucial nanoparticles due to its expanse implementation in many industries, like electrons, food supplements, and maquillage and makeup. This led to more individual exposure to ZnO NPs through inspiration and skin penetration. This study objected to estimating the toxic impact of ZnO NPs on the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in male rabbits by studying the gross and histological changes. Twenty-four adult male rabbits were divided randomly into four groups, comprising six animals. The first group was considered as the control group left without treatment; the second group was treated with 100 mg/kg BW of vitamin e orally, the third group was treated intraperitoneally with ZnO NPs 600 mg/kg BW, and the fourth group was treated with I/P 600 mg/kg BW of ZnO NPs in addition to 100 mg/kg BW orally of vitamin e twice weekly for twenty-one days. The histological results showed degenerative, necrotic changes in neurons with a vascular and inflammatory response in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum in the second group of rabbits treated with ZnO NPs. In contrast, the treated rabbits with ZnO NPs and vitamin E revealed slight improvement in the histological picture of brain sections. Also, there was an alteration in acetylcholine levels in all groups compared with the control group.

The impact of nano zinc oxide particles on the histology of the male reproductive system of adult male rabbits

Atheer N. Taha; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 105-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133632.2270

The goal of our research is to evaluate the histological impact of nano ZnO particles (NZnO) on the testis and epididymis of adult male rabbits treated with I.P of 600mg/kg body weight of nano ZnO particles twice a week for three weeks and to the protective effect of vitamin E versus the effect of nano zinc oxide particles. Twenty-four adult male rabbits were used in this research and divided into four groups. The first group was the control group injected with intraperitoneal distal water, and the second group was injected with 600mg/kg body weight of nano Zno particles I.P. twice a week for three weeks, the third group was injected with 600 mg/kg body weight of nano Zno particles I.P. and co-administrated with 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin e orally, while the fourth group received 100mg/kg body weight of vitamin e orally. The histological results showed that the nano ZnO particles treatment causes noticeable changes in the testis and epididymis. These changes are characterized by thickening of tunica albuginea of testis, degenerative and necrotic changes of germ cells lining the seminiferous tubules, arrest of spermatogenesis, giant cell formation, degeneration, and necrosis of epithelial cells lining epididymis canals. The canals are free from sperms is observed. As for the group of animals treated with nano ZnO particles co-administrated with vitamin e showed improvement in the histological changes compared with the control and group treated with vitamin e only showed normal architecture of testis and epididymis. Moreover, there is a decrease in the level concentration of Testosterone of the animals treated with nano ZnO particles compared with other groups.

Molecular evidence of schmallenberg virus associated by ovine abortion with fetal anomalies in Nineveh province, Iraq

Fahad Y. Taha; Omer K. Alhankawe

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 115-120
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133665.2276

In late 2011, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was observed in Germany using genomic analysis. The virus is transmitted through insect vectors and vertically from females to their offspring across the placenta. In adult sheep, the virus causes a short viremia followed by lethargy, abortion, and dystocia when giving birth to malformed lambs. RT-PCR for virus detection and commercial ELISAs for antibody detection were rapidly developed. No previous studies have detected SBV in sheep in Nineveh province. Thus, this study intended to investigate the presence of SBV in aborted fetuses and describe the macroscopic lesions. Fifteen aborted lambs aged between 70 to 135 days were collected between October 2021 and January 2022. Brain stem, spinal cord, spleen, liver, lung, and abdominal fluid were collected and stored at -20ºC for molecular analysis. Viral RNA was extracted from these collected samples, and reverse transcription was performed in one step. RT-PCR was applied to amplify the SBV gene (S segment). Three of fifteen lambs showed marked malformations in the vertebral column, arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, cerebral and cerebellar hypoplasia, and porencephaly. SBV was detected in malformed aborted lambs by RT-PCR with 474bp product size. These findings indicate that SBV causes abortion with malformations. Further studies on this topic should include the isolation and characterization of the virus and SBV epidemiology.

Epidemiological aspects of some equine viral diseases

Emad B. Ata; Raafat M. Shaapan; Alaa A. Ghazy; Omnia M. Kandil; Hala A. Abou-Zeina

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 121-127
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133255.2195

Although different equine viruses’ outbreaks have been recorded. However, the most important ones in are the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine influenza virus (EIV), equine viral arteritis (EVA), Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), and equine herpes viruses (EHV). To combat these diseases, it is imperative to understand their epidemiological aspects. So, the current review aims to highlight some epidemiological aspects including; causative agents, clinical forms, history, prevalence and geographical distribution, source of infection, and methods of transmission. The AHSV mainly causes pulmonary, and cardiac forms with high morbidity and mortality rates in Africa. The EIV is found all over the world and results in respiratory signs. The EVA has low morbidity and mortality rates and is mainly found in the Americas and Europe, its significance is due to the reproductive problems as abortion in mares and subfertility in stallions. The EIAV has low morbidity and mortality rates and causes long time course disease mainly of fever, and chronic anaemia or death. The EHVs are the current most important pathogens due to their endemicity all over the world and their high morbidity. It causes respiratory, abortion, neonatal, and sometimes neurological manifestations. Aerosols and body excretions are the main sources of infection with EIV, EVA, and EHV. Venereal EVA transmission occurs through natural breeding or artificial insemination with the semen of infected or carrier stallions. The spreading of arboviruses is greatly affected by the vector activity like the AHSV which transmitted by the the Culicoide. imicola biting midges, and the EIAV by family Tabanidae. In general, it is recommended to take all epidemiological measures, including vaccinations and vector control, to limit the spread of such diseases and reduce economic losses.

Protective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves extract against gentamicin induced hepatic and nephrotoxicity in rats

Bambang Sektiari Lukiswanto; Hidayatul Wijayanti; Yulistia Nur Fadhila; Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti; Arimbi Arimbi; Endang Suprihati; Rochmah Kurnijasanti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 129-135
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133276.2197

Gentamicin-specific non-targeted induction of hepato- and nephrotoxicity is a clinical challenge in human and veterinary medicine. This study investigates the hepato- and nephroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on Gentamicin-induced hepatic and nephrotoxicity in rats. C- group showed negative control and had no treatment. C+ group received 80 mg/kg/day/i.p of gentamicin (GM) for 8 days and exhibited positive control . T1, T2, and T3 groups were treated with Moringa oleifera (MO) leave extract orally for 14 days at doses of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg respectively after GM treatment. After 21 days of MO leave extract treatment, all the rats had liver and kidneys excisions. The assessment was done for the macroscopic changes in the liver and the microscopic changes and measurement of the MDA level of the liver and kidneys. The histopathological examination of the liver and kidneys shows that gentamicin increased the damage in the liver (degeneration, necrosis, and fibrosis score), kidneys (glomerular damage, degeneration, and necrosis of tubulous score), and MDA level. The application of MO extract at a dose of 600 mg/kg in gentamicin-induced rats can prevent the increase in the MDA levels as indicated by a decrease in the MDA levels in the liver and kidneys. The study results highlight the preventive role of MO leaves extract for Gentamicin induced toxicity that could be attributed to the antioxidant properties of phytochemicals.

The pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone and its interaction with dexamethasone in chicks

Sahar K. Abdulhamid; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 137-142
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133338.2209

The present study aims to investigate the influence of dexamethasone administration on the pharmacokinetics of phenylbutazone and its plasma concentration as well as its pharmacological interaction in a chick model. The analgesic median effective doses (ED50s) of phenylbutazone and dexamethasone are separately evaluated as 5.60 and 0.63 mg/kg, IP, and their ED50s are estimated and reduced to 1.76 and 0.19 mg/kg, IP, respectively. The type of pharmacological interaction between phenylbutazone and dexamethasone is synergistic as determined by the isobolographic analysis. The phenylbutazone administration at 11.20 mg/kg, IP has plasma concentrations of 39.83, 66.17, 48.00, 35.30, 26.50 and 13.33 µg/ml in the estimated times of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours, respectively. These concentrations are increased to 57.00, 384.17, 210.67, 138.67, 65.50 and 50.10 µg/ml as dexamethasone 1.26 mg/kg, IP is given by 43, 426, 339, 293, 147 and 276%. Phenylbutazone pharmacokinetics are increased and result in an elevation in an area under the curve (AUC0-∞) 196%, area under the moment curve (AUMC0-∞) 140%, elimination rate constant (Kel) 50%, and maximum concentration (Cmax) 426%. However, other parameters are reduced to include half-life (t1/2β) 33%, mean residence time (MRT) 18%, steady state of the volume of distribution (Vss) 78%, and clearance (Cl) 60%. The overall findings reveal a synergism as a type of pharmacological interaction between phenylbutazone and dexamethasone. In addition, a change in phenylbutazone pharmacokinetics and its plasma concentration which improves phenylbutazone therapeutic efficiency in the chick model is noticed.

Role of evolutionary epidemiology in the determination of the risk factors associated with some equine viral diseases

Emad B. Ata; Raafat M. Shaapan; Soad Nasr; Sobhy Abdel-Shafy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 143-150
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133433.2228

The evolutionary epidemiology is crucial as it does not only help in tracking the origin, spreading, prediction, and control of viruses but also explains the failure causes of some vaccines and serological diagnostic tools. To keep animal welfare, it is essential to raise awareness of the multiple risk factors associated with the different epidemics. Arthropod-borne viruses like African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) are related to vectors multiplication. Accordingly, their seasonal occurrence was attributed to the environmental climatic conditions. While equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpes virus (EHV) were found to occur in winter and spring (foaling seasons), respectively. The management risk factors resulted in the occurrence and reactivation of latently infected cases. The RNA viruses are characterized by genetic assortment which results in increasing pathogenicity, and failure of the used vaccines. The EHVs able to establish infection in different host tissues adding to their immune evasion strategies. Most of the diseases occurred at the age over 2 years although the EIAV takes long time to appear. The hard work of males and other stress factors render them more liable for infection with equine viral arteritis (EVA), EIAV, and EHV. Genetically, some breeds of horses were at risk of AHSV, EVA, and EHV infection. Most of the donkeys, mules, and zebra develop subclinical forms that magnifies their role in the epidemiological situation. Different phenomena like overwintering in AHSV, hard work in EIV, virus hidden nature and latency in EHV should be more analysed. 

Fecal and gastric fluid microbiome profiles in the indopacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus)

Agustin Indrawati; Safika Safika; Siti Gusti Ningrum; Kurnia Tiara Aulia; Hera Maheshwari; Sapto Andriyono

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 151-159
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135058.2440

The microbiota of the gastrointestinal system of dolphins has received significant interest recently. Moreover, little is understood about the microbiomes found in the stomachs of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). This study aimed to evaluate the biodiversity of bacterial microbiota in the digestive system of T. aduncus. In the present study, 18 samples were obtained from an ex-situ conservation area, Wersut Seguni Indonesia, Kendal, Indonesia, and processed for bacterial DNA extraction. A total of 7 samples were qualified as representative samples for the 16S metagenomic sequencing. The bacterial composition revealed that the Shewanellaceae was significantly higher in the stomach than in the gut. As a result, the abundance of the microbiome in gastric and stool samples showed significant differences. In contrast, the Peptostreptococcaceae was found in greater abundance in the gut than in the stomach. At the species level, we successfully found emerging zoonotic pathogens involving Shewanella algae and Shewanella xiamenensis. This report is the first study to explore the bacterial diversity in gastro of T. aduncus.

Isolation and molecular identification of proteolytic bacteria from vaname shrimp (Lithopenaeus Vannamei) ponds as probiotic agents

Ren Fitriadi; mustika palupi; Agung Setyawan; Rima Kusuma; mohammad Nurhafid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 161-170
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133468.2251

Vannamei shrimp culture in intensive and traditional ponds is developing rapidly in Indonesia. The development starts with technology, high density, and feeding systems. It results in very high organic material produced in the aquaculture ponds, and this water quality management is necessarily maintained. This study aims to isolate and identify the molecular of proteolytic bacteria from Vannamei shrimp aquaculture ponds using a different system that is as probiotic agents. This study used a survey method and random sampling technique from traditional and intensive shrimp aquaculture. The results showed that the proportion of proteolytic bacteria in traditional ponds was higher than that in intensive ponds. The screening based on colony morphology and highest activity index obtained 4 bacterial isolates of Vibrio sp.and Pseudoalteromonas white an identity value of 98.23-99.80%. The value of this activity was observed at 7.0 cm, subsequently inhibiting Vibrio sp. by 1.5 cm. The bacteria were also found to develop at pH 7 and a temperature of 28°C adequately. Additionally, the maximum proteolytic activity at a 48-hours incubation indicated their potential relevance as a biotechnological probiotic. Further studies on the potential of Pseudoalteromonas ganghwensis strains found that the bacteria have antimicrobial activity and are sensitive to antibiotics that can be used as aquaculture probiotic agents.

A comparison between different laboratory methods and stains for detection microfilaremic dogs

Haneen B. Al-Malachi; Maab I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 171-175
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133610.2267

For microscopical and statistical evaluation of different laboratory methods and stains for detecting circulating microfilariae of Dirofilaria immitis in ten naturally infected local stray dog’s positive to canine heartworm Ag ELISA kit. All blood samples were examined by three methods modified Knott's technique, serum concentration test, and Türk's solution concentration test and three laboratory stains methylene blue, giemsa, and acridine orange stains were used to dye the precipitate of the modified Knott's technique. Results showed that the slides prepared from the serum were easy to examine (there are no erythrocytes) compared with the slides prepared from the precipitate of the modified Knott's technique. The slides prepared using the Türk's solution were more transparent and freer of cell debris. The length and width of the microfilariae detected by the three methods did not change significantly. Our conclusion from this study is that Türk's solution concentration test and the serum concentration test can be used in place of the modified Knott's technique to detect microfilaremic dogs. Acridine orange staining can also substitute for methylene blue and giemsa stains for faster results.

Histogenesis of the rabbit liver (pars hepatica) with particular reference to the portal area

Esraa M. Elsheikh; Enas EL-Hady; Somia H. Abdallah; Atef A. Selem; Mervat M. Konsowa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 177-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133722.2284

Rabbits are small mammals used as standard lab animals in biomedical research. The liver is the largest internal organ, providing essential metabolic, exocrine, and endocrine functions. The present study was performed on rabbit embryos and fetuses at different gestational periods and neonatal kittens to find out the histological structure of the liver. Histogenesis of the liver was performed by using different histological stains, Harris's H and E and Masson's trichrome. The liver bud was developed around the 10th day of gestation from the caudo-ventral part of the foregut. In comparison, the hepatoblasts developed at the 12th day of gestation. Then, the liver increased in size, and cellular differentiation occurred throughout the entire length of the gestation period. The hepatic parenchymal cells, central vein, and hematopoietic cells were studied for their developmental sequences. The portal area differentiation was the focus of our study. This study clarified that this area was essential for detecting mesenchymal stem cell markers through immunohistochemistry. 

Correlation incidence between infectious bursal disease and aflatoxicosis in broilers chicken farms in Nineveh province, Iraq

Zaid Th. Al-Taee; Mohammed Gh. Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 183-190
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133881.2315

This study aimed to investigate the incidence of infectious bursal disease IBD and aflatoxicosis with the correlation between them in broilers of six different areas in Nineveh Province, Iraq, which include: Mosul, Talafer, Hamdanya, Bartella, Baaj, and Gayara for six months (October 2021-March 2022). The necropsy of the suspected infected birds and blood sampling were conducted on 25 birds for each area to diagnose IBD. Samples of broiler feed were collected from the same farms to diagnose aflatoxin B1. The detection of both IBD and aflatoxicosis occurred by the ELISA technique. The necropsy results showed hydropericardium, paleness or congestion, friable and swelling of the liver, kidneys, and bursa of Fabricius, with more severe lesions in a few sporadic cases as gelatinous fluid surrounding the heart, intense paleness of the liver, kidney, and enlarged bursa of Fabricius. The detection of IBD revealed that the positive results were 142, and the negative results are 8 birds out of a total of 150 suspected broiler attributed to the subclinical infection according to the vaccine index equation. Also, positive aflatoxin B1 concentrations were recorded in all broiler feed in the 6 areas as the highest concentration mean was 0.23 ppb and the lowest concentration mean was 0.186 ppb in Mosul and Baaj, respectively. This study indicated a positive correlation between IBD and aflatoxin B1 but was not statistically significant.

Effect of exogenous hormones in the expression level of OXTRs gene in cows using Rt PCR

Barra D. Al-Watar; Khawla A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 191-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134899.2416

We aimed in the current study to investigate the effect of oxytocin and prostaglandin on the expression level of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTRs) in local Iraqi cows at postpartum period. A total of 30 local Iraqi cows were divided randomly into three groups; the first group was considered a control group. The second group was injected with oxytocin 100 IU/IM twice weekly for four weeks postpartum. The third group was injected with PGF2α at a dose of 500 µg/I.M. twice weekly for four weeks postpartum. The blood was collected twice weekly for four weeks from the jugular vein for DNA extraction and to measure the OXTRs receptor gene by real-time PCR. The current study showed that the OXTRs gene expression level was insignificant in the first week between the three groups. In the second, third, and fourth weeks, the oxytocin group showed the highest significant OXTRs expression level, followed by the progesterone group compared to the control group. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that OXTRs expression in bovine blood plasma regulates by oxytocin and prostaglandin hormones during the postpartum period.

Histopathological changes as tools to discriminate antemortem and post-mortem wounds in rats: prospective applications in forensic medicine

Mohammed A. Al-Saheh; Waseem H. Al-Jameel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 197-204
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134266.2354

Wound age estimation is one of the chief exciting subjects in forensic medicine. It is substantial to determine the most likely accurate when wounds happened, whether during antemortem or post-mortem conditions. Moreover, histological change is a method that assists available parameters in determining the antemortem and post-mortem period. This study aims to observe the histopathological changes in induced wounds to determine when the injury occurred and whether the injury occurred during antemortem or post-mortem conditions. Thirty-nine rat wound skin biopsies were studied. All samples were taken in antemortem groups at 30, 60, 180, and 360 min, and in post-mortem groups within 30, 60, 180, and 360 min with control samples (unwounded group). The skin sections were seen by microscope to observe the changes in the following criteria: the ratio and distribution of the neutrophil and macrophage, congestion and dilatation of capillaries, and degree of autolysis. For the antemortem wounds, the number of neutrophils appeared at 30 minutes and sharply increased from 60 minutes after the wound. In addition, there was an increase in macrophages from 180 min after the wound. For the post-mortem wounds in all times examined, the degree of autolysis was the best criterion for knowing the wound timing. These results propose that histopathological changes can be used as a critical criterion for finding the time of wounds and comparing antemortem and post-mortem incisional wounds in forensic medicine.

Prevalence of ovine theileriosis in Mosul city, Iraq

Mohammed M. Hamid; Qaes T. Al-Obaidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 205-211
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134478.2370

The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of ovine theileriosis (OT) in sheep in Mosul city, Iraq using microscopic examination (ME) of the blood smears stained with MGG- Quick stain and conventional polymerase chain reaction technique (c-PCR) to compare between c-PCR technique and ME as techniques for the diagnosis of disease, and to investigate the pattern and type of infections based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique (m-PCR). From October 2021 to May 2022, one-handed eighty-five Blood samples were drawn randomly from sheep in various regions of Mosul city. The overall prevalence of OT was 42% (22.7 out of 185) and 52.4% (97 out of 185) using microscopic examination and c-PCR technique, respectively. A slight agreement was observed between ME of blood smears and c-PCR technique according to Kappa value 0.190, with low sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ME method was 30%, 88.6%, 58.4%, respectively, compared with c-PCR technique. The prevalence of mixed infection 22.7% and single infection with T. lestoquardi 20% were significantly higher (P<0.05) than single infection with T. ovis 9.7%. This study concludes that OT is widespread in Mosul city, Iraq, and the c-PCR technique is more reliable and suitable for detecting Theileriainfection in sheep than the ME method. 

Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its application on poultry’s production and health: A review

Nguyen H. Qui

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 213-221
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132912.2146

The poultry population has substantially grown in recent years, and measures to ensure meat quality have also improved significantly. The exponential growth of the human population eventually resulted in increasing meat demand. In particular, poultry meat has been the more favorable and nutritive option. Research on feed additives has sparked an interest in many poultry specialists looking for ways to increase poultry performance. The use of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an antibiotic alternative by acting as prebiotics and probiotics has received significant attention. Baker’s yeast contains β-glucans and mannan-oligosaccharides as its main components. Recent studies have shown that baker’s yeast, as an alternative protein source, positively affects poultry growth performance, blood parameters, and immune response. Furthermore, the application of baker's yeast as a fermented feed additive showed promising results for poultry production. The use of baker’s yeast in the diet improves the morphological structure of the poultry gut, thus increasing growth performance. More informatively, it stimulates feed intake, increases body weight gain, and improves the feed conversion ratio. Baker’s yeast also improves the immune system of poultry animals by reducing various numbers of harmful microorganisms by combating poultry diseases more effectively and eventually increasing poultry health. This paper aims to synthesize all aspects of the effect of baker’s yeast on the poultry industry and the role and application of baker's yeast in poultry productivity.

The endometrial expression level of estrogen-α and VEGF-A in female rats administered with a low dose of estrogen in early clomiphene citrate therapy

Rahmat L. Landahur; Budi S. Santoso; Widjiati Widjiati; Epy M. Luqman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 223-228
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133333.2207

The study was conducted to determine the effect of low-dose estrogen in the early cycle of clomiphene citrate therapy on the expression of level estrogen receptor α (ERα) and VEGF-A in the endometrium. This study was an experimental study using 29 adult female rats aged 3 months with the body weight of 150-200 grams. The female rats were randomly allocated were allocated randomly into 3 groups (C: placebo; T1: treated with a single dose of clomiphene citrate (100 mg/kg BW, IP, single dose); T2: combination treatment with clomiphene citrate (100 mg/kg BW, IP, single dose) and estradiol valerat (15 pg/kg BW, IP, single dose). Uterine samples were examined for estrogen-α receptor expression and VEGF-A expression using immunohistochemistry. The results revealed a significant difference between the percentage of Estrogen-α in the C group compared with the T1 and T2 groups. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the T1 and T2 groups. The percentage of VEGF-A expression in group C was significantly different compared with T1 and T2. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the T1 and T2 groups. In conclusion, administration of a low dose of estradiol valeratein early clomiphene citrate therapy resulted in no significant effect on estrogen-α receptor expression and VEGF-A expression in the endometrium. 

In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins extracted from the seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) against Haemonchus contortus infection

Omnia Kandil; Hatem A. Shalaby; Seham H. Hendawy; Mohamed S. Abdelfattah; Doaa Sedky; Noha M. Hassan; Amira H. El Namaky; Heba M. Ashry; Nadia M. Abu EL Ezz; Mona S. Mahmoud; Abdulla A. Mahmoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 229-237
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133537.2247

This study was designed to examine in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from seeds of Medicago sativa on Haemonchus contortus in sheep. CT's in vitro anthelmintic effect was assessed at a 300 μg/ml concentration compared with albendazole (reference drug) at 10 μg/ml. The results showed that CT had a nematocidal effect on H. contortus, and the cuticle of the adult worm appeared to be its initial target. For the in vivo experiment, nine 3-month-old helminths-free lambs were distributed into three groups. Group 1 (n=3) was challenged only as infected untreated controls; Group 2 (n=3) was treated with condensed tannin, and Group 3 (n=3) was treated with albendazole. Fecal and blood samples were collected every 3 days until the end of the experiment; for fecal egg count (FEC) and anti- H. contortus IgG titers determination, respectively. The lambs treated with the CT in G2 exhibited a pronounced decrease of mean FEC with great FECR% detected from the first-week post-treatment (PT) until the end of the experiment compared with G1 animals. The antibody levels gradually increased in G2 following the 2nd dose of CT treatment compared to other groups. A brilliant consistent relation between the elevation of IgG response and reduction of FEC was observed following the second booster dosing of the CT in G2. In conclusion, the CT evoked strongly in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity against H. contortus and could be used as a natural alternative treatment of high potency against haemonchosis in sheep.

Effect of atorvastatin on bone formation in ovariectomized rats

Sumaya S. Salih; Elham M. AL-Khashab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 239-245
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133734.2287

The study was designed in order the effect of one class of lipophilic statins (Atorvastatin) in some biomarkers of bone formation (Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 1,25 (OH)2 D3, calcium, and phosphorous) in serum of ovariectomized female rats. Thirty adult female rats (2.5-3) months, weighing (200-220) gm were housed at conditions of controlled temperature (22-25°C), cycle (12h light - 12h dark) in the house of animals of Veterinary Medicine College of Mosul University. The animals were divided into three equal groups, sham group, ovariectomized (ovx) group, and ovx treatment orally with 20mg/kg/d of atorvastatin. After 60 days of treatment, blood from all groups was collected for ALP activity, 1,25 (OH)2 D3, calcium, and phosphorous estimation, and left femur bones were excised for histological examination. The results showed that the serum ALP, calcium, and phosphorus were significantly elevated, and a significant reduction in 1,25 (OH)2D3 was noticed in the ovx group. However, treatment with atorvastatin caused a significant reduction in ALP with a non-significant elevation in 1,25 (OH)2D3. Histological results showed a low density and thin trabecular bone, a few blood vessels, high numbers of osteoclast, with low numbers of osteoblasts in the ovx group. However, the treated ovx with atorvastatin increases the thickness of trabecular bone, medium developed osteogenic tissue, and a low number of osteoblasts. In conclusion, atorvastatin has a moderate effect on bone of ovx, affecting bone formation more than bone resorption.

Dental disorders in dogs and cats: A retrospective study

Fathy D. Elseddawy; Ahmed E. Behery; Eslam A. Hendy; Shimaa A. Ezzeldein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 247-253
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133750.2289

The study was conducted on 289 clinical cases of dogs and cats admitted to the Clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, over 18 months. Thorough oral, dental, and radiographic examinations were performed on all cases. Disorders were recorded in a predesigned survey sheet along with several factors such as breed, age, sex, diet, and body condition score. Cases were categorized into four groups according to age. The results revealed that 138 (47.75%) of the total cases have dental disorders, 81 (58.7%) males and 57 (41.3%) females. Periodontal diseases were the most recorded affection 128 cases. Among animals admitted to the department clinic, then dental plaque (111 cases). Animals on soft food diet among total affected cases recorded, 89 cases (64.5%), then mixed diet (soft and hard food) 40 cases 29% and the last group dry or hard diet, 9 cases only 6.5%. The most affected breeds were German shepherd dogs 5.797% and Shirazy cats 57.97%. Data statistical analysis showed that age and diet had (P<0.05), which means that these two factors impacted the occurrence of dental disorders, in contrast, sex had (P= 0.143), which indicates that sex statistically did not affect the occurrence of dental disorders, moreover a spearman correlation test was performed between age and dental disorders (P<0.05) and revealed that, with an increase in age, there is an increase in dental disorders.

Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of Escherichia coli Isolated from veal meats and butchers’ shops in Mosul city, Iraq

Shaker M. Othman; Omar H. Sheet; Raad Al-Sanjary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 225-260
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133819.2306

 Foodborne pathogens bacteria can cause various diseases and death worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most crucial microorganism transmitted through meat and its products. Pathogenic E. coli is one of the major groups that can produce the Stx1 and Stx2 toxins. The present study aims to isolate and identify the E. coli bacteria using the classical methods, and to detect the specific-species uidA gene, and Stx1 and Stx2 genes using the PCR assay. Five hundred four samples were collected randomly from meats and different parts of a butcher shops from various regions of the right and the left sides of Mosul city. The results found that the prevalence rate of E. coli in this study was 27.4% (138/504). Additionally, the prevalence rate of E. coli was higher in meat, 41.7% (35/84). At the same time, the prevalence rate of E. coli was lower in hook 16.7% (14/84). Additionally, the prevalence rate of E. coli in meats and butcher shops on the right and left sides of Mosul city was 31.9% (65/204) and 24.3% (73/300), respectively. Furthermore, all E. coli isolates possessed the specific species uidA gene. 30/138 (21.7%) of E. coli isolates possess the Stx1 gene, while 17/138 (12.3%) of E. coli isolates have the Stx2 gene. Finally, most E. coli isolates possessed the Stx1 and Stx2 genes 91/138 (66%). 

Simultaneous determination of pethidine pharmacokinetics in rats: The impact of tramadol coadministration

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Zainab T. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 261-267
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133824.2307

The rats model has never thoroughly investigated the influence of tramadol on plasma pethidine concentration besides pethidine pharmacokinetics. Individually, analgesic ED50s for pethidine and tramadol are estimated as 3.55 and 24.21 mg/kg, i.p. Subsequently, their measures decreased to 1.65 and 11.27 mg/kg, i.p., when both were given in combination at 1:1 from ED50s. Tramadol and pethidine have a form of synergistic analgesic interaction, which is therefore classified as a pharmacodynamic interaction. Pethidine (7.1mg/kg, i.p.) reveals the plasma concentration of 369.00, 493.33, 373.33, 305.33, 306.33 and 247.67 µg/ml that was measured over distinctive times of 0.25,0.5,1,2,4, and 24 hours. At the same time, the concentration of plasma levels of tramadol and pethidine (48.42 and 7.1mg/kg, i.p., correspondingly) declined to 229.33, 268.33, 233.00, 198.33, 195.67 and 180.33 µg/ml by 38, 46, 38, 35, 36 and 27%, respectively. Tramadol affected the pethidine pharmacokinetics through an elevation in the area-under-curve (AUC0-∞) 49%, area-under-moment-curve (AUMC0-∞) 343%, mean-residence-time (MRT) 137%, half-life (t1/2β) 136%, and the distribution volume (Vss) 64%. Other estimated pharmacokinetic measures were reduced which included maximal concentration (Cmax) 47% and elimination rate constant (Kel) 60%. In general, the findings revealed a synergism as a mode of pharmacological interaction between pethidine and tramadol, in addition to a change in pethidine pharmacokinetics, which could improve pethidine effectiveness in the rat’s model.

Role of rosuvastatin in bone metabolism of ovariectomized adult rats

Sumaya S. Salih; Elham M. Al-Khashab

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 267-273
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133840.2309

The study was planned to explore the influence of one type of hydrophilic statins (rosuvastatin) on the level of serum osteocalcin, N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx), calcium, and phosphorus. In addition to calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium in femur bone ash of female ovariectomized rats. Thirty female rats aged 2.5-3 months were divided as follows, sham group, ovariectomized (ovx) group as a model of osteoporosis, and (ovx) group treated with 20mg /kg of rosuvastatin for 60 days. Blood samples were collected after 30 and 60 days of the experiment for biochemical analysis. Besides, after 60 days of the treatment, right femur bones were excised and ashed to estimate calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The results showed a significant elevation in serum osteocalcin, (NTx), calcium, and phosphorus, in addition to elevation in osteoclasts number and deceased osteoblasts and thickness of trabecular bone in the (ovx) group compared to the sham, while treatment with rosuvastatin caused a significant reduction in osteocalcin, (NTx), calcium and phosphorus after 60 days. Also, the results revealed a significant reduction in the percentage of (Ca, P and Mg) content in bone ash of the (ovx) group compared to the sham group. However, rosuvastatin treatment led to a significant elevation in the percentage of calcium and inorganic phosphate in bone ash and increased the thickness of trabecular bone and development in osteocytes compared with ovariectomized rats. The conclusion of the present study, rosuvastatin has a positive effect on the bone of ovariectomized rats.

Multidrug-resistant and clonal dispersion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from ready-to-eat meat products in Duhok province, Iraq

Zanan M. Taha; Sherzad I. Mustafa; Chyayi J. Ahmed; Farhad B. Mikaeel; Mustafa M. Ali; Ahmad I. Khudr; Salih Z. Ali; Mohammad L. Haji

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 275-282
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133902.2321

This research evaluated the effluent proportion of E. coli and ETEC in RTE meat products, characterized the isolated strains' clonal relatedness, and determined their antibiotic resistance. 130 RTE products were gathered from various restaurants and street fast food vendors in Duhok and Zakho Province. The Isolates of E. coli identified by culture methods were confirmed as ETEC by multiplex PCR of the identified virulence genes. ERIC-PCR was applied to establish the clonal relationships between strains. The disk diffusion method performed the susceptibility of antibiotics on the isolated ETEC. Out of 130 examined samples, 39 (30%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (12.3%) ETEC were detected. Pan-fried burgers were revealed to be the most frequent contaminated sample type, with both E. coli and ETEC 50% and 23.3%, respectively (P≤0.05). A high clonal dispersion (12 genotypes) was observed among the isolated ETEC strains. A strong genetic linkage was discovered between a few isolates retrieved from the same sample type and within the strains from the same geographic source area. A high antibiotic resistance rate was observed with total resistance to Amoxicillin/clavulanate, Clarithromycin, Doxycycline, Erythromycin, and Clindamycin. Isolates from burger samples showed a higher resistance rate when compared with the other sample types (P≤0.05). Multi-drug resistance was noticed in all ETEC isolates. RTE meat products sold in our area have a high rate of clonally heterogeneous carrying multi-drug resistant ETEC and may constitute a significant public health risk.

Detection of resistance against anti-helminths drugs in gastrointestinal nematodes of calves using fecal egg count reduction test FECRT

Hasan H. Shehab; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 283-288
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134037.2333

The species of parasite, low dose, and continual employ of the same drug may predispose to the evolution of anthelmintic resistance AR. In Mosul, Iraq, this is the first study investigating AR in gastrointestinal GIT nematodes of calves. Four hundred eighty fecal samples through a cross-sectional survey were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC. A herd of calves consisting of 60 male calves was divided into four groups of 15 calves: group A counted as control, group B was treated with Reemazol® 25% (Albendazole) 7.5 mg/kg of body weight orally, group C received Dufazan® (Levamisole and Oxyclozanide) 7.5 mg/kg BW orally, and group D gave Ivermectin 1% by S/C injection 0.2 mg/kg BW. The efficacy asset employs the Fecal Egg Reduction Test (FECRT). AR judgment obtains relying on the instructions of the World Association of advancement for Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP). GIT nematode prevalence was 50.6%. The effectiveness of mentioned drugs was 84, 87, and 95%, respectively. The lower limit confidence interval 95% level was 89, 86, and 80%, respectively, indicating AR to albendazole and levamisole, while ivermectin was questionable. In conclusion, the high prevalence of GIT nematodes in Mosul indicate that AR is present against the three classes of deworming drugs. Awareness of the associated aspects and sources of resistance is essential to face and minimize the development of resistant worms.

Neurotoxicity of xylazine in chicks

Muna H. ALzubaidy; Sawsan M. Amin; Douaa H. Haitham Alsanjry

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 289-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135299.2463

Despite the widespread use of xylazine in veterinary medicine, studies on its neurotoxicity are limited. So, our current study aims to reveal its neurotoxicity in chicks by determining the (LD50) of xylazine in Dixon's procedure. Moreover, it aims to study the effects of a small and repeated dose of xylazine on neurobehavioral test and the toxic doses of xylazine on the concentration of (glycine and glutamate) in the plasma of chicks and on the brain tissue after 60 and 90 minutes of injection. The LD50 of xylazine by injection into the chest muscle was 26.65 mg/kg. The injection of xylazine at a dose of 3 and 6 mg/kg in the chest muscle for three consecutive days caused an inhibition in motor activity within the open field as well as a significant elevation in the tonic immobility test response, injection of xylazine at doses 48.96 mg/kg ,60 and 90 minutes after the injection led to a significant increase in the glycine concentration as well as a significant decrease in glutamate after 90 minutes in the plasma of chicks, accompanied by histological variation in the brain tissue characterized by necrosis of neurons, vasogenic edema, neurophagia, cavities, infarction, necrosis of Purkinjean cell with decrees in the number of it. Our results revealed that xylazine had neurotoxic effects in chicks, represented by inhibition of neural behavior and motor activity within the open field, accompanied by a change in the concentration of glycine and glutamate in the plasma of chicks and histological variation in the brain tissue of chicks.

Effect of experimentally induced prepubertal hyperthyroidism on postubertal reproductive activity in male rats

Baneen A. Mohammad; Jabber A. Al-Saaidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 297-304
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133976.2325

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of induced prepubertal hyperthyroidism on the reproductive functions of male rats at the pubertal stage. Hyperthyroidism was induced by supplementing thyroxin in drinking water (0.002% w/v) and drenching of 200 μg/kg body weight. Sixty immature males (aged 50 days) were allocated to control and hyperthyroid (PH) groups, administered with distilled water and thyroxin, respectively. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups, sacrificed after 15 days (C15 and PH15), after administration for 15 days and left without treatment for 15 days (C15+ and PH15+), or after 30 days (C30 and PH30). After each period, body weight and relative weight of genital organs were recorded. Serum concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone was assessed. The expression levels of testicular inha and thyroid hormone receptor (THR) genes were analyzed. Histopathological examination of testis was studied. Compared with control, PH group male rats showed decreased body weight gain and genital organ weights at all experimental periods, increased levels of serum TT4, TT3, and LH, decreased levels of TSH, FSH, and testosterone, and lower expression levels of testicular inha and THR genes. Testicular sections of PH group male rats, showed reduced germinal epithelium, vacuolation, and decreased the number of spermatocytes and Sertoli cells compared with control. In conclusion, the disturbed fluctuations of sex steroid hormones due to prepubertal hyperthyroidism might cause retardation of the testes’ development.