Volume 36, Supplement I, Autumn 2022, Page 1-248

Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Zingiber officinale alcoholic extract and vitamin e on liver damage induced by paracetamol drug in males of New Zealand rabbits

Dakheel H. Hadree; Abdulkhaliq A. Farhan; Raouf M. Fadhil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134933.2418

The aim of study is to reduce hepatic damage from paracetamol will be funded using alcohol extract for ginger and vitamin E as antioxidants in male New Zealand rabbits. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a widely used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic drug which is known to cause liver injuries in both humans and experimental animals when administered in overdose. The current study was conducted at the animal house of the College of Veterinary Medicine, Tikrit University to detect certain side effects developed with the use of the drug paracetamol, some physiological values resulting from liver damage through the use of 40 male New Zealand rabbits aged 5-7 months, randomly divided into four equal groups, including: The control group were given the normal physiological solution and the second group were given the paracetamol drug was given orally 400 mg/kg per rabbit while the third group was given vitamin e 50 mg/kg body weight as well as 400 mg/kg of the paracetamol drug was given orally. The fourth group was dosed with ginger alcoholic extract of 150 mg/kg body weight, which was given 400 mg/kg of the paracetamol drug was given orally. The study's findings demonstrated a significant decrease in the levels of catalase (CAT), super oxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in the treatment with a paracetamol drug compared to the control group, as well as a significant increase in the levels of liver enzymes and malondialdehyde. The study's results also found a significant decline in the levels of liver enzymes and malondialdehyde while revealing a significant increase in the levels of CAT, SOD and GSH in 3rd and 4th group compared to 2nd group. From the aforementioned findings, it can be concluded that vitamin e and ginger alcohol extract both reduce the unfavorable and harmful effects in some physiological parameters coming from liver damage caused by Paracetamol drug usage.

Serological detection of the latent infection of Brucellosis in calves in Mosul city, Iraq

Wisam S. Hassan; Sadam D. Hasan; Karam M. Abdulrazzaq; Qaes T. Al-Obaidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 7-10
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134936.2421

Brucellosis is a widespread and endemic disease in the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and it has significant public health and livestock industry concerns. It can affect a wide range of mammalian hosts, including humans. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of thelatent infection of brucellosisin calves; Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests were conducted for this purpose. The serum samples were collected from 184 local calves of both sexes aged between 1 to 8 months (92 males and 92 females) from different regions of Mosul city. The current study revealed that all samples tested negative with the Rose Bengal test, whereas, in indirect ELISA 5.9%, the samples were against Brucella species. The seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies showed no statistical differences between males and females, which was 5.4 and 6.5%, respectively. This study concluded that the indirect ELISA test showed high diagnostic efficacy in detecting anti-Brucella antibodies in young calves.

Effect of adding blue-green algae, probiotic and antibiotic to the diet on the productive performance of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Mahmoud A. Mohammad; Nidhal T. Al-Taee; Shahbaa K. Al-Taee; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 11-17
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134963.2425

This current study aimed to study the effect of adding blue-green algae (Spirulina), symbiotic (poultry star®me) at a ratio of 1 to 2% and colistin antibiotic to the control diet of common carp fish reared in glass aquariums for 56 days terms of three replicates for each treatment. The growth results showed that the fish fed on the third diet was significantly superior to the fish fed on the other experimental diets in the rate of total and daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feeding efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio criteria over all other experimental diets except for the second diet, 1% spirulina. The fish fed on the second diet significantly outperformed in the precipitated protein criterion and the protein productive value of all the experimental diets under study. The value of crude protein in the edible portion increased significantly when fish were fed on spirulina, symbiotic and antibiotic diets, compared to the control diet, while the percentage of fats in the fish fed on diets containing the food additives under test decreased significantly compared to the control diet. No significant differences were recorded in the percentage of ash. It is evident from what was mentioned above that the best results of the studied criteria were when adding spirulina at had positive effects on growth criteria and food utilization.

An evaluation of Aloe vera leaves gel with polypropylene mesh to repair of ventro -lateral abdominal hernia in rams

Ibraheem A. Zedan; Layth M. Alkattan; Osamah M. Aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 19-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134989.2430

The presented article was designed to evaluate using polypropylene mesh alone and using Aloe vera gel for hernioplasty in rams. Under the protocol of sedations, local anesthesia, and strict surgical preparations, the 10 cm of experimental ventrolateral abdominal hernias were surgically induced in twenty-four rams. The animals were divided into two equal groups. Hernioplasty was done with polypropylene mesh in both groups. The first group remained without treatment and was considered the control group. In the second group, after hernioplasty the Aloe vera leaf gel spread equally along the repaired area, then the skin and subcutaneous tissues closed routinely. Clinical, Ultrasonographic, and Laparoscopic examinations were done. Clinically, all operative animals completely subsided the hernia ring. Laparoscopically, the results indicated less degree of adhesion and inflammatory reaction were occurs in the treated group at 45 days post-surgery. Ultrasonographic investigation in the control group at 30 days post-surgery exhibited Wavy echogenic representing inflammatory effusion. It represented Hypoechoic at muscle mass and mesh at 45 days, whereas in the treated group, the subcutaneous tissue appeared normal echotexture with a clear mesh at 45 days post-treatment. In conclusion, compatibility occurs between the implant and the edges of the hernia ring without signs of rejection, less degree of adhesion, and the hernia opening completely closed. The Aloe vera gel had a beneficial effect during hernioplasty in the ram. 

Immune response strategies of Brucella melitensis and their antigens in rats

Basher S. Noomi; Sanaa S. Ahmed; Hiba Y. Khalaf; Nihad A. Jafar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 27-30
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134990.2431

Brucella melitensis is an intracellular bacterium and is the main brucella species that cause abortion and placenta retention in sheep and goats. It has many mechanisms to evade the immune response. The current study aimed to investigate Brucella melitensis strategies for producing immune responses in rats after challenging the bacterium. For this purpose, live and killed Brucella melitensis REV1 strain was given to rats subcutaneously, and immunological markers like TLR2, TLR4, IFN- γ, and anti-brucella antibodies were determined. The results showed that the level of immunological markers like TLR2 and TLR4 did not significantly increase in rat groups inoculated with live Brucella melitensis, while it increased in the rats’ groups vaccinated with the sonicated Brucella melitensis; also, the results showed an increase in the level of IFN-γ and anti-brucella antibody titers in all animal groups. The study concluded that the inoculation with killed bacteria and REV1 could protect the animals against challenging doses, as seen when the groups were inoculated with challenge dose of the bacterium.

Experimental study of the effect of Plantago major leaves extract on contaminated excisional wound healing in rabbits

Mustafa M. Mahmood; Areeg K. Mahdi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134991.2432

The current study was performed to estimate the influence of topical application of 10% of Plantago major leaves extract (PMLE) on a healing process of contaminated excisional wound in local breed rabbits. Twenty adult local breed male rabbits were used. After the animals have generally anesthetized, two 2×2 cm full thickness wounds were created in thoracic region on right and left side (1wound/side) for each animal. Wounds on right side of animal were treated by topical irrigation with normal saline/daily, this consider as control (group A). While, left side wounds were treated by topical application of 10% PMLE ointment (once/day) that consider as treated (group B) dressing was used after each treatment for both groups. Wound healing was evaluated through macroscopic examination, wound contraction rate (WCR) assessment and histopathological examination. Results of macroscopic examination confirmed that PMLE has a role in acceleration healing when compared to control group. These outcomes were parallel with WCR results in which reflect the mean rate of wound contraction on days 7th, 14th, and 21st ‎in PMLE-treated group was ‎significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of ‎the normal saline-treated group. Histopathological examination results confirmed early increased in new blood vessels formation, fibroblasts proliferation, marked collagen precipitation and early epithelization in group PMLE compared to group A. This study confirmed that topical application of 10% of PMLE (once/a day) has an effective role in accelerate contaminated wound healing through its phenolic and flavonoid contents as recorded by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assessment that act as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substance which help in the enhancement the WCR through encourage early and additional fibroblast proliferation and angiogenesis when compared to control group.

Molecular study of Oestrus ovis larvae infesting in sheep in Baghdad city, Iraq

Rawaa I. Alfalahy; Amer M. Al-Amery; Azhar A. Faraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 41-45
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135053.2438

The aim of this study is to detect the 28S (rRNA) gene sequences of Oestrus ovis larvae by conventional polymerase chain reaction and to compare their genetic relatedness utilizing phylogenetic analysis. Fifty larvae were collected from sheep for DNA extraction after slaughtering during the period from the beginning of February until the end of April 2019 in Baghdad city. PCR product appeared as the band size 950 bp. Ten of the product PCR were selected for sequence analysis to obtain the partial nucleotides 28S (rRNA) gene. After that the sequence were recorded in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) with ID NO. (MT875427, MT875428, MT875429, MT875430, MT875431, MT875432, MT875433, MT875434, MT875435, MT875436) for O. ovis larvae. Then, compared these accession number with another global registered in NCBI by using phylogenetic tree examination which show NCBI-BLAST homology sequence identity between them, and these results were confirmed 99% identity with Spain and Brazil isolates and 98% with Italy.

Clinical and ultrasonographic findings in rams with scrotal enlargement

Uday T. Naoman; Osamah M. Aliraqi; Eman L. Hayawy; Sadam M. Albaqqal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 47-53
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135079.2443

The present study aimed to investigate the clinical, ultrasonographic, and serological findings of scrotal enlargement in Iraqi Awassi rams in Nineveh governorate, Iraq. A total of 172 rams were brought to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, and a private clinic by the owners from different areas of Nineveh governorate between 1/4/2021 to 1/7/2021. All animals underwent ultrasonographic and serological examinations. The animals were 18 months - 6 years of age, with body condition scores ranging between 3-4 (on a scale from 1-5). The animal case history detailed was recorded, and clinical, with the ultrasonographic investigation, was done; a blood sample was taken to the lab and checked for Brucella spp by the Rose Bengal test. results revealed a total of 172 rams studied cases were 57 events of scrotal enlargement in study 57/172 (33.13%). Scrotal enlargement was associated with orchitis 29/57 (50.87%), peri-orchitis 12/57 (20.05%), and epididymitis 11/57 (19.29%). The other assorted finding was scrotal hernia 2/57 (3.50%), scrotal hematoma 1/57 (1.75%), hydrocele 1/57 (1.75%), and unilateral cryptorchidism 1/57 (1.75%). Orchitis 29 cases were associated with no abscess formation on 9/29 (31.03%), single abscess formation on 8/29 (27.58%), and multiple abscesses formations on 12/29 (41.37%). Serological tests of males with scrotal enlargement for Brucella spp were in frequency with other unknown cases which positive to Brucella were 37/57 (64.91%) cases and 22/57 (38.59%) negative cases, respectively. In conclusion, orchitis, peri-orchitis, epididymitis, and other male scrotal enlargement need more investigation and studies due to their effect on male fertility. Brucella spp was the main cause of male reproductive system infection, and ultrasonography was very effective for diagnosing infection when connected with lab data results. 

Comparison of California mastitis test and Draminski mastitis detector as on-farm methods for monitoring udder health in lactating buffalo

Hussien W. Ali; Mohammad O. Dahl

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 55-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135362.2469

This study was conducted to compare the performance of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Draminski Mastitis Detector (DMD) for monitoring udder health in lactating buffalo. A total of 647 milk samples collected from 145 apparently healthy lactating buffalo cows during the first three months of the lactation period were used in this study. Both DMD and CMT were performed on-farm directly after sampling of the milk. The diagnostic accuracy of CMT and DMD was evaluated by estimating the area under the Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve (AUC) based on a value of 200,000 somatic cells per mL as a cut-point value for an infected quarter detected by direct microscopic somatic cell count. Data analysis showed that 63.76% of CMT results were “Trace” and 99% of DMD readings were greater than 300. The accuracy of CMT and DMD was close to each other; the AUC was 80.1% and 81.4% for CMT and DMD, respectively. The optimal cut-point value for CMT was Trace (T), and 515 for DMD. In conclusion, both CMT and DMD are practical on-farm tests for identifying infected udder in buffalo cows, and the suggested cut-point value for DMD is 515 for buffalo’s milk testing instead of the 300 that was assigned by the manufacturer for cow’s milk. 

Quantification histopathological analysis in the gills of carp fish exposed to sub lethal concentration of nano zinc oxide

Shahbaa Kh. Al-Taee; Alaa H. Alhamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 61-68
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135365.2471

Nano-zinc oxide ranks third in the world in production, as it is used in many industries, enters the aquatic environment directly or indirectly, and is considered one of the most toxic substances for aquatic organisms. Therefore, these studies aimed to determine the toxic effect of the sublethal concentration of N-ZnO on the gills of carp fish that were treated for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days and using a semi-quantitative evaluation protocol for histopathological alteration. The histopathological alteration involved circulatory changes, cell growth disturbances, and morphological changes, the most severe lesion occurred on day 35 of treatment, and the occurrence of necrosis and death of the gill tissue at day 42 of the treatment, which was more significant for morphological changes when compared with the other lesion and period. The results showed that the histopathological changes on the seventh day of treatment were severe lesions, while in the rest of the treatments, they were irreversible lesions. It is concluded from this study that the gills are a good bio-indicator for evaluating the pollution status of the aquatic environment and that the sub-lethal concentration of N-ZnO leads to pathological changes in the gills and the possibility of using semi-quantitative assessment and statistical analysis to give significance for the most severe pathological lesions.

Histopathological and serological assessment of using rib lamb xenograft reinforced with and without hydroxyapatite nano gel for reconstruction tibial bone defect in dogs

Fouad M. Albaroudy; Layth M. Alkattan; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 69-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135366.2473

This work aimed to assess repairing tibial bone defects using histopathological and serological examinations. Eighteen stray adult dogs of both sexes were used. The experiment was allocated into two equal groups, 9 of each. An experimental tibia defect of 2.5*0.7 cm was induced at the proxomedial aspect of the tibia. Deproteinized lamb's rib xenograft was used to reconstitute the defective area. The tissue and blood samples were collected for histopathological and serological investigations at different periods. On day seven post-surgery, the serological assessment indicated a significant increase in the level of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) of both the first and second groups, 0.2±0.03, 0.3±0.02 ng/ml, respectively; however, after 14 days, the levels were significantly reduced in both groups 0.08±0.03, 0.2±0.02 ng/ml, respectively. On day 7, the serum alkaline phosphatase level in the first group was lower, 31.6±3 u/l, than in the treated group, 54.2±1.86 u/l. However, at 14 days post-surgery, the serum alkaline phosphatase level in the first group slightly increased by 35.7±2.1 u/l; nevertheless, the treated group manifested a constant level of 54.1±5.24 u/l. At 60 days post-operation, the histopathological examination presented more organized tissue maturation in the second group. The histochemical results of all specimens of the hydroxyapatite group revealed an increase in calcified bone by showing a red reaction which indicates the formation of thick calcified compact bone at 60 days post defects. In conclusion, the hydroxyapatite Nano gel contributed to ossification across the bone defect and hastened the healing process; the serological investigations indicated an increase in the activity of bone tissue.

Evaluation of immunogenicity and efficacy of Borrelia burgdorferi derived peptide (PepB) antigen formulated in a protein scaffold in mice against Lyme disease

Wisam S. Hassan; Christina Brock; Maria Esteve-Gasent

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 77-84
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135519.2487

Lyme disease (LD) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in both Europe and North America. The development of effective Lyme disease vaccines is complicated by the complex biology of Borrelia species and alterations in the expression of outer surface membranes. In this work, PepB, which is Borrelia burgdorferiBB0172-derived peptide was evaluated in scaffolded formulation as a vaccine candidate in murine model of LD. In brief, four groups of 6-8 weeks old C3H/HeN breed of mice (n=6 per group) were immunized subcutaneously with BBA34: PepB (BP), outer surface protein C (OspC), BBA34 and a naïve control group. In 8 weeks, post-priming blood samples were collected, and specific IgG titers were evaluated by ELISA. After that, A dose of 105 B. burgdorferi/mouse was administered subcutaneously to all animals as a challenge. The mice were euthanized at 4 weeks post-challenge and then blood and tissue samples were collected to evaluate bacterial burden by real time qPCR, and bacterial recovery from tissues. Taken together, and considering both bacterial burden and bacterial recovery, immunization with BP was not able to confer protection against borreliosis in this experiment, and consequently it was not considered as a potential vaccine formulation in subsequent studies. It was concluded, that other alternative antigen platforms and delivery methods might be considered to improve the immunogenicity of the PepB-based vaccine candidate.

Detection of extended spectrum beta lactam producing Escherichia coli isolated from Cyprinus carpio in Mosul city

Ebtehal N. Mahmmoud; Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 85-89
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135604.2497

Extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli constitute an emerging health problem globally, fish act as a potential reservoir for ESBLs E. coli and serve as a vehicle of transmission of ESBL resist genes to others strains of bacteria. A total of 75 samples of Cyprinus carpio were collected from the local fish market of Mosul city during the period between) October 2021 to February 2022(. each sample was placed separately in a sterile plastic bag and transported directly under cooling conditions to the microbiology lab, College of Veterinary Medicine. ESBLs producing Escherichia coli were isolated and characterized using MacConkey agar medium supplemented with 2 mcg/ml cefotaxime. Twenty-six isolates 34% of fish gut samples were obtained. A polymerase chain reaction was carried out to confirm the results of the isolation using special primers for E. coli (ECO223-f, ECO223-r). Resistance genes assay were performed using the primers Cefotaxamase (CTX-M) and sulphydryl variable (SHV). All isolates showed that possessed the CTX-M gene 100%, while none of the isolates possessed the SHV gene. This study showed that fish play a major role in the transmission of broad-spectrum beta-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli to humans as a result of handling or marketing it, or by consuming contaminated or infected fish.

Study the effect of isolated human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) from plasma on histopathological aspects in some organs of adult female albino rats

Baraa R. Albarhawi; Thikra A. Allwsh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 91-100
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135753.2510

This study included an attempt to isolate and purify Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) from healthy human plasma using different biochemical technique. Two peaks had been isolated by gel filtration chromatography from the precipitate produced by using ammonium sulfate. The first peak (peak A) had a high level of EGFR. Furthermore, the purity of isolated EGFR peak A had been identified by the high-performance liquid chromatography and by gel electrophoresis technique. The results obtained from high performance liquid chromatography showed that there was a good identity in retention time between the standard and the isolated EGFR peak A. The approximate molecular weight of partially purified EGFR peak A was 75318±100 and 73029±100 dalton using gel filtration chromatography and gel electrophoresis technique respectively. The effect of the isolated EGFR peak A on some histopathological aspects in adult female albino rats had been studied. The result showed that the treatment with three different concentrations of peak A causes alteration in the normal architecture of the liver and kidney characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes, coagulative necrosis, hemorrhage, increase in collagen fibers deposition, hyperplasia, pre-neoplastic lesion with bizarre nucleus, and adenoma. These irreversible pathological changes which occurred in these organs may be converted to malignance if take longer time (more than one month). According to the findings of this study, high levels of HER2 cause irreversible pathological changes in the liver and kidney, which can progress to cancer over time.

Detection of some virulence genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from meat at Mosul city

Ibrahim M. Tahr jawher; Muntaha G. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 101-105
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135755.2512

Meat is a rich source of protein for humans. Pseudomonas is one of the meat spoilage microorganisms, as it is highly pathogenic and affects the health of consumers and meat handlers. The current study detected the presence of some virulence genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from meat in Mosul city, including ToxA, ExoS, OprL, and PlcH virulence genes in 21 isolates of P. aeruginosa using PCR. Results revealed the presence of ToxA, OprL, and PlcH genes at 57.14%, 38.09%, and 71.42%, respectively, while all the isolates of P. aeruginosa were negative for the presence of the ExoS gene. The prevalence of ToxA and PLcH genes was higher in beef meat compared to mutton and chicken meat, while the OprL gene was not detected in mutton. These results indicated that some strains of P. aeruginosa are pathogenic to meat handlers and consumers; following food safety practices must be applied in the meat production chain to prevent meat contamination with pathogenic bacteria.

Effect of adding Eruca sativa in common carp on growth criteria, feed utilization and chemical composition

Saud D. Al-Rawe; Mahmoud A. Mohammad; Abd Al-Bar A. Al-Farha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 107-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135758.2514

To examine the effects of adding seeds powder and rocket Eruca sativa leaves to the diets of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fish with percentages of 1, 2, and 3% of the total diet (the first, second, and third treatments), as well as the addition of rocket leaf powder to the fourth, fifth, and sixth diets, respectively, While the control diet, was empty of these additions (the seventh diet). Each treatment was replicated three times. These diets were used to feed common carp for 56 days. According to the statistical analysis's research results, the fish fed the fourth diet significantly superior surpassed the control diet and all other experimental diets in terms of growth criteria represented by the final weight, total weight gain, daily growth rate, relative, specific growth rate, and in terms of feed utilization: feed conversion ratio, feeding efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio. Except for the sixth treatment, the fed fish outperformed all other experimental treatments, and the second and fourth treatments regarding retained protein and protein production value. Fish were fed as the fifth treatment, significantly superior to the control diet. These results in the highest percentage of dry matter and crude protein for the edible portion of the body. Feeding fish on the fourth treatment resulted in the lowest proportion of ether extract, much lower than all the experimental diets. 

Histopathological evaluation of lesions induced by dimethyl hydrazine in male rats

Entisar Kh. Al-Hamdany; Karam H. Al-Mallah; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 115-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135760.2515

This study evaluated dimethylhydrazines' carcinogenic and toxic effect (DMH) in male rats; 30 albino rats were divided into three groups, randomly ten rates for each one. Group 1 control group was lifted for water only, group 2 was treated with DMH at a dose of 10 mg /kg bw in 0.9% sodium chloride subcutaneously once weekly for eight weeks, and group 3 was treated with DMH at a dose of 20 mg /kg bw in 0.9% NaCl subcutaneously once weekly for eight weeks. Liver grossly congested with pinpoint hemorrhage in a dose of 10 mg/kg of bw and enlarged in a dose of 20 mg/kg bw. Congestion of blood vessels in the heart with hypertrophy of myocardium in a dose of 20 mg/kg bw. Kidney grossly appears normal in both doses. Lesions of the liver treated with DMH in the dose 10 mg/kg BW show discontinuation of hepatocytes, infiltrations of inflammatory cells, and vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes with apoptotic bodies. Section of the liver treated with DMH in the dose 20 mg/kg BW shows acute hemorrhage and focal necrosis of hepatocytes with edema. Heart treated with DMH in a dose of 10 mg/kg BW shows discontinuation of myocardial muscle fibers and infiltrations of inflammatory cells. In contrast, lesions in the dose 20 mg/kg bw show foci of inflammatory cells with cardiomyopathies of myocardium and congestion of blood vessels. Kidney treated with DMH in a dose of 10 mg/kg BW shows degeneration of epithelial cells lining renal tubule, infiltrations of inflammatory cells, hyaline cast with atrophy of glomerular tuft, increased space of Bauman's, and cloudy swelling. The kidney section treated with DMH in a dose of 20 mg/kg bw shows hemorrhages between renal tubules, congestion of blood vessels, infiltrations of inflammatory cells, a renal cyst, and degeneration of glomeruli.

Histopathological study about the effect of nano magnesium oxide and platelets rich fibrin on the healing of induced radial fracture in dogs

Yassir F. Abdulmawjood; Moyaser Gh. Thanoon; Sahar M. Ibrahim; Janan H. Alsofy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 123-130
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135761.2516

The aim of this study was a histopathological evaluation of the effects of nano magnesium oxide and platelets-rich fibrin on induced radial fracture bone healing in local stray dogs. We used 18 adult animals weighing 17.5±0.6 kg and aged 2.0±0.1 years; these experimental animals were divided into three main equal groups. In the first group (Control), the fracture was left without treatment of any bioactive materials; in the second group (nano magnesium oxide), the fracture line was injected with 20µg of nano magnesium oxide, the third group (platelets rich fibrin) the fracture line was surrounded by platelet-rich fibrin. The bone specimens were taken from all experimental animals 6 and 10 weeks after the surgical operation. A Colorimetric method was used for measuring the alkaline phosphatase enzyme and calcium concentrations in all trial animals. The histopathological results at the 6th and 10th weeks showed that the best response was in the platelets-rich fibrin group, then the nano magnesium oxide group, and lastly, the control group according to the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, trabeculae, and woven bone. The concentration rates of alkaline phosphatase enzyme and calcium were increased in the weeks that followed the surgical operation. In conclusion of this study, platelets-rich fibrin and nano-magnesium oxide accelerated the healing of the radial fracture.

Supplementation of broiler drinking water with zinc sulfate and its impact on physiological performance

Abdullah F. Abdul-Majeed; Ghadeer A. Rahawi; Saeb Y. Abdul-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 131-136
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135823.2524

This study was conducted with three hundred one-day-aged broiler chicks (Ross 308) to determine the impact of adding two different doses of zinc sulfate to drinking water on the physiological traits of broilers. At first, 300 broiler chicks were randomly distributed into three groups. They were reared in floor cages until they were 42 days old, as follows: The 1st group (control group) was given drinking water without any additives. The 2nd and 3rd groups were given drinking water fortified with 20 and 40 mg of zinc sulfate/L of water, respectively. The results showed that the zinc sulfate significantly improved the hematological traits and the level of high-density lipoproteins, reducing triglycerides. In contrast, total serum protein and albumin levels were significantly increased. Globulin was significantly enhanced when the dose was given at 40 mg/L of water. Also, zinc sulfate improved the antioxidant status, as it significantly raised the level of glutathione. In contrast, the corticosterone hormone level and aspartate aminotransferase activity were significantly decreased. The addition of zinc sulfate did not affect the levels of leptin and insulin-like growth factor. In conclusion, zinc sulfate enhanced most physiological parameters and maintained the other biochemical parameters within normal healthy values.

Mycoplasma from the upper respiratory tract and conjunctival infections in household dogs

Saba A. Hussein; Mohammad A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 137-141
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135824.2525

The study was performed to isolate and detect Mycoplasma as a causative agent of the upper respiratory tract and conjunctival infections in household dogs in Mosul city. One hundred household dogs of different ages, sex, and breed were subjected to the study, including 60 dogs suffering from moderate to severe respiratory infections and 40 healthy dogs in Mosul city from 1/2/2022 to 15/6/2022. Three hundred swabs were collected, including nasal swabs 100, oropharyngeal swabs 100, and conjunctival swabs 100. The swabs were cultured in Mycoplasma media and incubated at 37ºC with 5% CO2 in a candle jar for 4-14 days. Light and the dissecting microscope examined the growing colonies microscopically under low magnification. The colonies were also stained with modified Dienes stain. The results of the current study indicated that respiratory infections were predominant in young male household dogs compared with conjunctival infections in all examined dogs. The conjunctival infections were obvious only in Husky and Belgium dogs. The high isolation rate of Mycoplasma was from upper respiratory tract infections in diseased female dogs more than one-year age 100%. In contrast, the conjunctival infections were more dominant and had a higher isolation rate in less than one-year males. The current study revealed a high Mycoplasma isolation rate in respiratory swabs of Terrier and German dogs, while the conjunctival swabs were positive for mycoplasmal culture in Husky and Belgium dogs 100%. In conclusion, mycoplasmal infections were more dominant in upper respiratory infections in female German and Terrier dogs.

Exome sequencing and SDH (A, B) immunohistochemistry of canine Pheochromocytomas

Firas M. Abed; Michael J. Dark

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 143-150
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135825.2526

Pheochromocytomas (PCs) are tumors originating from the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. In people, there are highly correlated to inherited gene mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) pathway; however, to date, little work has been done on the genetic basis of these tumors in animals. Out of the total of 2.203 Gb of canine DNA sequenced, 88.35% of bases mapped to exons and 11.65% mapped to introns. Out of 26 genes of interest containing 404 exons, 278 exons were sequenced 68.81%. Sequencing was considered successful when the average read depth was 3x and the entire exon was covered. Coverage ranged from 30% to 100%. Both SDHA and SDHB had exon mapped 46.6% and 62.5% respectively. Additionally, out of 45 known canine variants, exome technique able to detect 36 variants (80%). We performed SDHA and SDHB immunohistochemistry on 35 canine formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded. Interestingly, we had loss of immunoreactivity for both SDHA and SDHB in four samples, suggesting a mutation in SDHx including SDHA. Out of 35 samples, 6 had immunoreactivity for SDHA and 25 lacked immunoreactivities for SDHB. 29 out of the 35 (82%) may have an SDH family mutation other than SDHA. Exome sequencing and immunohistochemistry are able to predict malignant behavior and likelihood of reduction of PCC/PGLs in humans. This can be used to determine whether there are similar mutations in the pseudo-hypoxic, kinase signaling, and other genes of interest exist in dogs, as well as finding novel genes involved in canine Pheochromocytomas oncogenesis.

Histopathological study of sheep lung roaming in dump zones

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Enas S. Mostafa; Asseel M. Rahawi; Mohammad M. Jaber; Entisar K. Al-Hamdany; Soadd M. Al-Hmdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 151-160
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135830.2527

Respiratory system disease is common in sheep, which is frequently difficult to detectable in live animals until it becomes serious and complicated. This study was aimed to describe sheep lung lesions in Mosul city, which roam in dump zones and have been slaughtered at butchers’ shops, fifty male and female sheep 1-5 years were used at the current work from March to December 2021; affected Samples were collected and prepared for standard histopathological analysis. The special stain was also used for carbohydrates demonstrated inside and around lung lesions. The results of the current study showed the presence of gross and histological finding changes, the gross lesion presented by inflammation of the upper right lope, congestion, and bleeding on all parts of the lope in addition to different sizes of the nodular lesion. In contrast, the pneumonic histological finding was 12.1%, circulatory disturbance 3.5%, parasitic infections 10.0%, disturbance of growth 7.1%, Necrotic area surround by swirling macrophage 2.0% in addition to the deposition of calcium salt and hemosiderin pigmentation. Organizing Pneumonia (OP) and Masson’s bodies were one of the most detected lesions in the roaming sheep, it was scored by Masson Trichrome from mild, moderate, and severe fibrosis. All lesions were categorized according to the type of lesion, grade, and kind of it. From the current work, we demonstrated that pneumonic disorder represented a considerable and serious problem in the animal livestock industry and leads to economic loss in milk, wool, and sheep meat production. Additional studies are recommended to determine the etiological agent of sheep lung lesions whether it is a fungal, bacterial, or viral agent. 

Histochemical study of proventriculus in pre-hatch and post-hatch days in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus)

Siraj M. Al-Kafagy; Ali K. Al-Jebori; Yahia Y. Alseady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 161-166
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135832.2529

The present study was designed to investigate the histochemical developmental changes of the proventriculus at pre-hatching and post-hatching in the northern bobwhite quail at periods 11- and 15-days pre-hatching in addition to 14- and 21-days post-hatching. The proventriculus composed of four tunics is tunica mucosa, tunica sub-mucosa, tunica muscularis, and tunica serosa. The tunica mucosa was lined with simple columnar epithelium and the height of epithelium increases with the age also the thickness of the mucosa, the tunica submucosa filled with proventricular glands at 14- and 21-day post-hatch and the gland was height in diameters while in 11- and 15-day pre-hatch the gland less in diameter and the sub mucosa does not fill with the gland. Tunica muscularis was thicker in post-hatch than in pre-hatch, 11- and 15- day pre-hatch composed of a thin inner circular layer and thick outer longitudinal layer but in 14- and 21-day post-hatch the tunica muscularis was composed of a thin inner and outer circular layer and thick middle longitudinal layer. The mucosa and proventriculus glands give a positive reaction for Alcian blue stain and a weak to moderate reaction for periodic acid Schiff stain at pre-hatch, while at post-hatch the mucosa gives a positive reaction for Alcian blue stain and a negative reaction for periodic acid Schiff stain and the proventricular glands give a positive reaction for Alcian blue and periodic acid Schiff stains.

Morphological detection of dermatophytes isolated from cattle in Wasit province

Dhurgham A. Alhasan; Hawraa F. Al-Abedi; Talal J. Hussien; Atheer Q. Mohammad Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 167-172
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135833.2530

This study aimed to diagnose the skin lesions in cattle that were suspected to be ringworm in order to determine the species causing these lesions. A total of 40 samples of skin desquamation and hair lesions were collected from cattle in a farm located in the Wasit province during the period from October 2021 to March 2022. Diagnosis used to be carried out the usage of direct microscopy of potassium hydroxide, isolation of the fungus through the use of Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide, as well as by way of detecting those fungi through staining with Lactophenol cotton blue. The diagnosis results revealed that infection of cattle with ringworm represented 20/40 (50%) of skin lesions and the majority of the common dermatophytes spp was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes 15/20 (75%) and Microsporum canis5/20 (25%) depending on the fungal growth. In conclusion, the most common skin lesions of cattle in Wasit province were identified as ringworm.

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) and its relationship with the protein content

Star Kareem; Ridha H. Husain; Rezan O. Rasheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 173-178
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135834.2531

The objective of the present study was to investigate the concentration of some heavy metals in the dorsal muscle, gills, and liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Dukan lake, Suleimani, Iraq, and its relationship with fish protein content. The sampling was carried out in both the summer and winter seasons of 2021. Fish samples were collected from the water of Dukan lake. Biometry analysis and determining of protein content were carried out. Moreover, the heavy metal concentrations were measured in different tissues and organs of fish (the dorsal muscle, gills, and liver). The metal concentration varied considerably among different tissues and organs. Overall, the mean metal concentration revealed an order of Zn > Fe > Cr > Cd > Cu > As > Pb. The mean concentrations of Zn and Pb were determined as the maximum and minimum concentrations of metals in the fish organs, respectively. Metal accumulation was higher in the gills and liver than in the muscle (except Cr). The content of protein showed a close relationship with some of the metal concentrations. The concentrations of metals like As, Cd, and Cu were higher during the summer than in the winter, except for Cr and Fe. Due to the concerns related to the adverse effects of heavy metals in fish meat on human health, investigation of the concentration of pollution and regular monitoring of the physicochemical and heavy metal contents and its relationship with those measured in fish is strongly recommended.

Development of an experimental hepatic encephalopathy in a rabbit model: Biochemical and immunohistochemical study

Angham G. Faisul; Ahmed M. Al-Saidya

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 179-185
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135835.2532

This study was designed to estimate the biochemical, histochemical, and immunohistochemical aspects of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) induced experimentally by using Thioacetamide (TAA). Twenty-four male rabbits were separated into four main groups (6 each), the Control group (group I) and Group II; rabbits were injected with TAA dissolved in distal water at 200 mg/kg B.W. twice weekly for eight weeks. Group III was given silymarin orally dissolved in saline 200mg/kg B.W. daily for eight weeks. Group IV animals received TAA and Silymarin 200 mg/kg B.W. for eight weeks. The results revealed animals treated with TAA indicated a significant decrease in the level of TSP and a significant increase in the levels of TSB, ALP, ALT, and AST. Histopathological examination of each liver and brain indicates necrosis of the hepatocytes, Cholangitis, biliary duct epithelium hyperplasia and preductular fibrosis, and collagen fiber deposition in the portal triad. Necrosis of the neurons, Purkinjean, and molecular cells with a decrease in granular cells and thickening of meninges. The histochemical examination of the liver revealed the presence of fibrosis in the portal area and the peri-lobular septa and the presence portal to portal bridging fibrosis. The immunohistochemical stain of the liver section revealed a positive reaction for collagen type IV, especially in/and around the portal tried as well as in the septa between the lobules. In conclusion, in the rabbit's model, hepatotoxicity to the early stages of the pathogenesis of hepatoencephalopathy.

Does Withania somnifera mitigate the structural alterations of the rat brain associated with propylthiouracil?

Luma I. Khalel; Osamah M. Al-Iraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 187-194
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135837.2534

The repercussion of propylthiouracil (PTU) use postnatally on brain histology have not yet been intensely scrutinized. To examine whether Withania somnifera mitigate the structural effects of propylthiouracil on rat brain, rats were distributed into group A enrolled ten pups that were received -orally- distilled water (D.W) daily from postnatal day (PND) 3 to PND 43. Group B: enrolled pups (n=8) subjected to oral doses of PTU (1 mg/kg/day) from PND 3 to PND 25. Then they were gavaged with D.W till PND 43. Group C: included pups (n=8) that were subjected orally to PTU (1mg/kg/day) PND 3 to PND 25 with receiving levothyroxine (four microgram /100g/day) from PND 25 to PND 43. Group D included pups (n=8) that were treated with oral PTU 1 mg/kg/day PND 3 to PND 25 with receiving Withania somnifera extract (200 mg/kg/day) from PND 25 to PND 43. Cerebellar sections of rats of group B exhibited disorganization of the cerebellar cortex with a falling off in the Purkinje cells' count and the appearance of degenerated cells. Hippocampal sections (of rats of group B) proclaimed a falling off in the breadth of the pyramidal zone of cornu Amonis. Sections of the cerebral cortex of rats in group B exhibited the presence of large degenerated neurons. Sections of rats' brains belonging to groups C and D showed improved cerebellar and cerebral cortex and hippocampal and cerebral cortical segments. Levothyroxine and Withania somnifera mitigates the structural changes in the peripubertal rat brain induced by postnatal PTU administration.

Effect of selenium nanoparticles against protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro and hydatid cysts in mice

Sarah A. Mohammed; Asmaa A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 195-202
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135838.2535

This study determined the influence of selenium nanoparticles on the vitality of the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro; seven concentrations were used: 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 350, and 500 µg/ml for different exposure times: ten, twenty, thirty, and sixty minutes, respectively. Albino mice Mus musculus were injected with protoscoleces exposed to nanoparticles at 100, 150, and 200 µg/ml concentrations for 60 minutes. In contrast, control groups were injected with non-exposed protoscoleces. Mice were dissected three, four-, and five-months post infestation. Many criteria were relied on: numbers, weights, diameters of growing hydatid cysts, and their reduction proportion. The outcomes uncovered an apparent influence of selenium nanoparticles on the viability of protoscoleces of Echinococcus granlosus by the increase in exposure time in vitro, as well as diminish in the numbers of the larvae in processed mice versus the unprocessed collection; no cysts evolved inside processed mice at the concentration 200 µg/ml, three- and four-months post-infection. In contrast, the reduction rate was 90% in mice injected with exposed protoscoleces at the concentration of 150 µg/ml next 4 and 5 months of infection. 

Histopathological study of the effect of using repeated doses of platelets-rich plasma on articular cartilage repair in Rabbits

Mustafa A. Khaleefa; Hasanain A. Emran

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 203-210
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135928.2543

The present study was performed on platelet-rich plasma compound from animals engaged in this work, to be directly injected in the joint space of the affected stifle joint 5mm diameter full-thickness articular cartilage removal in the knee joint manually using the same instrument 5 mm drill to remove the cartilage, by different doses to evaluate its influence on articular cartilage repair. In this experiment, 28 adult rabbits were used. The same defect is created on the lateral condyle of the distal end of the femur. Three identical groups of animals were formed randomly. Group I was untreated. Group II was treated with a single dose of PRP (which was administered immediately after the creation of the defect), and group III was treated with two doses of PRP (the first dose was given immediately after the creation of the defect, and the second doses after 15 days of the first one. The histological examinations were recorded of four rabbits of each group, which were euthanized one and two months after treatment, and the assessment of cartilage tissue repair was checked. The control group showed destruction of articular cartilage at the site of the lesion with involvement of subchondral bone in both periods 30 and 60 days of examination, while specimens taken from groups II and III after 30 days showed a new tissue formation which is characterized as the homogenous extracellular matrix, with the proliferation of active chondrocytes. At the same time, slides on day 60 of treatment showed an increased number of newly formed chondrocytes and a clear line of demarcation between articular cartilage and subchondral bone, representing the tissue filling the gap had been created at the beginning of the experiment. 

Application of pomegranate pomace as a natural antibacterial and antioxidant preservative in beef

Noor S. Hadab; Mohammed M. Dakheel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 211-216
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135929.2544

Although various meat and meat products may include various foodborne pathogens, meat is still an excellent source of nutrients compared to other foods. Due to bioactive materials, numerous plants and their extracts, including pomegranate, have been reported to possess antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Sixty fresh beef samples, bought from the local stores Karkh/ Baghdad, were properly divided into three similar groups; each group included 20 samples. The first group served as a control group, and it was soaked in distilled water. The second group was soaked in a 20g/L treatment dose of pomegranate pomace solution and was referred to as the treated group (T1). The third group was administered as 40g/L pomegranate pomace solution(T2). The results showed that the pomegranate pomace solution (T1 and T2) exhibited antimicrobial activity on the total bacterial count, lipid oxidation, and pH values. The current findings demonstrated that beef immersed into both concentrations of pomegranate pomace was more resistant to elevation in bacterial counting plus lower levels of peroxidation, measured using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances plus fewer pH values compared to the control, as it was preserved for more days. The pomegranate pomace solutions might be utilized as natural preservatives of meat products, even at low concentrations.

Epidemiological investigation of mastitis in lactating buffalo cows in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Hussien W. Ali; Mohammad O. Dahl

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 217-222
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135930.2545

The study's objective was to investigate the incidence and predisposing factors of mastitis in lactating buffalo cows in the Nineveh governorate. A total of 160 recently calved buffalo cows were followed up in a prospective study during the first three months of lactation. Cases of clinical mastitis (CM) were investigated, and milk was sampled to identify the increase in somatic cell count (SCC) as an indicator of subclinical mastitis (SCM). Several epidemiological factors that can predispose to mastitis were also investigated. The incidence of CM was 9.4%, mostly recorded during the first ten days (4 days on average). The average CM duration per case was 35 ± 4.9 days. Different changes and clinical findings were revealed in milk and affected udder. The incidence of SCM (i.e., SCC > 200,000 per mL) was 83.75%, mostly recorded during the first month of lactation. Furthermore, the odds of SCM were high in winter. The study concluded that the incidence of CM in buffalo cows is very low. The chronic form characterizes CM, SCM is more common than CM, and winter is a predisposing factor for the infection. Examination of several control measures of mastitis is important to improve the production and hygiene of buffalo milk in Nineveh governorate.

Using T cell lymphokines of hyperimmunized chickens with Salmonella pullorum to protect layer hens against Salmonella pullorum infection

Mushtaq T. Al-Zuhariy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 223-227
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.136020.2555

Salmonella pullorum (SP) is well adapted to cause an acute systemic infection in hens with a high mortality rate. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a salmonella-immune lymphokine (SILK) produced by hyperimmunized pullets with Salmonella pullorum during the layer hens' production stage to boost their immune response against Salmonella pullorum infection. In this study, two groups of 25 pullets were used to produce lymphokines; the first group received three doses of the Salmonella pullorum vaccine at 12, 14, and 16 weeks, while the second group only received phosphate buffer saline (PBS), which served as the control. At 18 weeks, non-immune lymphokines (NILK) were isolated from the T cells of the second group, and salmonella-immune lymphokines (SILK) were isolated from the T cells of the first group. Then, 100-layer hens (ISSA Brown), at 30 weeks old, which entered the production stage, were separated into four groups, each with 25 chickens. G1: infected with SP and treated with SILK. G2: infected with SP and treated with NILK. G3: untreated and SP-challenged G4: no treatment or challenge. The current study aimed to describe the host humoral immune responses to infection in serum samples and bacterial shedding in hens challenged with SP during 31-33 weeks by qPCR techniques. Internal organ bacterial loads were estimated to evaluate the persistence of bacteria. The results show that the spleen, liver, and caecal tonsils tested were positive for bacteria in both groups (G2, G3), proving that Salmonella was not eliminated from the birds and suggesting that internal organ colonization bacteria may act as a reservoir for ongoing bacterial shedding with low IgG titer in compared to G1 with extremely low persistence and high IgG titer in weeks 31, 32, and 33. The current investigation shows that using SILK provides layer hens with better homogenous protection against SP and less internal organ persistence.

Using T cell lymphokines of hyperimmunized chickens with Salmonella pullorum to enhance immune response of layer hens against avian influenza

Mushtaq T. Al-Zuhariy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 229-234
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.136021.2556

The current study used immune lymphokines from chickens that had been hyperimmunized with Salmonella pullorum to improve the resistance of layer hens at the production stage to AIV-type (H5N1) infected hens (SP). Two groups (each consisting of 25 pullets) were treated; the first group received three doses of SP vaccination at 12, 14, and 16 weeks; the second group received no vaccination and was used as a control group. At 18 weeks, the T cells of the first group released immune lymphokines (S-ILK), whereas the T cells of the second group produced non-immune lymphokines (N-ILK). The following procedures were then used on a total of 100-layer hens (ISSA brown), divided into four groups of 25 each. G1: S-ILK treatment and H5N1 challenge. G2: N-ILK treatment and H5N1 challenge. G3: Untreated and challenged to (H5N1). G4: untreated or unchallenged. Blood samples were obtained at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of age to assess the (IgG, IFN-γ). Additionally, lung and tracheal tissues were obtained to assess the viral load of influenza RNA copies at (7 and 14) days following the challenge. The experiment's findings indicated that the first group produced the highest mean (IgG and IFN-γ) titers and had the lowest mortality of the other groups. The findings of the viral load test showed that G2 and G3 had the highest number of influenza RNA copies and had significantly lower egg production than G1, which had the lowest viral load and kept egg production at a normal level. The conclusion of the current study shows that using SILK gives layer hens a higher level of homogeneous protection against AIV without any dangers during production.

Serodiagnosis of schmallenberg virus infection in sheep in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Fahad Y. Taha; Omer K. Alhankawe

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 235-239
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.136029.2557

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging pathogen of sheep. It is transmitted through arthropods vertically from dams to fetuses through the placenta. As a result, it can cause prenatal defects that can result in abortion or death of the fetus, as well as sometimes the death of mothers due to complications following an abortion. The study was conducted on 92 sera of local breed sheep (67 aborted ewes and 25 rams). All sera were tested for Schmallenbergvirusantibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent kit. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of the Schmallenbergviruswas 79.3 %. The highest percentages of SBV seropositive animals were found in Mosul city, Wana, and Tel Usqouf at 100%, whereas Badoush reported the lowest percentage at 40%. Additionally, there was a significant difference between the percentage of aborted ewes 85.07% and rams 64%. The most frequent infection type was the severe one 55,43%, followed by the moderate 18.47% and mild 5.43% types. In conclusion, the findings highlight the existence of a novel virus that significantly impacts ovine abortions. So, these preliminary data can guide livestock producers in designing appropriate prevention and control measures.

The effects of ghee administration in comparison to sunflower seeds oil on liver tissue and some biochemical parameters in rats

Ehsan H. Aldabbagh; Liqaa K. Othman; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 241-248
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.136030.2558

Ghee is well known clarified butter of animal origin (namely derived from sheep milk), it has been used for decades in Iraq for preparing deserts, but nowadays, its nutritional value has been reviewed and is an area of controversy because of its high content of saturated fatty acids; however, the sunflower seeds oil available in the market may not be of that good quality. Comparing the effect of ghee to the effect of sunflower seeds oil may help better understand this controversy, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of using animal ghee and sunflower seed oil on the liver's histopathology and related to various biochemical alterations in rats. We used 36 animals divided into three groups to accomplish this goal. The first group, which received a typical conventional diet, was regarded as a control group. The second group was given a diet that included 5% animal ghee. And the final group had a diet that included 5% sunflower oil. Blood samples were taken at intervals of 0, 2, and 4 consecutive weeks. There are an increase in the weights of animals in the sunflower oil-fed group with an increase in cholesterol and liver function enzymes ALT and AST in the blood compared with the group treated with ghee, which showed no change in animal weights and low cholesterol with decreased liver function enzymes The histopathological changes of the rat's liver revealed mild to moderate lesions in the Ghee fed group representing by vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes and focal infiltration of inflammatory cells after four weeks of treatment. In the Sunflower seeds oil-fed group, the liver revealed more severe lesions than the rat treated in the ghee group, as severe vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes with fatty change, generalized congestion of blood vessels, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the portal area and hyperplasia of bile canaliculi. According to the study, animal ghee has advantages over sunflower seed oil regarding hepatic histological changes and concomitant biochemical changes in rats.