Volume 36, Issue 4, Autumn 2022, Page 833-1132

Relationship between the leptin, progesterone, body weight, and onset of puberty in ewe lambs

Mohammed Q. Al-Ali; Mohammed A. Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 833-837
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131232.1932

The current study aimed to determine the relationship between serum level of leptin, progesterone hormones, bodyweight with the onset of puberty in the ewe lambs. Eight healthy weaned local breeds of ewe lambs at the age of 90 days were introduced in the study. Body weights were recorded, blood samples serum was collected and stored at -20°C until hormonal assays. Ovaries and ovarian follicles were checked by ultrasound to measure follicular diameter until estrus was detected every two weeks. The result showed that the earliest estrus behavior was noticed at age 202. Significantly increased body weight was recorded during the trial times at P

Estimation of gestational age in Shami goats based on transabdominal ultrasonographic measurements of fetal parameters

Rozh S. Muhammad; Dhafer M. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 839-846
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131845.2011

Estimated gestational age is essential for breeding farm animals because pregnant females require special care and nutrition, which varies according to gestation. The study aimed to estimate the gestational age of Shami does by transabdominal ultrasonographic measurement of fetal parameters. Thirty-three Shami does aged 2-2.5 years with confirmed conception dates were used. The does were examined in a standing position using a transabdominal 3.5 MHz convex sector probe of real-time ultrasonography. The does were examined weekly starting on 21 days of pregnancy until parturition. Measurements of the fetal parameters that include; the crown-rump length, head diameter, chest diameter, trunk diameter were obtained from the ultrasonographic images using the software Screen Calipers. Results showed that the gestational sac and embryos were observed first on 21 and 35 days of pregnancy. The litter size of pregnant does range between two and three kids. Crown-rump length ranged between 24.68±1.32 - 71.71±1.84 mm on 41-60 days. The head diameter was 15.63±0.82 - 45.04±0.92 mm on 41-120 days. Chest diameter was 11.52±0.84 - 56.35±0.93 on 51-110 days, and trunk diameter was 10.69±0.85 - 57.38±0.85 mm on 41-130 days of gestation. The highest positive correlations were obtained between the gestational age chest diameter (r=0.935), crown-rump length (r=0.917), head diameter (r=0.917) and trunk diameter (r=903). In conclusion, transabdominal ultrasonography is a practical method for pregnancy diagnosis and embryo monitoring in Shami goats. Also, it is reliable to estimate gestation age starting on 41 days of pregnancy. The chest diameter was the best fetal parameter, but trunk diameter can be used for the longest period to estimate the gestational age of Shami goats.

Impact of parity, stage of lactation, and subclinical mastitis on the concentration of vitamin c in Shami camel milk

Razan Semsmia; Tarek Abed AL-Rahim; ِ Moatasem Bellah Al-Daker

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 847-851
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132279.2078

A study was conducted at Deir Al-Hajar Research Station for Shami Camels, Administration of Livestock Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) during 2019 and 2020 to find the relation between vitamin c concentrations in milk, and either stage of lactation, parity (lactation number) or the presence of mastitis. For this purpose, thirty lactating Shami camels from different parties were used.Milk samples were collected monthly over one entire lactation season lasting 11 months. The concentration of vitamin c was 35.01±9.81 mg/l milk during considered parities without significant differences in its concentration. However, vitamin c concentration was affected by lactation month P<0.0.5, and the values ranged between 18.99 and 53.03 mg/l milkduring lactation. An evident decline in vitamin c concentration in camel milk appeared with positive interactions for the California test. The average concentration of vitamin c in milk produced from healthy and infected udders was 35.01±9.81 mg/l and 22.99±1.30 mg/l, respectively. It has been concluded that vitamin c in milk is crucial indicator of udder health status

The moderating effect of Panax ginseng roots on the male reproductive system and heat shock protein 70 in heat-stressed Japanese quails

Suha A. Rasheed; Rana A. Asim; Heba M. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 853-859
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132356.2084

This research aims to investigate if ginseng may aid in the reduction of the harmful influence of heatstress on the male reproductive system and the level of heat shock protein70. Eighty mature quails were randomly distributed to four equal groups: the control one reared under normal temperature, the heat-stressed group reared under the temperature of 39±1°C for 4 hrs/day, the heat-stressed group treated with ginseng 500 mg/kg diet, and a group reared under normal temperature and treated with ginseng 500 mg/kg diet. The results showed a significant decrease in red blood cells, white blood cells, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total antioxidant capacity, body weight, testis weight, the total number of sperm, and percentage of living sperm, accompanied by a significant increase in MCV, MCHC, heterophil, H/L ratio, heat shock protein70, percentage of dead and malformed sperm in quails exposed to heat stress compared with control. Dietary supplementation of ginseng to birdsexposed to heat stress significantly increased the studiedparameters in comparison to the group under stress. While, the addition of the nutritional supplement ginseng alone led to a significant increase in RBC, Hb, PCV, MCV, TAC, low percentage of monocytes, H/L ratio, and heat shock protein70, compared to the control. We conclude that the administration of ginseng as a diet additive can ameliorate the effects caused by heat stress in quail, which is attributed to the antioxidant effect of Panax ginseng and its ability for scavenging free radicals.

The role of DMSO and MSM in treatment of tendinopathies affection in equine: A comparative study

Hamid Akbar; Fiaz Ahmad; Muhammad Abid Hayat; Muhammad Arif Khan; Muhammad Yasin Tipu; Muhammad Talha Sajjad; Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad; Fawad Khalil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 861-868
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132428.2088

Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury is a main cause of lameness in polo and racehorses inciting long-term lameness and recovery. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of topical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on bowed tendons in horses. Ten client-owned injured horses, aged between 5-15 years with an average age of 8.5 years and weighing approximately 400-500 kg, suffering from chronic tendinitis were selected and allocated into two groups: group A (DMSO) and group B (MSM). The group A animals (n=5) were treated with 60 mL of topical 90% DMSO aqueous solution, while Group B animals (n=5) received 60 mL of topical 90% MSM aqueous solution on the bowed tendon at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and day 42. Clinical examinations were performed to evaluate the severity of pain and lameness grade. Ultrasound scans of the superficial digital flexor tendon were taken at days 0, 21, and day 42. Images were placed in numerical form, and the fiber alignment score of the fibers (FS) and the echogenicity score (ES) of the superficial digital flexor tendon at the maximum injury zone (MIZ) were recorded. Results showed that pain reduction and lameness significantly (P<0.05) reduced from 21d to 42d in the DMSO animals compared with the MSM animals. The echogenicity score didn’t differ between the two groups at 0d, 21d, and 42d (P>0.05) however, it was significantly declined in group A at 42d than 0d (P<0.05). Fiber alignment in group A was (P<0.01) reduced at 42d compared with group B. This study concluded that group A horses showed very effective and long-term improvements compared to the group B horses.

The impact of various antioxidant supplementation on ram's sperm quality, fertilization, and early embryo development, in vitro

Saif O. Al-Hafedh; Fatin Cedden

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 869-876
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132426.2092

The in vitro embryo production (IVEP) is very stressful for gametes. Gametes are subjected during in vitro manipulation to many different types of stress; oxidative stress is the most prominent one, which will cause damage or alter the genetic material of the sperm and reduce the quality of the oocytes, and has a crucial impact on the possibility of developing embryos even after implantation. This study aimed to determine the influence of antioxidants on the achievement of In vitro culture (IVC) and sperm's ability to adhere to and penetrate further into In vitro maturated oocytes. For this purpose, we have incubated ram sperm using four different treatments in terms of antioxidants: melatonin, cysteamine, vitamin C, and vitamin E. They were incubated by the standard methods of maturation and capacitation of sperm. The oocytes were fertilized by spermatozoa that had been capacitated with two groups of fertilization media, the first group containing melatonin and the second group containing cysteamine. Compared with other groups, sperms treated with melatonin demonstrated hyperactivity, and the fertilization rate was significantly increased. As for the IVF medium containing melatonin, it was superior to cysteamine in embryo development rates. In conclusion, melatonin could be a promising tool for improving sperm competence for fertilizing oocytes and embryo development in sheep.

Effect of garlic oil nanoemulsion against multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from broiler

Amal S. El-Oksh; Dalia M. Elmasry; Ghada A. Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 877-888
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132430.2094

This work aimed to focus on the antibacterial properties of garlic nanoemulsion on some multidrug resistance (MDR) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaisolated from broiler farms and hatcheries in Sharkia and Ismailia governorates, Egypt. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 21.3% of collected samples. It was isolated from younger broilers 1-10 days with an incidence rate of 22% (11/50), older broilers 16% (8/50), dead embryo in shell 31.4% (11/35), and from hatcheries was 13.3% (2/15). There was a variable range of antibiotic resistance ranging from 66.7-100% against the isolated strains of P. aeruginosa. Tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim achieved the highest resistance rates, while penicillin and gentamycin were of a lower rate. However, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and colistin were the most sensitive antibiotics against examined MDR P. aeruginosa.16SrDNA gene was found in ten P. aeruginosa isolates. Theseisolates were found to be virulent as oprL gene was detected in all isolates 100%. In addition, tetA(A),blaTEM,arr, and mexRantibiotic resistance genes were shown positive 100% in all MDR P. aeruginosa isolates. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values showed that garlic nanoemulsion (GN) was effective against examined P. aeruginosa at different concentrations. GN had 29.61% sulfur compounds of active components with 0.52 ug/ml of IC50 and 40.94 nm size with polydispersity index: 0.165 using dynamic light scattering had a 19.6± 5.11mV. In conclusion, the application of garlic nanoemulsion is an excellent alternative candidate to antibiotics for treatment because it significantly reduced the gene expression levels of MDR P. aeruginosa in broiler farms.

Isolation and molecular detection of some virulence associated genes in avian pathogenic E. coli

Majid H. Hasan; Sameer M. Abdulla; Amjed H. Ulaiwi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 889-894
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132476.2095

There are 13 virulence-related genes in E. coli isolates. The10 genes of these isolates were selected from avian pathogenic E. coli in some Iraqi broiler farms. Six of these virulence-related genes (iroN, iucC, frz operon, iucD, papC, and R4) were investigated in these isolates by PCR. Eighty percent of the isolates had one or more virulence-associated genes. Two APEC separates carried just one gene, iroN or iucC. According to preliminary evidence, the iroN and iucC genes may express their pathogenicity independently. All of the strains had the same iroN gene, making them all pathogenic. The results of these isolates were confirmed by PCR to have the six pathogenic genes: 80% positive for iucC, 50% positive for iucD, 100% positive for iroN, 10% positive for frz operon, 10% positive for papC, and 0% positive for R4 respectively. These six virulence genes were detected with different percentages in isolates; the iroN gene was found in all isolates but the other virulence genes were found with different percentages in E. coli isolates.According to, detection the iroN and such genes are displaying their pathogenicity separately from each other.

Phylogenetic tree constructed of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from animals and humans in Basrah and Baghdad governorates, Iraq

Maitham S. Sadiq; Rasha M. Othman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 895-903
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132478.2096

The genetic relatedness of Salmonella enterica sub sp. enterica isolated from human and animal origin has more interest as its data possibly will offer an essential confirmation for the source of human infection. This study aimed to determine the genetic relationship of S. enterica subspecies enterica isolated from human and animal sources. A total of 300 samples were collected from two primary sources, human and animal, from two different regions, Baghdad and Basrah governorates. For constructing the phylogenetic Tree of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, the sequencing of PCR product (positive samples) for each target genes 16s rRNA, avrA, and spvC were analyzed using BLAST analysis to determine the similarities and differences between the Iraqi strains and the existing global strains. The similarity rate in the first gene 97.77%, the second gene 98.29%, and the third 96.82%, respectively. The genetic Tree of each of the three genes was set up separately using two methods, Maximum Likelihood, and the second Minimum evolution. The phylogenetic analysis reveals that Iraqi strains of Salmonella are highly similar, and they share the same sequence of 16s rRNA gene with national Salmonella strains. However, their bases of avrA and spvC genes are not similar. This difference leads us to conclude that the Iraqi Salmonella evolution path was characterized by its path in developing global strains with some correlation in some samples; it may be linked with the same ancestors from which it emerged.

Molecular description of melatonin receptor 1A gene in Iraqi buffalo

Hassan N. Habib; Khalaf A. Al-Rishdy; Murthda F. AL-Hellou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 905-912
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132532.2103

The water buffalo has a seasonal reproductive pattern with reduced sexual activity during the longer photoperiod. The goal of this study was to identify the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene in Iraqi buffalo cows and 3D structure of its protein and phylogeny with other sequences around the world. The 824 bp fragment of exon II of the MTNR1 A gene was amplified from 190 buffalo cows (4-5 years old) genomic DNA belonging to local breeders in Al-Chibayish Marshes, Southern Iraq. Amplified PCR products underwent custom sequencing at the two ends (5′ and 3′ ends). Five separate polymorphism sites, the 1st included 52 animals with 19 mutations (12 missense), the 2nd included 39 animals with 18 mutations (11 missense), the 3rd included 35 animals with 18 mutations (12 missense), the 4th included 32 animals with 18 mutations (12 missense) and the 5th included 32 animals with 14 mutations (8 missense). These polymorphic sites with accession numbers LC565046, LC565047, LC565709, LC565710 and LC565711 respectively were registered in gene bank. The phylogenetic tree reveals that in some of the Iraqi buffalo, the sequences of MTNR1A gene has identical to the Italian buffalo (GU817415), and the Brazilian buffalo (JN689386). Data revealed a marked difference in the fifth polymorphism sites' 3D protein structure because of the mutations. In conclusion, as a result of mutations, the gene MTNR1A in Iraqi buffalo has polymorphisms; these polymorphisms may be linked to gene function, Therefore, further studies are needed to connect the polymorphisms of this gene with the productive and reproductive traits.

Histomorphometrical and histochemical study of the pancreas on the local dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

Samyan L. Mostafa; Yahya Ahmed Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 913-922
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132567.2105

In the current study, ten adult healthy local dogs of both sexes were used to perform histomorphometrical study on their pancreases. The dog pancreas had an inverted V-shape consisting of left and right lobes joined by a body. The pancreas possesses both exocrine and endocrine parts. The exocrine portion was composed of numerous acini and fewer tubules as well as the duct system. The number, total diameter and cellular height of acini were significantly abundant, larger and taller in the right lobe compared those of the body and left lobe. Furthermore, the number and total diameter of large pancreatic islets were significantly abundant and larger in the left lobe despite with those of the body and right lobe. This result leads to consider the right lobe was a target region for enzymatic secretion, while the left lobe has a specific function for hormonal secretion. According to available literature, no such result and thus conclusion had been reported on dog pancreas previously. In all parts of the pancreas and with aldehyde fuchsin stain, only the large pancreatic islets contained α-, β-, δ-cells as well as non-staining cells. Only, the β-cells occurred as single cells between the pancreatic acini or even within the connective tissue septa. These single cells were more numerous in the left lobe, but they were infrequently located in the body and right lobe.

Clinical and molecular detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in the Iraqi camels

Mohammad H. Al-Hasnawy; Hamed A. Al-Jabory; Lina S. Waheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 923-930
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132573.2106

Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the most frequent zoonotic species of mites causing mange in camels worldwide. The prevalence of camel’s mange in Iraq is still little studied. Thus, this research is conducted to detect S. scabieiin camels in the four provinces of the Middle-Euphrates area: Al-Muthanna, Al-Diwaniyah, Najaf, and Babil, from January 2020 to December 2020. The Molecular technique depending on the conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) is performed for the direct detection of S. scabiei based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene from skin scrape lesion samples. The results reveal that 125 out of 425 samples (29.41%) of the examined camels are infested with S. scabiei. According to the sex of the infested animals, the infestation rate was higher in females than in males, 85 (30.91 %) and 40 (26.67%) respectively. In addition, the 1.5 year age shows the highest number of infestation (83 out of 85) with a percentage of 97.65%, but the percentages are 21 out of 60 (35%) and four out 68 (5.88%) in 2 and 7 years old animals, respectively. The results also record that infested animals found in Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah have the highest number of infestations, with of 36% and 35%, respectively. The findings also demonstrate that the highest infestation percentage is during the winter months (January and February), with of 92.31% and 80%, respectively. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis shows that the local isolates of the Iraqi camels are consistent with the isolates recorded in China.

Pregabalin potentiates the analgesic effect of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol in chicks: Isobolographic analysis

Qutaiba M. Mohammed; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 931-937
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132586.2108

The study aimed to reveal pregabalin’s median effective analgesic dose (ED50) and determine the type of analgesic interaction with tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks. The electrical stimulator device was used to detect pain before and after treatment, and through ascending and descending in doses and depending on the up and down method, the median effective analgesic doses were determined for all drugs used in the study, and then the interaction experiment was conducted at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of pregabalin with each of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol of their individual ED50 values, the results were subjected to the isobolographic analysis to determine the type of interaction. Results showed that ED50s for pregabalin, tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks were 156.5, 0.82, 5.65, and 10.74 mg/kg, respectively. Concomitant administration of drugs pregabalin: tramadol, pregabalin: diclofenac and pregabalin: paracetamol at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 36.2:0.18, 64.3:2.3 and 64.3:4.3 mg/kg respectively. Isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs interaction. The calculated interaction indexes were 0.45, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively. We conclude from the outcomes that the analgesic interaction was synergistic between pregabalin and tramadol significantly, while the analgesic interaction of pregabalin with both diclofenac and paracetamol was also synergistic, but to a lesser extent.

Molecular detection of mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dairy mastitis in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Omar H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 939-943
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132643.2115

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is universally the leading aetiologic cause of dairy mastitis. Additionally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogenic bacterium in veterinary medicine and public health. Sixty-six cattleʼs milk samples were collected randomly from different areas of the Nineveh Province from November 2018 to February 2020. In this study, the classical and molecular biology methods had used to identify the MRSA and detect the target genes. The results revealed that S. aureus was isolated and identified based on classical methods such as catalase, clumping factors, and coagulase test. In addition, the nuc gene was detected in all the positive S. aureus isolates 23 (34.8%), while the mecA gene was detected in 12 (52.2%) MRSA isolates by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The present work emerged that the results of classical methods and the PCR technique were similar. MRSA is regarded as a significant causative agent of various types of bovine mastitis in Iraq, and it can to resist all types of beta-lactams. MRSA isolated from different regions in Mosul city. PCR assay is a powerful method for detecting the different genes based on the target sequence of the specific gene.

Multi-drug resistant phenotypes of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli from layer chickens

Adewale Olopade; Asinamai A. Bitrus; Asabe H. Halimat Momoh-Zekeri; Pwaveno H. Bamaiyi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 945-951
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132655.2117

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing and emerging public health problem worldwide. This research determines the occurrence of ESBL E. coli and antimicrobial resistance profiles of E. coli on eggshells from selected layer chickens. The shells of 270 egg samples were swabbed to detect the presence of E. coli. E. coli isolates were recovered from 73(23%) of the 270 samples collected. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using six panel antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, gentamicin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin) using the disk diffusion method. The isolates showed the highest resistance to Ampicillin 95.9%, closely followed by tetracycline 89%, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim 72%, gentamicin 41.1%, and imipenem 1.4%. Also, 78% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. A 56/73 (76.7%) out of seventy-three isolates were screened as presumptive ESBL-E. coli by culture on ESBL CHROM agar and 42/56 (75%) of the isolates yielded ESBL-producing E. coli based on the production of ESBL by double disc diffusion method. The questionnaire survey results showed that all farms used antimicrobial agents for therapeutic or prophylactic purposes. Also, not all the farms had suitable biosecurity measures. The findings of this study indicated that eggshells are potential reservoirs for multi-drug resistant E. coliand ESBL-Producing E. coli.

Molecular identification of virulence genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from fish (Cyprinus carpio) in Mosul city

Asmaa J. Altaee; Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 953-958
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132660.2119

Depending on the nature of the fish's environment, they are susceptible to many pathogens, including bacterial causes, so the goals of the current study are isolation and molecular identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with its prevalence rate and detected virulence genes from fresh common carp fish. The swabs were taken from the gills, skin, intestine and muscles of 75 fish samples from variable localities from Mosul city during the period September to December in the year 2021. The prevalence percentage of bacteria was 26.66% which was confirmed by traditional microbiological tests which included (phenotype culture, microscopically features and API-test) and molecular identification. The isolates formed 42.5, 37.5, 15, 5% from gills, skin, intestine and muscles, respectively. The molecular results of forty isolates determine that Pseudomonas aeruginosa have rpoB 100%, and virulence genes oprL, toxA, and algD, which are express the outer membrane protein, exotoxin A and alginate respectively occur as 97.5% for the oprL gene and 100% of both toxA and algD genes.

Morphometric characterization of purebred Arabian horses for galop racing (Born and raised in Algeria)

Ahmed R. Benia; Sidi M. Selles; Naceur Benamor

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 959-966
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132670.2120

The average size at the withers of the subjects (n=95) was 152.15±05.07 cm, and the thoracic girth was 166.44±06.43 cm. Compared to the height at the withers, the rump size was slightly lower 151.61±04.79 cm, and the body length was almost identical 152.82±06.30 cm with an average weight of 395.83±40.51 kg that is considered minor. Our sample horses appear pretty thick relative to their size with an average circumference of the anterior and posterior guns of 18.30±01.70 cm and 19.68±0 1.79 cm respectively, and in extent arm lengths 30.90±02.66 cm and forearm 31.77±02.81 cm. The various calculated indices qualify our horses as compact horses, light, square and long. The reading of the dress color of our model presents the dominance of the Alazan at 51.57%, and the shape of the chamfer is mostly Camus at 56.84%, giving it a short head with a broad forehead and concave chamfer. Statistical analysis determined that males were more significant than females and adults compared to young.

Assessment of ova collection with or without centrifugation after ovarian slicing for In vitro fertilization of slaughterhouse specimens of Iraqi Awassi ewes

Faten F. Mustafa; Uday T. Naoman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 967-972
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132707.2122

This study aims to determine the most appropriate method for oocyte collection based on their quality and quantity by slicing with or without centrifugation and testify its ability for in vitro embryo production (IVP). The ovum was collected in the Artificial Insemination Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul, Mosul city between 1/9/2020 to 1/11/2020. A total twenty females Genitalia slaughtered at local abattoir were collected. In vitro fertilization was done according to private lab protocols (Soran laboratory related to Soran Private Hospital for fertility disease and embryo transfer) in Irbil city/Iraq. Results of the study show no significant changes between the two methods in the extraction of Grade A oocytes. However, the slicing method, which was 33.60% of ova recovery than centrifugation ORC techniques 22.73%, ORCs method in presence Grade C oocyte higher than ORCs method which were 29.09 and 20.00%, respectively also results of in vitro fertilization show that slicing method produces embryo in high percentage 45.4% than ORCs method 25.0%. We can conclude that the best method for oocyte collection was the slicing method and this method results in the best embryo production during in vitro fertilization compared with the ORCs method.

Comparing efficacy of the platelet rich plasma and advanced platelet rich fibrin on tibial bone defect regeneration in dogs

Sarah A. El-shafey; Abd El-mageed F. El-Mezyen; Ahmed S. Behery; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 973-980
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132765.2129

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and advanced platelet rich fibrin(A-PRF) on regeneration of induced tibial bone defects in dogs. A 7mm circular and 10mm deep tibial defect was made at upper end of the right and left tibiae of 12 adult clinically-proven healthy male mongrel dogs. The animals were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, PRP group and A-PRF group. Regeneration of the tibial defect was evaluated by radiography, computed tomography (CT), and histopathological examination at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively (PO). At 6 weeks PO, the tibial defect, in the control group, was partially filled with fibrous tissue and appeared radiolucent under radiography. While in PRP group, the defect was shown to be partially filled with newly formed bone and appeared more radiopaque than it did with the control group. As for A-PRF tibial defect, it was completely closed with newly formed bone and appeared more radiopaque than the PRP group did. At 12 weeks PO, the tibial defect was partially filled with newly formed bone and looked more radiopaque in control group and completely closed with newly formed bone and seemed radiopaque in PRP group. Interestingly, the tibial defect of the A-PRF group was completely closed with newly formed bone and couldn’t have been differentiated from the neighboring normal bone tissue. In conclusion, using of PRP and A-PRF improved bone healing. However, using A-PRF is more likely to heal tibial defect in the early weeks of injury than PRP would.

Morphohistopathological alteration in the gills and central nervous system in Cyprinus carpio exposed to lethal concentration of copper sulfate

Adeeb F. Saied; Shahbaa K. Al-Taee; Nidhal T. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 981-989
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132781.2131

Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) is the most used in aquaculture as chemotherapeutic bath against bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases but it is very toxic for fish so the goal of this study was to determine the lethal concentration of CuSO4 and evaluate it is toxicity in the gill and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) in Cyprinus carpio. Fish exposed to 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L for 24 hours, each concentration with three replication each have six fish. The mortality rate was 100% at concentration 10 mg/L, which represented lethal concentration, while medium lethal concentration (LC50) was determined by Trevan method and it is 5mg/L. The fish with LC100 concentration exhibit abnormal respiration with gasping swimming, nervous sings with up down and stay at basin then die at 2-3 hours. The histopathological examination of the gills revealed circulatory disturbances, cellularity reaction, progressive and regressive alteration, this microscopic alteration was evaluated as semi-quantities analysis and there was variable significant (P≤0.05) in the pathological alteration and gill indexes between two treatments. In the brain and spinal cord, the lesions are represented by vasogenic edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells with atrophy in the neuronal body cells and hemorrhage. It is concluded from this study that the use of copper sulfate is within limited concentrations because increasing its concentration leads to fish toxicity, and it was observed that the gill tissue is more sensitive to toxicity than the central nervous system

Clinicopathological and imaging features of hypertrophic osteopathy in dogs

Shimaa A. Ezzeldein; Yasmin Bayoumi; Eslam F. Eisa; Mohamed Metwally; Noura E. Attia; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 991-997
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132804.2133

Hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) is a diffuse periosteal reactivity of long bones and of poor prognosis as most cases died after short time or euthanized at the time of diagnosis. Early diagnosis is greatly important. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the clinical and different imaging features of HO in 12 dogs and hematological and biochemical changes. Twenty-two dogs were included in this study; 10 apparently healthy dogs were used as controls, and 12 dogs were diagnosed with HO. Diagnosis of HO-affected cases was based on a range of clinical, laboratory, and histopathological examinations as well as different imaging techniques. Two forms of HO were diagnosed: pulmonary (n=5) and extrapulmonary (n=7) HO. In pulmonary HO, pneumonia was recorded in five dogs. However, in extrapulmonary HO, mammary gland tumors and skin tumors were recorded in five and two dogs, respectively. Symmetrical non-edematous soft tissue swelling at the lower parts of the limbs with intensive bone proliferation and periosteal reactivity in the tubular long bones was observed. Anemia and leukocytosis, mainly lymphocytosis 50% or neutrophilia 45%, and elevated serum globulin, alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein levels were the significant associated laboratory findings. The use of different diagnostic techniques was greatly important in the diagnosis of HO in dogs and provided information on the prognosis of such cases.

Copper chitosan nanocomposite as antiviral and immune-modulating effect in broiler experimentally infected with chicken anemia virus

Dalia M. Elmasry; Mai A. Fadel; Farida H. Mohamed; Asmaa M. Badawy; Hanaa H. Elsamadony

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 999-1009
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132826.2135

In the last few years, inorganic nanosystems, or nanometals, were of great interest to conventional therapy. In this study, Copper Chitosan Nanocomposite (CuCNP) was monitored for its antiviral, immune-stimulant, and lowering agent of Cu residue roles by using Chicken Anemia Virus (CAV) as a model. CuCNP is a metallic oxide nanocomposite with specific properties, such as sphere shape, no aggregation, and narrow size distribution 24.71±1.68 nm PdI: 0.691±0.02. We grouped 100 broiler chicks into four groups. Group 1 served as a regular negative control group. In drinking water, G2 was treated with CuCNP 1 mg/ml for five days. The G3 was infected with 0.2 ml I/M of CAV strain (MN339532) at one day old with CuCNP 1 mg/ml in drinking water for five days. G4 virus-positive control group with viral 3.987×106 virus copies/ml. Different serum and organ tissue homogenate samples were collected at different time intervals to measure residues, CAV viral concentration in organs, and serum to monitor cellular and humoral immunity. The excellent results of CuCNP are improving the innate immune response phagocytic activity, lysozyme, and NO, also cytokine levels mRNA of IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 in G2 and G3 and elevating CAV antibody titers with decreases the CAV viral load in organs with a noticeable decrease of its residues in G2 and G3. The current study provides evidence of the immunostimulatory effect of CuCNP on CAV infection. It clarifies a constant reduction of CuCNP residues in broilers muscle and liver tissues, keeping its levels below Cu maximum residual limits (MRLs). 

Interaction of meloxicam and phenylbutazone on the level of cyclooxygenase-2 in mice

Yaareb J. Mousa; Khalil A. Khalil; Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1011-1016
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132859.2140

The reason for the recent study was to inspect the therapeutic efficacy of meloxicam and phenylbutazone alone with their analgesic interaction and their subsequent inhibitory interaction at the level of cyclooxygenase-2 in mice. Meloxicam and phenylbutazone had the analgesic-median effective doses (ED50s) of 15.57 and 119.73 mg/kg, i.p., respectively, given once to mice separately as determined by the up-and-down procedure using a hot plate method. The estimated analgesic ED50s for meloxicam and phenylbutazone combination were at 12.84 and 98.75 mg/kg, i.p., correspondingly when given together at a ratio of 1:1 of their ED50s. The isobolographic analysis reveals that the analgesic interaction between meloxicam and phenylbutazone was antagonistic, as indicated by the interaction index of 1.65. The ELISA technique was used to estimate the cyclooxygenase-2 activity, reflecting that meloxicam or phenylbutazone significantly inhibited the cyclooxygenase-2 activity by 72 and 90%, respectively, compared to the control group. The combination composed of meloxicam and phenylbutazone has a lower limit of inhibition of the cyclooxygenase-2 activity (33%) in comparison to meloxicam or phenylbutazone. Meloxicam and phenylbutazone coadministration were significantly different from the control, meloxicam, and phenylbutazone groups concerning the cyclooxygenase-2 activity in mice. The sum of the data concluded that meloxicam and phenylbutazone have an excellent analgesic efficacy when administered alone. In contrast, the mixture of these two drugs has no benefit because of the antagonistic interaction at cyclooxygenase-2 in mice.

Genetic variants of the bone morphogenetic protein gene and its association with estrogen and progesterone levels with litter size in Awassi ewes

Marwa A. Ali; Alaa H. Kadhim; Tahreer M. Al-Thuwaini

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1017-1022
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132903.2143

This research aimed to assess the genetic polymorphism of the BMP15 gene concerning sex hormone levels and birth type in Awassi ewes. The genome DNA of 138 Awassi ewes was isolated (52 ewes produced a singleton and 86 produced twins). The BMP15 gene exon-2 was amplifiable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), so two genotypes were identified based on 141 bp amplicons: TT and TA. A sequencing reaction revealed a novel mutation, c.50980646T>A, in the TA genotype. This single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) showed a high association (P≤0.01) with sex hormone levels and litter size, sheep containing this SNP had higher levels of sex hormones and larger litter sizes than sheep without it. Ewes with the TA genotype had a 1.89 litter size than their TT counterparts. Logistic regression confirmed that the c.50980646T>A SNP increased litter size. In conclusion, the c.50980646T>A SNP appears to be significantly related to reproductive traits (especially sex hormone levels and litter size) in Awassi sheep. With these results, mutations of the BMP15 gene are suitable for developing marker-assisted selection programs to increase Awassi sheep litter size. 

The protective impacts of lipoic acid on diclofenac-induced hepatorenal toxicity in broiler chicks

Marwa R. Abdul-Ghani; Ahmed S. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1023-1027
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132915.2148

Alpha-lipoic acid is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound that shows free radical scavenging actions and potent antioxidant properties on the metabolites of other cellular oxidants. The investigation of the defensive activity of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) counter to diclofenac triggered liver and kidney damage in broiler chicks was the goal of this research. Chicks (7 days old) were distributed into four groups of six chicks each. The first group was the control received propylene glycol, the second group was injected intraperitoneally with Alpha-lipoic acid 80 mg/kg, the third group was injected intraperitoneally with diclofenac sodium at a dose of 2 mg/kg, and the fourth group was treated with ALA at 80 mg/kg and diclofenac at 2 mg/kg together. The trial continued for seven days. One day after the latest treatment, all the chicks were sacrificed by cutting jugular veins; blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Diclofenac causes a significant increase in ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea, while the coadministration of ALA with Diclofenac caused a significant decrease in ALT, AST, Creatinine, and Uric acid. Alpha-lipoic acid may benefit from counteracting diclofenac-induced hepatorenal toxicity due to antioxidant effects.

Multivariable binary logistic regression model to predict risk factors of peste des petits ruminants in goat and sheep

Abdelrahman A. Sobeih; Khiry M. El-Bayoumi; Mahmoud S. El-Tarabany; Ahmed A. Abuel-Atta; Sherif A. Moawed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1029-1034
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132934.2151

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) highly contagious illness that affects domestic and wild small ruminants, causing significant economic losses. The goal of this study was to use a multivariable logistic regression model to determine risk factors for PPR. A total of 113 healthy non-vaccinated goats and sheep (63 goats and 50 sheep) more than five months (1st group from 5-12 months,2nd group above 12 months), subject to a seroprevalence study by competitive ELISA which was used to detect antibodies against PPRV antibodies in serum sample during the period between April 2018 and March 2019. The incidence of PPR in autumn was significantly increased compared with the spring. Additionally, animals had a 4.08 more likelihood of being infected with PPR in the autumn compared with the spring season. There was a significant difference between male and female groups; The female group had 5.236 times increased odds of being infected with PPR than the male group. Moreover, the old age group had 2.771 times higher odds of being infected with PPR than the young age group. On the other hand, the test model found no evidence to support any significant differences between sheep and goat species. According to finding, PPR is common in females and mature small ruminants. Furthermore, throughout the spring season, the incidence of PPR was significantly reduced. Indeed, the current study may help plan an effective vaccination program against the PRP disease in Egypt.

Impact of sodium butyrate on stimulating of some host defense peptides and body performance in broiler vaccinated with different avian influenza (H9N2) vaccines

Mohanad B. Ghanim; Fanar A. Isihak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1035-1040
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132960.2153

Our study is designated to determine the impact of SB in the induction HDPs, including AvBD-10 and CATH-B1, accompanied by two different inactivated H9N2 vaccines and their effect on body performance. One hundred fifty, day-old chicks were separated into five groups (30 chicks for each, three replicates): groups A and C were vaccinated with classical avian influenza H9N2 and developed H9N2P inactivated vaccines, respectively, but groups B and D were treated with sodium butyrate (SB) by a dosage of 1gm/liter of drinking water daily till the end of the trail, and these groups (B and D) received the same type of vaccines as they given to group A and C respectively, while group E is a control group. The results illustrated that SB improved the AvBD-10 level significantly in the treated group (B and D) at 14 days in comparison with groups A and E, but without significant with group C. Whereas at 35 days, this improvement occurred distinctly in treated groups B and D. The same improvement revealed with CATH-B1 at 35 days of experiments. Moreover, the supplementation of SB improved FCR in groups B and D at 35 days of the experiment, respectively, but no influence on WG between all groups at the same age. Thus, we concluded that supplemented SB enhanced innate immunity by stimulating the induction of AvBD-10 and CATH-B1. Also, these supplementations improved FCR but did not influence WG.

Molecular analysis of Cryptosporidium species in domestic goat in central Iraq

Akeel M. Al-Musawi; Abdul Hussein H. Awad; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1041-1045
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132974.2155

Cryptosporidium spp. is a significant parasitic disease that results in diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans and animals worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular diversity of Cryptosporidium species in domestic goats. A total of a hundred feces samples were collected from four locations in Babylon city in central Iraq. All the samples were investigated phenotypically using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain method and genotypically using conventional and nested PCR methods based on a partial sequence of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes, and finally, phylogenetic analysis method. The molecular results showed five species of Cryptosporidium, including C. parvum, C. hominis, C. ryana, C. xiaoi, and C. bovis. The phylogenetic results of partial sequence of gp60 gene for C. parvum and C. hominis isolate two subtypes were established IIdA21G1 and IIdA19G1 belong to C. parvum. For C. hominis, three subtypes were detected: IbA21G2, IbA13G3, and IbA19G2. This study showed that Cryptosporidium parvum (zoonotic) is more prevalent than other Cryptosporidium species in goats from this area. This suggests that zoonotic transmission is the primary mode of transmission of Cryptosporidium infection in Babylon province.

Coprological detection of Toxocariosis in domicile and stray dogs and cats in Sulaimani province, Iraq

Zana M. Rashid; Sadat A. Aziz; Othman J. Ali; Nawroz K. Kakarash; Hardi F. Fattah Marif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1047-1051
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132976.2157

Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are ascarid nematodes, belong to the Toxocaridae family and genus Toxocara, causing toxocariosis in dogs and cats. The disease is mainly transmitted between animals and humans through ingestion of contaminated food with the embryonated eggs of the parasite. In addition, vertical transmission of the Toxocara larvae from pregnant bitches to their offspring through placenta and milk has been reported. Nowadays, stray dogs and cats, which are unvaccinated or not treated against the parasites, play a significant role in introducing the disease and seem to be a common public health concern. The study aimed to identify the rate of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati infection among the domiciliary and stray dogs and cats that presented to the veterinary clinics, using direct fecal smear and fecal floatation techniques. The results showed that stray cats were highly infected 47.62% in comparison to domiciled cats 5.56%. In contrast, the T. canis infection among domiciled and stray dogs was about 11.11% and 11.76%, respectively. Adult cats and dogs were found to have a higher infectious rate cat; 30%, dogs; 14.81% than younger age groups cats; 27.58%, dogs; 8%. There was a moderate and highly significant positive correlation between the lifestyle and infectious rate in cats. In conclusion, stray cats and dogs are the leading risk factor for transmitting the disease. 

Assessment of multiplex PCR for detection of FMDV, BVDV, BTV, and possible coinfection with Pasteurella multocida in cattle

Gawhara J. Abdelmonem; Ali M. Amer; Elsayed A. Hussein; Zeinab R. Aboezz; Ahmed R. Habashi; Saad S. Sharawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1053-1059
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132983.2158

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay is a nucleic acid amplification method that is considered reliable and practical means for several pathogen detections in a single reaction, especially when multiple pathogens are suspected. In this study, a novel mPCR assay was validated for the detection of four notifiable diseases in cattle, including foot and mouth disease (FMD), Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), Bluetongue (BT), and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS). The assay was operated in a two-step procedure. The first one was a reverse transcription of viral RNA, then mPCR of viral cDNA and bacterial DNA. The optimized mPCR was applied on blood (26) and vesicular epithelium (10) samples collected from 26 clinically infected animals from three governorates (Qalubia, Sharkia, and Gharbia). mPCR detected at least 10 pg of microbial nucleic acid extracted from the local isolates. The mPCR results showed that 22/26 (84.6%) of clinically infected animals were positively infected by single or dual infection. Mixed infection of FMDV and Pasteurella multocida was recorded in 11 animals (42.3%), while single FMDV infection was recorded in 5 animals (19.2 %). Single BVDV infection was detected in 5 animals (19. 2 %) and dual infection with FMDV in 1 animal (3.8%). Notably, BTV was not detected in any of the clinical samples. The assessed mPCR was a rapid, accurate, and sensitive test for diagnosing single and mixed infections in cattle and could be used to screen the notifiable diseases affecting cattle.

Protective effect of propolis on liver and kidney injury caused by methotrexate in chicks

Maab A. Fadel; Manahel A. Abdullah; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Imad A. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1067-1061
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133021.2162

The current study aimed to explain propolis's protective effect on the liver and kidney damage caused by methotrexate (MTX). A total of 80 chickens at one day old were used and divided into three groups; the first group was the control group, the second group received the propolis, the second group was treated with MTX, and the fourth group received both propolis and treated with MTX. After 15 days of experimental, all chickens were euthanized, and blood samples and liver and kidney tissue were collected. The result showed that the treated group with MTX showed an increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, AP, urea, creatinine, and uric acid in comparison with both the control and propolis group, while in the group treated with both Propolis and MTX showed serum level of AST, ALT, AP, urea, creatinine, and uric acid similar to that recorded in both in the control group and MTX group. The liver sections treated with methotrexate showed hyperplasia of fibrocytes in the portal area with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells represented by macrophages, and coagulative necrosis in affected hepatocytes, clear vacuoles in the hepatocytes, massive infiltration of macrophages. Sections of the liver treated with methotrexate and propolis explain a marked decrease in fatty degeneration, with few infiltrations of mononuclear inflammatory cells around portal areas. The liver section from the propolis-treated group and the control group showed typical hepatic tissue architecture. The kidney sections treated with methotrexate showed coagulative necrosis in the endothelial cells, glomeruli appearing irregular in shape, and hemorrhaging in the extracellular matrix. The sections of the kidney treated with methotrexate and propolis explain a marked rise in the renal tubules with the typical feature of a healthy one. The section of the kidney from the propolis treated group and control group showed typical architecture of renal tissue. In conclusion, propolis greatly protects against MTX's toxic effect on chicks' liver and kidneys.

The histological and histochemical features of the esophagus in local breed dogs (Canis familiaris)

Mohammed S. Dawood; Dhyaa A. Abood; Aseel Y. Hameza

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1069-1074
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133034.2164

A total of eight samples of the esophagus of local breed dogs are used to investigate the histochemical features of the esophagus. The specimens are processed according to paraffin embedding technique protocols and the tissue sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and masons trichrome combined with Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS. The esophagus folds the mucosa which is covered by keratinized to non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium which contains numerous excretory common ducts of esophageal glands. The epithelial thickness of cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts of the esophagus are 221.95±3.41µm, 212.46±5.38 µm, and 173.15±4.09 µm respectively. The lamina propria of the cervical part of the esophagus lacks the muscularis mucosa, while the muscular mucosa in the thoracic part of the smooth muscles appears as scattered interrupted bundles. The esophageal glands are a type of compound tubular mucoserous constructed of the predominated mucous alveoli and little serous acini. When combined with Alcian blue (pH2.5)-PAS stain, the esophageal glands show strong acidic mucopolysaccharides within the mucous alveoli and light blue color within serous acini that denote weak acidic zymogen granules. Tunica muscularis is striated muscle fibers in cervical and thoracic parts and smooth in the abdominal part of the esophagus. The measured thickness of tunica muscularis of cervical, thoracic and abdominal parts are 568.76±6.90 µm, 703.29±7.54µm, and 338.98±7.26 µm respectively.

The potential of Kebar grass extract on histopathological changes in kidneys of mice offspring from the parent exposed to carbofuran during the lactation period

Epy Muhammad Luqman; Ernestine Sisca Priyatna; Maslichah Mafruchati; Hani Plumeriastuti; Widjiati Widjiati; Viski Fitri Hendrawan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1075-1082
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133065.2170

This research aims to know the potential of kebar grass extract (Biophytum petersianum) in reducing the impact of kidney damage in mice offspring during the lactation period from parents exposed to carbofuran. Carbofuran, kebar grass extract, and vitamin C are exposed orally postnatal day 1st until the 14th postnatal day after delivery. Forty-two mice adults in the lactation period were randomly into seven groups. This group consisted of K (aquadest control), P1 (carbofuran ¼ LD50 0.0125 mg/day), P2 (carbofuran 1/8 LD50 0.00625 mg/day), P3 (kebar grass extract 3.375 mg + carbofuran ¼ LD50), P4 (kebar grass extract 3.375 mg + carbofuran 1/8LD50), P5 (vitamin C 0.2 cc + carbofuran ¼ LD50), and P6 (vitamin C 0.2 cc + carbofuran 1/8 LD50). On the 15th day of experimental, offspring were randomly selected and dissected, and the kidney was taken to make a histopathology sample. This study shows that carbofuran caused increased tubular degeneration, necrosis, and inflammation (p<0.05). Kebar grass extract could decrease tubular degeneration, necrosis, and inflammation (p<0.05). Kebar grass extract was more effective than vitamin C in reducing kidney damage in mice offspring during the lactation period from parents exposed to carbofuran(p<0.05).

Molecular Identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat at Mosul city retails using PCR technique

Ibrahim M. Jawher; Muntaha G. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1083-1087
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133086.2173

Pseudomonas has been recognized as a unique meat spoiling organism. The proliferation of these spoilage organisms might influence the organoleptic meat quality. Therefore, the current investigation is being carried out to detect pseudomonas associated with meat displayed in Mosul city retails. A total of 150 meat samples of beef, mutton and chicken meat (50 of each) were collected. Molecular identification of pseudomonas aeruginosa in meat is performed by targeting the16S rRNA gene and rpoB gene. Fifty-three isolates of pseudomonas species were obtained from all types of meat (35.33%), including 23 (46 %) for beef meat,11 (22%) for mutton and 19 (38%) for chicken meat. Enumeration of pseudomonas species in beef and mutton were 1.47*104, 1.92*104 CFU/g, respectively, while counts were 21.3*104 CFU/g in chicken meat. Polymerase chain reaction results revealed the presence of 16SrRNA gene in all tested isolates 53/53 (100%). pseudomonas aeruginosawas isolated at (39.62%) from meat samples according to the detection of the rpoB gene.In conclusion, the prevalence of pseudomonas in meat at Mosul city retails negatively impacted meat quality and consumer confidence. Also, the PCR approach aids the rapid detection of pseudomonas as spoilage organisms in meat to reduce financial loss.Therefore, hygienic measurements should be applied to reduce meat spoilage and conserve consumer health during meat production and preservation.

Anticonvulsant and antioxidant activities of crude flavonoid extract of Matricaria chamomilla L. against convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole in chicks

Suleiman D. Suleiman; Jian S. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1089-1095
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133120.2176

In the current study, crude flavonoid extract ofMatricaria chamomilla L. (MC) was used to evaluate anticonvulsant, and antioxidant activities on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced convulsion in chicks. The biochemical estimation was done by measuring brain tissue neurotransmitters (gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA and glutamate), oxidative stress biomarkers in serum (catalase CAT, glutathione reductase GR, malondialdehyde MDA, and 8-isoprostane), serum electrolytes (potassium Ka+, sodium Na+, chloride Cl-, ionized calcium iCa2+, total calcium TCa2+), pH of serum, and glucose level in serum. Seventy-two broiler chicks (2 weeks old) were randomly divided into six groups (n=12): The first group (negative control) received the normal saline subcutaneous injection, the second group (positive control) received PTZ 90 mg/kg subcutaneous injection, and the third group treated with sodium valproate (SV) 200mg/kg orally. The fourth, fifth and sixth groups treated with 20, 40, 80 mg/kg of crude flavonoid extract of MC respectively orally for six days before PTZ injection. Thirty minutes post-treatment of the last dose, the chicks in the (third to sixth) groups received PTZ. The results showed that the crude flavonoid extract of MC attenuated the convulsion signs and mortality dose-dependently. The pretreated crude flavonoid extract at the dose of 80mg/kg showed a significant increase in the serum level of Na+ and iCa2+, and a decrease in 8-isoprostane. In conclusion: the crude flavonoid extract of MC 80mg/kg possesses mild to moderate anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects.

Immunohistochemical expression of proliferation markers in canine osteosarcoma

Waseem H. Al-Jameel; Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Firas M. Abed; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1097-1102
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133138.2177

Canine osteosarcoma is an extremely malignant bone tumor that often arises in the bones of the limbs. It is a highly metastatic disease distinguished by proliferative bone lesions and a tendency for pulmonary metastasis. Overexpression of proliferative proteins are associated with bad prognosis in human osteosarcoma. Here, we tested the expression of the different proliferative proteins (p53, p16, vimentin, and mdm2) in nine archival samples with canine osteosarcoma. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections were confirmed by histopathology and stained by immunohistochemistry for p53, p16, vimentin and mdm2. Positive expression of these proteins was evaluated as the ratio of positive cancer cells and the intensity staining was assessed in several areas. Histopathologically, 95% of samples were grade II and III. All high-grade osteosarcomas were particularly cellular. The cancer cells were generally large spindle-shaped and large nucleus with distribution of osteoid between the cancer cells. Immunohistochemical detection of p53, p16, vimentin and mdm2 was 89%, 56%, 78%, and 89% of samples respectively. The staining intensity for p53, p16, vimentin and mdm2 was particularly nuclear in 81%, 66%, 78%, and 79% of the cancer cells respectively. Our present work suggests that p53, p16, vimentin, and mdm2 were detected in grade III canine osteosarcomas samples. In addition, these proliferative markers are the significant biomarkers in canine osteosarcomas and can be used as a predictor for diagnostic and prognostic value and allowing cancer differentiation. This primary data supports that both canine and human osteosarcomas share same molecular characters which are approved by expression of proliferative genes.

Histomorphological and carbohydrate histochemical study of the pancreas in native ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos)

Saffanah K. Mahmood; Naziha S. Ahmed; Ghada A. Sultan; Mowaffak J. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1103-1110
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133156.2183

In the current study, the histomorphological and histochemical characteristics of the pancreas in native ducks are examined with a particular emphasis on the structure of pancreatic acini and Langerhans islets (LI). Five adult male native ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) are examined from the local market of Mosul. All samples are processed routinely for histological and histochemical analyses. Hematoxylin & Eosin, PAS-AB (pH 2.5), Toluidine blue, and Masson's Trichrome stains are used. The morphological examination reveals that male ducks’ pancreas is made up of three major lobes (dorsal, ventral, and third lobes). The pancreas is a small, semi-wide structure with a pale to white pinkish tone located between the duodenum branches. The findings show that the pancreas is enveloped in a thin layer of loose connective tissue capsule and mesothelial; septa extend from the capsule into parenchyma dividing it into many lobules. The study concludes that the pancreatic lobules are composed of a large area of exocrine acini and a small amount of LI, with an exocrine component consisting of round or oval acini with zymogen granules. The endocrine component is represented by three distinct LI types and lacks defined boundaries. Alpha islets are formed of alpha cells (ACs) and a few delta cells (DCs); beta islets are composed of peripherally located beta cells (BCs) and a few (DCs); and mixed islets are composed of alpha, beta, and delta cells. The present study sheds light on the morphological, histological, and histochemical characteristics of the indigenous duck pancreas. However, future research should focus on the pancreas of other bird species as well.

The histologic effects of high doses of botulinum toxin a on the rabbit's salivary gland

Luma I. Khalel; Jawnaa Khalid Mammdoh; Abdullah A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1111-1117
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133149.2184

The exact mechanism of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on submandibular salivary gland (SMG) regarding its function and histology remains unclear. The goal of this work is to clarify the histological effects of BTX-A (at high doses) in SMG in rabbits after one week. Thirty adult male rabbits were used in this study and they arranged as group 1 includes rabbits which received any treatment and kept for one week duration. Group 2 includes rabbits which received 8 units of BTX-A. Group 3 includes rabbits which received 16 units of BTX-A. Animals were euthanized with ether after one week. Specimens of SMG from all rabbits were taken to perform a routine histological preparation and examination. Sections of rabbits of group 2 and group 3 showed evidence of edema that is surrounding striated ducts, congested blood vessels, and even necrosis of both serous and mucous acini. Some sections exhibited features of degeneration of mucous acini. Hemorrhage was noticed in some sections. Injection of either 8 or 16 units of BTX-A induces several alterations in the submandibular glands’ histology.

Acute toxicity events of ivermectin in chicks’ model

Tamara K. Al-Najmawi; Muna H. Al-Zubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1119-1124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133188.2188

Ivermectin is a very safe drug; however, there are many studies on its toxic effects in different animals due to sensitivity, misuse, or accidental overdose. This study aimed to further characterize the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin in chicks and identify possible therapeutic strategies for use in cases of ivermectin toxicity. The LD₅₀ of ivermectin was determined by the Dixon method. The acute toxicity signs of ivermectin were induced at doses of 131.5,2629 and 394.5 mg/kg orally. The therapeutic effect of flumazenil on ivermectin poisoning was also studied. Administration of repeated doses of ivermectin for five consecutive days was recorded to measure the neurobehavioral within the open field and tonic immobility test. The oral LD₅₀ of ivermectin was 525.9mg/kg. The acute signs of poisoning on ivermectin-treated chicks were lethargy, ataxia, tremor, diarrhea, recumbency, and death. Flumazenil at a dose of 0.1mg/kg significantly reduced the toxicity signs induced by the ivermectin in chicks, especially tremor and ataxia, and prevented death. The administration of ivermectin at 26.3, 52.6, and 105.2 mg/kg doses led to a significant decrease in motor activity through a significant increase in the time of starting the movement and a decrease in the number of cross lines. We concluded that ivermectin has a neurotoxic effect in chicks when used in high doses; the results also indicate a potential clinical application of flumazenil for treatment side effects and toxicity of ivermectin, as well as ivermectin, has depressant effect in chicks represented by open-field activity.

Effect of exogenous oxytocin on the expression of oxytocin receptor gene and uterine involution in local Iraqi cows

Barra D. Al-Watar; Khawla A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1125-1132
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133212.2190

The present work aimed to study the effect of exogenous oxytocin injection on the expression of the oxytocin receptor gene and the duration of uterine involution in the local Iraqi breed of Karradi cows. Twenty cows were divided into two groups. The first group was considered a control; the second group was injected with 100 IU/IM of oxytocin twice weekly for four weeks postpartum. The uterine involution velocity was monitored using ultrasonography by measuring the endometrium thickness, ovarian diameter, cervix diameter, uterine horns diameter, serum progesterone, and estrogen levels by indirect ELISA, and the expression of oxytocin receptor gene was monitored by conventional PCR. The result of the treated group showed that the progesterone concentration was significantly decreased. The estrogen concentration was significantly increased. Moreover, the endometrium thickness was significantly decreased in the second, third, and fourth weeks, also, the ovarian diameter was significantly decreased in the first and second weeks, but it has significantly increased in the fourth week. In addition, the cervix diameter was significantly decreased in the first and second weeks, and the uterine horns diameter was significantly decreased in all weeks compared to the control group at POTXRs gene overexpression, where OTXRs gene expression was increased in the oxytocin group in comparison with the control group. This result was present in a coordinated manner with the result of the estrus cycle and ovarian reactivation. We conclude that injection of exogenous oxytocin at 100 IU/IM twice weekly for four weeks postpartum will increase the expression of the oxytocin receptor gene, leading to a decrease in the duration of uterine involution. Accelerate the occurrence of estrus in the local Iraqi breed of Karradi cows.