Issue 3


Osteocranium Anatomy of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) from Cultured Pond in Aceh, Indonesia

Ilham Zulfahmi; Yusrizal Yusrizal; Andi Iqbal Burhanuddin; Yeni Dhamayanti; Epa Paujiah; Kizar Ahmed Sumon; Dina Nath Pandit; Firman M Nur

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 549-554
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130884.1888

To date, information related the skeletal morphology of fish in Indonesia is still limited. Therefore, we firstly described the morphology of the cranium of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) collected from aquaculture pond in Aceh Province, Indonesia. In the present study, research methodology included the preparation of cranium, photographing, editing images and identifying the terminology of cranium. The cranium was prepared physically and chemically. Each part of the cranium was documented using a Canon EOS 700D camera and edited using Adobe Photoshop CS6. The cranium nomenclature was determined by comparing the similarity of the shape and location of each part of the fish cranium that has been studied previously. The cranium of African catfish was divided into two major parts, namely neurocranium (ossa neurocranii) and splanchnocranium (ossa splanchnocranii). Neurocranium had four regions belonging to etmoidal, orbital, otic and occipital, while splanchnocranium had five regions belonging to maxillaris, mandibularis, arcus mandibularis, arcus hyoideus, and apparatus operculare. The African catfish had a strong and thick neurocranium structure. However, orbital, arcus hyoideus and apparatus operculare regions were not well developed. The results of this study could be used as a basic for further research, especially in the field of taxonomy and phylogeny of fish.

The role of adding Hyaluronic Acid in the grafting process for the repair of experimentally induced tibial defect in dogs model

Fouad M. Albaroudy; Layth M Alkattan; Ahmed M Shareef; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 555-561
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130889.1891

Abstract
The study was designed to determine the role of adding hyaluronic acid as a supportive filling material to improve grafting process of experimentally defective tibial bone in dog model. Eighteen local breed dogs of both sexes weighted 18± 0.4 kg and aged (12± 0.6Months) were randomly allocated in two equal groups. In the first group, twelve dogs underwent experimental tibial bone defect (2.5×0.7 cm ) and replaced with deprotenized lamb ribs. The second group were treated as that for the first, but supported by adding 1% hyaluronic acid, to their grafts. The bone in both groups was firmly fixed by cerclage wire. All dogs were; followed-up clinically, radiologically and macroscopically at (14, 30 and 60 days after the intervention. In all study dogs the systemic infections, signs of seromas, hematoma and sever lameness were not developed along the period of the study . Grossly, dogs in the second group at 60 days showed an increase in the size of the filler of bone at the edges and in the mid of the defect, improvement and acceleration in the bone healing, and formation of bone bridges compared to the first group. Radiological finding exhibited complete healing of the fixated bone segment with the surrounding area; however, some cortical irregularities denoted chronic periosteal reaction and callus formation in the treatment with hyaluronic acid. In conclusion, the study indicated that hyaluronic acid with xenograft materials exhibited remarkable beneficial effects on improvement of the tibial bone defect augmentation

The effects of thyroidectomy on healing fracture in rabbits model

Omar A. Bader; H. Nahi Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 563-570
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130893.1897

This research aims to investigate the fracture healing effects caused by thyroidectomy. The experiment involved sixteen matured male rabbits of local breed which divided into 2 equal groups (control and treated). Rabbits anesthetized by premedicated atropine sulphate, then 15 minutes later, a mixture of Xylazine Ketamine was used. The control group rabbits were induced with mid-shafted femoral fracture, with that, the fixation by intramedullary pinning was considered Meanwhile, the treated group rabbits were induced with same method mentioned above, but fracture were fixed after thyroidectomy and measurement of thyroxin a week after thyroidectomy. Results which were obtained from the clinic revealed signs of severe inflammatory reaction in control group which were higher comparing to treated group. These sings were disappeared within 4-5 days in treated group, while, it took 5-6 days in control animals. Also, radiological results of 2 groups showed that a periosteal reaction was observed towards the end of the 2nd week in the control group, whereas, the treated group showed its reaction at the end of fourth week, there was an invisible fracture line for both control and treated groups at the end of fourth and seventh week, respectively. In addition, bony bridge in the control groups became remodeled into a lamellar bone earlier than treated group. The results of measuring thyroxin hormone before and after the thyroidectomy confirmed the essential role of this hormone in fracture healing. To conclude that the fracture healing maturity was greater in control group than in treated group.

Renal ameliorating effect of resveratrol in hydrogen peroxide induced male rats

Noor T. Khudair; Bara N. Al-Okaily

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 571-577
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.130939.1898

The study aimed to investigate the potential effect of resveratrol (RS) supplementation in attenuating kidney injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in male rats. Forty adult male rats were randomly assigned into four groups (10 each). The control group was orally supplemented with distilled water, and group G1 was orally supplemented with tap water containing 0.5% of H2O2, G2: was orally supplemented with tap water containing 0.5% of H2O2 and RS 87 mg/kg BW, and G3 was orally supplemented with RS 87 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were obtained before treatment and after 45 days of daily treatment. Serum concentrations of creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (UN), and total bilirubin were assessed. On day 45, male rats were euthanized, and kidney samples were taken to estimate malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations, and other samples were obtained for histopathological examination. The results showed a significant increase in creatinine and BUN concentrations accompanied by a significant increase in MDA and a decrease in SOD in kidney tissue in G1 group male rats compared to other groups. Resveratrol partially restored the studied criteria related to renal functions by modulating the histopathological changes in the kidney induced by hydrogen peroxide. It could be concluded that supplementation of resveratrol to oxidatively stressed rats maintains the antioxidant defenses mechanism and could be helpful in the prevention of renal oxidative stress.

In vivo study of Impact Transplantation Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells on Induced Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rabbits Model

Zahraa K. Zedan; Salah A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 579-589
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130949.1899

The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (HSCs) on full-thickness cutaneous wounds healing in rabbits. Twenty clinically healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study; under aseptic technique and general anesthesia full-thickness excisional cutaneous wound; 20 mm x 20 mm were made on the back. The rabbits were randomly partitioned into two. In first group (control group), the wounds were treated with 3ml of saline solution. In second group (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group); wounds were treated with 5x106 (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells). The result of molecular evaluation along the interval of following-up recorded a significant differences (P<0.05) of the level Fibroblasts Growth Factor (FGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) recorded at 7, 14 and 35 day post-surgical operation in (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group) compare than control group. These outcomes were parallel with the finding of the clinical and histopathological assessment showed that Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group reduces inflammation and promotes epithelialization during 3th weeks with increased vasculature than those in untreated wounds. This study confirms that local implantation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells leads to enhance and develop of cutaneous wound healing in rabbit model.

Rapid diagnosis of leishmania spp. in blood samples using gold nanoparticles.

Musafer H. Al-Ardi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 587-590
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130985.1906

There are many methods to diagnose Leishmania spp. a microscopic, serological or molecular methods. However, finding a fast and accurate diagnostic assay is a necessary and urgent requirement nowadays. here, we improved nano detection method to diagnose Leishmania spp. In blood samples. In this study, we used a probe of oligonucleotide sequences associated with AuNPs (20 nm) to diagnose different Leishmania spp. in blood samples of dogs. For this purpose, three series replicates of 10 μl of 23 ng / μl of Leishmania spp. DNA are used. A change in the solution colour to red is an indicator of a positive result, while the change to purple is a negative result. Then we compared these results with the molecular assay of (IST1) gene. The overall relative sensitivity of the result is (90%). The result shows that 10 out of 10 samples of visceral Leishmania are positive with relative sensitivity and specificity (100%). Eight out of 10 samples of cutaneous leishmania are positive with relative sensitivity and specificity (80%). The present method is a fast and accurate method for detecting small amounts of DNA, and it is easy to distinguish by visual inspection.

A study of primary ossification centers in the hind limbs of Awasi sheep fetuses by double stains method and radiography.

Saif A. Salih; Naziha S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 591-597
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131008.1909

Forty Local Awasi sheep fetuses were collected from several areas in Ninevah Governorate, further than local slaughterhouse. Their estimated ages calculated depending on crown-rump length with the aid of Richardson formula. The study aimed to detect the site and the time of appearance of ossification centers in the hind limb bones of Awasi sheep fetuses by using modified double staining method to demonstrate cartilage and bone , or by using radiography. The first ossification centers appeared in the hind limb bones was the primary center of the tibia and femur ,metatarsus with ilium then ischium at 45 , 46 , 48, 50-52 days of fetal age respectively. The ossification centers of pes phalanges appeared in the following sequence ; distal phalanx ,followed by the proximal phalanx and end by middle phalanx , at 58 ,60, 64 days respectively. Ossification centers of tarsal bones began to appear in calcaneus at 64 day , talus at 77 day , central & 4th tarsal bones at 96 day ,, followed by centers of 3rd & 2nd tarsal bones at 100 day while, the center of 1st tarsal bone appeared lastly at 105 day.Femur , tibia and metatarsus studied statistically by follow up the relative increase of their total lengths and length of their ossified part of diaphysis , the results show high significant variance in their growth and ossification of the three bones in first studied period (46-60 days) in comparison with the next sixth successive fortnightly periods

Molecular Detection of uidA gene in Escherichia coli Isolated from the Dairy Farms in Nineveh Governorate/Iraq.

Leena H. Alsanjary; Omar Hashim Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 599-603
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131046.1913

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative environmental micro-organism- which causes intramammary infections in mammals, In addition, to cause food poisoning in human. Four hundred samples were obtained from various areas of the dairy farm . Fifty samples from each of bedding, soils, feces, feed, milk, water, workers hands, and flies were randomly collected from different regions located around Nineveh Governorate between September 2020 and January 2021. E. coli isolates were identifed using the classical methods based on the morphological and biochemical methods for the detection the E. coli isolates and PCR had been used to detect the uidA gene in it. The results of our study revealed that out of 400 samples collected from different dairy herds, 140 (35%) of E. coli were positive. The percentage of E. coli isolated from flies, bedding, feces, milk, soils, feed, water, and worker's hands was 76% (38/50), 46% (23/50), 38% (19/50), 34% (17/50), 28% (14/50), 28% (14/50), 18% (9/50), and 12% (6/50), respectively. All the positive E. coli isolates have been possessing the uidA gene which is the species-specific gene .The results of classical methods had concurred with the results of the PCR test. The current study showed that milk, workers' hand, and flies played an important role to spread E. coli in the dairy farms. The PCR technique is a rapid method that helps to give the suitable drugs in the treatment of the cattle suffered from mastitis and prevent E. coli from distribution among the dairy herds.

Histological and histochemical observations of the prostate gland at resting and stimulating status in adult local Dog (Canis familiaris)

Mohammed I. Hammodi; Luay O. Hamza

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 605-610
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131095.1915

The present investigation was done to clarify the histological and histochemical characteristics of the well-developed prostate gland in the adult local dogs (Canis familiaris). The tissue specimens were taken from the prostate gland, the samples were processed by routine histological techniques and stained. Histologically, the body of the prostate in resting was characterized by abundant amounts of fibrous tissue with little glandular lobes that were surrounded by a very thick fibromuscular capsule. Each lobe was composed of numerous variable size lobules that contained several alveoli lined by simple cuboidal cells. While in stimulating status, the gland is characterized by much amount of glandular tissue, thin fibro muscular capsule and thin interlobar connective tissue. The disseminated part of the prostate gland was composed of little scattered small size glandular lobules within the subepithelial cavernous tissue of the urethra about (1-2) cm post body of prostate. Histochemical, the stimulating prostate showed marked intense magenta colour which referred to the presence of both acidic and neutral glycoprotein secretory products when stained with Combine Alcian blue (2.5 pH) + PAS stain. In conclusion, this study showed the differences between the prostate glands in the resting and stimulating status in local breed dogs.

Expression of Ki67 in submandibular salivary glands of rabbits after BTX injection: Histological and immunohistochemical study

Abdullah A. Ahmed; Jawnaa K. Mammdoh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 611-620
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131101.1919

This study aimed to examine the possible histological effects of local injections of BTX in rabbits submandibular SGs and to find the dose-dependent and time relationship between injections and study immunohistochemistry expression of Ki67. Thirty male rabbits randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits for Each) 1st group: control (without treatment), 2nd group treated with 5U of BTX and 3rd group treated with 10U of BTX, five animals of each group were sacrificed in 1st week of treatment and another five animals sacrificed in 4th week of treatment. The rabbit was anesthetized then injected with the BTX in the gland. The histopathological changes in Group 5, 10 Unit BTX (1st week) were vacuolar degeneration of mucous acini cells, degeneration of serous acini cells, while the lesions showed hyperplasia and necrosis of epithelial cells lining striated ducts, necrosis of serous acini epithelium. The Diameter of mucous acini were found to be significantly increased in 10 Unit BTX groups. During the 1st and 4th weeks, the surface area of the striated ducts in the 5- and 10-unit BTX groups increased significantly, and the number of striated ducts in the 10 Unit BTX group decreased significantly when compared to the 1st week period of the same group. BTX groups revealed moderate to weak positive cytoplasmic reactivity for Ki67 protein in the parenchymal tissue of the glands. We conclude that BTX causes histological changes in the salivary gland as well as affecting Ki67. This data could be used in a future study to investigate the usage of BTX in cancer treatment.

Prediction of the ovulation time in estrus mares by different methods

Thamer Ahmed Alrashidy; Mohammed Abdulelah Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 621-626
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131093.1922

The study aimed to evaluate the prediction of ovulation time by three different methods body temperature, Dramineski estrus detection apparatus, and observation of the mature follicle daily by ultrasonography in mare’s estrus. Sixteen mature cycling mares were used during the breeding season in15 March and15 June of 2021, aged 5-6 years old, at the Nineveh Equestrian club in Mosul city, Iraq. Mares were examined daily by rectal palpation and ultrasound with a 5.5-7 MHz linear-array transducer probe to scan the ovaries and uterus. The mare's follicle diameter and body temperature were recorded daily in the Dramineski estrus detection apparatus to predict ovulation when the data was up to 400 degrees. The result showed that the body temperature was increased significantly from the 1st day to the third day of estrus at P

Radiographic and ultrasonic study of pelvic bones in awassi ewes and local she goat and relationship with age of sexual puberty

Ahmad A. Alhanosh; Adnan A. Alhasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 627-632
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131175.1925

Thegoal of this study is to find out the age of sexual puberty in Awassi sheep and native black she goats by examining pelvic bone development which is obtained from measuring the transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvic bone in the two species using portable X-ray machines American origin.in addition, the length and width of the ovaries were measured with an ultrasound rectal probe. To achieve the goal of this study, six Awassi sheep and the same number of local goats were used. Radiographs were taken of each animal in the ventro-dorsal position, then the mean and standard error of each measurement in the two species were extracted. The rectal probe of the ultrasound machine was also used by inserting it into the rectum, taking vertical and transverse ovarian measurements, and then extracting the mean of each measurement along with the standard error. The mean transverse and vertical diameter measurements at the first instances of sexual puberty in Awassi sheep were 7.70±0.09 cm and 10.61±0.03 cm, respectively, and the mean ovarian length and width were 1.20±0 .08, 0.80±0.06 cm respectively. While the average distance to the transverse pelvic inlet and the pelvic inlet vertically in local black goats at age of sexual maturity were 7.15±0.06 cm and 10.55±0.10 cm, respectively, and the average length and width of the ovary was 1.66±0.03, 1.24±0.02 cm respectively. The results in both species showed that the age of sexual maturity is earlier in Awassi sheep than in local black goats. 

Histological effects of the interaction of some food additives on the kidney of pregnant rats

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha; Raghad A. A. Najjar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 633-640
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131181.1926

Many studies are still the subject of food additives to know their positive and negative effects, primarily as they are widely used globally. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the histological effects of sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate on the histological structure of the kidney in pregnant rats. Twenty-four pregnant rats were used to achieve the aim of the study. The rats were classified into four groups, the first being the control group, the second treated with monosodium glutamate at 10 g/kg, the third injected with sodium nitrite at 115 mg/kg, and the fourth for interaction between the two substances and for the same concentrations. The results showed the occurrence of many lesions in the kidneys of experimental groups rats. The second group included interstitial tissue hyperplasia and necrosis of the glomeruli, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, hydropic degeneration of some tubules, and necrosis of some of them. The third group included congestion, hemorrhage in the pulp area, degeneration of some urinary tubules, necrosis, and deformation of the glomerulus. However, degeneration of some tubules and necrosis were seen in the fourth group, such as glomerulus hyperplasia, reduction of Bowman's space, an increase in acidity of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells tubules, hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, and the desquamation of some tubules. The study concluded that these substances have harmful effects on the kidneys in pregnant rats, especially when they are overlapped, so they must be avoided during pregnancy to maintain kidney health.

Classical and molecular identification of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infestation cattle wounds with myiasis in Basrah governorate, Iraq

Moaed H. Sayhood; Abeer L. Mohammed; Mohanad F. Abdulhameed; Muna M. Jori

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 641-646
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131196.1930

Thepresent study was carried out to describe some epidemiological facts of myiasis infestations in cattle; therefore, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated and identified from various infested sites with maggots from February to September 2019. It involved three districts (Shatt-Alarab, Al-Qurnah, and Al-Dyr) north of Basrah Governorate/Iraq. A total of 54 herds/owners were visited, with 150 cattle were found to be infested with maggots and diagnosed from different sites of the animal body. The result was indicated that 31% (95%Cl, 26.9-35.4) of examined animals were infested with myiasis, and there were no significant differences detected between sex and ages of the animal groups under study. Staphylococcus aureus was diagnosed using classical methods as morphological characteristics, physiological (coagulase tube method), biochemical tests, and growth on selective medium as Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) at a percentage of 32% (48/150). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify the nuc gene in this isolated species, indicating the presence of nuc size (423) bp compared with a ladder used. The study clearly states that myiasis is a severe threat to cattle populations and that veterinary and agriculture authorities must recall control measures. These measures should be forged to include using a trapping/catch system, applying effective treatment, spraying pesticides, and sterilizing male flies with radiation to inhibit producing offspring.

Detection of Campylobacter fetus in aborted ewes in Sulaimani province by PCR

Eman D. Arif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 647-651
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131225.1931

Abortion is one of the most critical factors affecting lambing rates and, as a result, sheep farm profitability. It is also significant from a zoonotic viewpoint, in addition to financial losses. In sheep flocks, Campylobacter fetus causes infectious infertility, embryonic death, and miscarriages. The study investigated C. fetus from aborted fetuses and vaginal swab samples collected from sheep flocks in the Sulaimani province by the polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-eight aborted fetuses and 70 vaginal swabs were collected from sheep flocks in three districts of Sulaimani province (Kalar, Said Sadiq, and Chamchamal) from March 2018 to June 2019. The pathogen was identified in clinical specimens using conventional PCR. C. fetus was isolated in 16 of 38 aborted fetuses (42.1%) and 13 of 70 vaginal swabs from aborted ewes (18.6 %). The C. fetus gene 16S rRNAwas sequenced and received the accession number MW694741 in NCBI GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences designated that the C. fetus isolates formed a separate branch displayed the highest similarity and clustered with MN203686.1 and EU773268.1 accessions in a specific clade. A lower degree of affinity of C. fetus was revealed with Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni.

Indicative parameters for liver fascioliasis at pre-clinical and clinical phases in cows from Al-Diwaniyah city, Iraq

Nawras K. Kadhum; Salah M. Karim; Khalefa A. Mansour; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 653-657
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132266.2076

The current work emphasized understanding the liver functions while having pre-clinical or clinical fascioliasis accurately detect the disease phase from cows in Al-Diwaniyah City, Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq. The experimental design included the use of 30 cows in Al-Diwaniayh province divided into ten clinically healthy cows (control group), ten acutely infected cows with no apparent clinical signs (pre-clinical group), and ten chronically infected cows with observed clinical signs (clinical group), such as yellowish discoloration of the mucus membranes. Blood samples were collected from each cow for performing the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), serum levels of pyruvate, lactate, and Cholesterol. The results showed that all the enzymes from the pre-clinical group were significantly (P<0.05) higher in their serum levels compared with those from the control group to elevate to significantly (P<0.05) higher levels in the clinical group in comparisons with those from the control and pre-clinical groups, excluding the ALT that revealed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the pre-and clinical groups. A significant (P<0.05) increase was seen in the pre-clinical group compared to those from the control group, with no significant (P>0.05) difference between the pre-and clinical groups. No significant (P>0.05) differences were recorded between all study groups at serum pyruvate and lactate levels. The present study reveals that the fascioliasis, dependent on the infestation phase, can progressively change the serum levels of the parameters mentioned above and may feasibly be used together as indicators for the accurate detection of the disease stage.

Control of biofilm-producing Aeromonas bacteria in the water tanks and drinkers of broiler poultry farms using chitosan nanoparticle-based coating thyme oil

Asmaa N. Mohammed; Amira S. Attia

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 659-669
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131253.1935

In a drinking water distribution system, biofilm-producing bacteria are considered an alarm bell for increased emergence of waterborne pathogens. This study aims to monitor the prevalence of biofilm-forming Aeromonas species in the drinking water distribution systems in different broiler chicken farms. The antimicrobial activity of thyme essential oil (TEO), thyme essential oil nano-emulsion (TEO-N), chitosan (CS), chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs), and both CS and CS-NP-based coating TEO against the different Aeromonas spp.was evaluated using the broth microdilution and agar well diffusion assay. The overall prevalence rate of Aeromonas spp. was 49.3% (74.0/150). The highest rate of Aeromonas isolates was noted in water drinkers and tanks 75.0% (30/40) and 62.5% (25/40), respectively) followed by feedstuff 40.0% (12/30). In contrast, the highest percentage of biofilm-producing Aeromonas spp. was Aeromonas hydrophila 70.0% (14/20) followed by Aeromonas caviae 30.0% (6/20). The fatal effect of CS-NPs against all isolated Aeromonas spp. was achieved 100% at 1.5 and 2.0 µg/mL. Moreover, chitosan nanoparticles coating thyme essential oil (CS-NPs/TEO) verified the lethal effect 100% on both A. hydrophila and A. caviae at the ratio of 1:1 and 1:0.75 µg/mL. In conclusion, the main source of Aeromonas spp. in the drinking water distribution system was the unhygienic status of water tanks and drinkers that allowed biofilm to produce due to aggregation of Aeromonas bacteria on the inner surface of that equipment. Both CS-NPs and CS-NPs/TEO could be applied as a sanitizer and/or disinfectant for Aeromonas biofilm control.

Evaluation of histological changes induced by prednisolone and cyclophosphamide in some organs of male albino mice

Sahar A AL-Sharqi; Amal K. Chaloob; Ilham A. Al-Saleem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 671-679
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131292.1938

Prednisolone is a synthetic corticosteroid used to treat various diseases. It is known to be used to treat many conditions such as autoimmune diseases and asthma. Cyclophosphamide is a type of nitrogen mustard therapy that works by alkylation of DNA and is used as an immunosuppressant in rheumatoid arthritis and the treatment of many cancers as well. Due to the wide use of these two drugs, the study aimed to evaluate the histological changes in the liver, kidneys, and small intestine of mice. Seventy-five adult mice aged 8-12 weeks were used which were divided into three groups, the first group was orally dosed with 0.1 mg/kg prednisolone, the second group was orally dosed with 0.1 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, and the third group received orally distilled water for 30 days daily. After 24 hours of the last treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the organs (liver, kidney, small intestine) were taken out and placed in 10% formalin solution until histological techniques were performed. The results of the study showed a statically significant difference at P>0.05 of histological changes in the studied organs represented by necrosis, fibrosis, cell degeneration, congestion, and hemorrhage of blood vessels and inflammatory cells when compared with the control group, and that the highest significant difference for these changes was at grade 1 and 2. Our study confirms that these drugs cause histological changes that differed in severity between organs as well as within a single organ when compared to the control group and that cyclophosphamide causes more histological changes than prednisolone.

Abortion in ewes in Nineveh governorate, Iraq: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Eman K. Alameen; Mohammad O. Dahl

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 681-688
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131343.1942

The current study was designed to examine the evidence and knowledge gaps in studies investigating abortion in ewes in Nineveh, Iraq, and quantify the overall incidence of abortion and the prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion. PubMed, CABI, and GoogleScholar databases were used as search engines to track pertinent peer-reviewed studies. Additional relevant articles were identified by reviewing the reference lists of identified full-text articles and contacting colleagues who worked on pertinent topics. Identified studies were divided into two main groups, including studies that reported the abortion rate in ewes and studies that reported the potential infectious etiology of abortion. A meta-analysis was performed for each group.A total of 17 studies were qualified for review, including six studies that reported the abortion rate. All of the 17 studies examined the prevalence of potential etiology of abortion. The overall incidence of abortion was 7.32%, and the pooled prevalence of potential infectious etiology of abortion indicated that 51.43%, 31.92%, and 6.83% were for Toxoplasma gondii, Brucella spp., and other pathogens, respectively. In conclusion, it is essential to identify epicenters of abortion in Nineveh, the association between the incidence of abortion and parity, the effect of pregnancy season on the incidence of abortion, and confirm the prevalence of T. gondii in aborted ewes is high.

Study the role of KSper current for controlling the Ca2+ influx and intracellular pHi in mouse spermatozoa by dominating membrane potentials

Suha Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 689-697
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125493.1023

This work was aimed to explore the details of the ion channels gating and there physiological role in sperm in the future.Mouse spermatozoa express a pH-dependent K+ current (KSper) thought to induce hyperpolarization to enhance Ca2+ influx via alkaline-activated calcium channel (Catsper) to initial a so-called sperm capacitation by NH4Cl during travelling in female genital tract for fertilization. However, the regulating mechanism of the Ksper and Catsper channels by membrane potential and pHi remains uncertain, because the complexities of two channel kinetics in sperms is hardly to be overcame at this stage. Here we show that difference of the intracellular [Ca2+]i between the wild type (Wt) and knockout (KO) Ksper (or Slo3/) mice in the application of the Slo3 blockers, Guinidine (QD) and Clofilium, and NH4Cl, indicating that Ksper channels, encoding Slo3 gene, dominates the membrane potential of mouse sperms to increase the intracellular [Ca2+]i and [pH]i during the capacitation process to play a vital role in fertility. Furthermore, a HH model sperm built directly with the native Ksper and Catsper currents in sperms reveals two functions of membrane potential and intracellular pHi, allowing us to calculate the intracellular pHi by NH4Cl, based on membrane potentials recording from current-clamp experiments. During modeling, we found a caton channel with Vrev= +20 mV in mouse sperm from the double-KO (i.e. Catsper-/- and Ksper-/-) mice, which is definitely necessary for a model able to match the data.

The histological effect of the injection of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on sciatic nerve of rats

Mustafa M. Altaee; Ahmed H. Qassim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 699-707
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131529.1961

The ongoing work aims to compare the effect of extraneural and intraneural injection of therapeutic doses of meloxicam and diclofenac sodium on the sciatic nerve of rats. Six groups of adult albino rats were used with five animals per group. Control group (A), group (B), and group (C) received a single extraneural injection of normal saline (NS) 0.25 ml/kg/rat, meloxicam (M) 0.11 mg/kg/0.25ml/rat and diclofenac sodium (V) 1.1 mg/kg/0.25ml/rat respectively. In contrast, control group (D), group (E), and group (F) received a single intraneural injection of the same doses of normal saline, meloxicam, and diclofenac sodium, respectively. Histological evaluation reveals an increased thickening of epineurium, dilatation, congestion of epineurial blood vessels, intrafascicular edema, axonal degeneration, myelin degeneration, and vacuolization in group (C) which was higher than those in the group (B). These changes were also greater in group (F) compared to groups (D) and (E). The histopathological changes of the sciatic nerve were greatest in the case of intraneural injection of saline, meloxicam, and diclofenac sodium, which means that the damaging effect of intraneural injection of the drug was greater than the extraneural injection of the same drug. It is concluded that extraneural and intraneural injections of therapeutic doses of meloxicam cause less damage to the sciatic nerve compared to diclofenac sodium. Thus it is considered to be more secure than diclofenac sodium after intramuscular injection. Sciatic nerve injury can occur following intramuscular injection into the gluteal region, particularly if the needle hits the nerve.

Prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species in Indonesia: A review

Saifur Rehman; Fedik Abdul Rantam; Khadija Batool; A. Rahman; Mustofa Helmi Effendi; Muhammad Ilyas Khan; Bilal -

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 709-718
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131590.1976

Avian influenza, commonly called bird flu, is highly contagious and pandemic zoonosis of global importance, primarily affecting birds and other mammals, including humans. The present review is intended to highlight a report on the prevalence of avian influenza in humans and different bird species of Indonesia.The study is based on 27 scientific articles from 2004 to May 2021 in which the prevalence of avian influenza is determined mainly by the following molecular, virological, and serological tests: polymerase chain reaction (PCR), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and ®Rapid antigen detection test. A vast divergence in the prevalence of avian influenza was observed due to the diversity in sensitivity and specificity of the tests applied. The prevalence of avian influenza varies due to spatial and temporal factors, bird species, and breed differences. An average maximum prevalence (25%)) was found in poultry (domestic and commercial birds) as compared to ducks (20.13%) and other birds (10.66%). An average documented prevalence (16.3%) was found in humans. Birds sold in live bird markets showed maximum prevalence due to different geographical distribution. The already published studies dissection illustrates that avian influenza infects all types of birds and humans in Indonesia. A proper surveillance system, effective vaccination plan, and segregation and culling strategy regarding avian influenza-infected birds are desperately needed to eradicate avian influenza in Indonesia.

Histopathological and histochemical study of mastitis in sheep

Asseel M. Rahawi; Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 719-723
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131595.1978

Ovine mastitis is considered one of the problems that cause economic losses through its impact on milk production, which is unfit for human consumption. The current study aimed to shed light on mastitis in sheep in different areas of Mosul city. The results of the recent study showed the presence of mammary macroscopic and microscopic changes. Macroscopic changes were represented by the large size of the udder and changes in the color and texture, as well as clarity of sloughing and desquamation of the skin with clear exudation, especially in advanced cases. On the other hand, other samples showed the presence of hard nodules on the udders. In contrast, the histological changes represented by degenerative and necrotic changes 3.5%, and 21.4% of the sample appeared to suffer from liquefactive necrosis and abscesses infiltrated with inflammatory cells, 25% of the samples infected with granulomatous mastitis (nodular mastitis), other models showed that the udder infected with atrophy and metaplasia in the rate of 21%, thickening of the blood vessel wall with clot represented 14.2% and the deposition of calcium salt was 14.2%. The current study concludes that mastitis in sheep is widespread in sheep raised in different areas of Mosul city.

Comparative morphological and morphometrically study of the adrenal gland in adult males' squirrel (Sciurus anomalous) and hamster (Mesocricetus auratus)

ِAbdulrazzaq B. Kadhim; Iman M. Khaleel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 725-730
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131618.1983

Given the physiological significance and the need for further physiological and morphological knowledge of the adrenal glands, the objectives of the current study were to compare morphometric data between the right and left adrenals of male squirrels and hamsters. The study was conducted on five squirrel males and five hamster males. The glands in both animals were removed and fixed in neutral formalin solution. It was found that the squirrel contains two brown-colored right and left adrenal glands connected anteriorly and medially to each cranial pole of the kidney, and the right adrenal gland had a longitudinal shape, while the left gland had an oval shape. Hamsters had two pairs of brown adrenal glands located anteriorly attached to each kidney's cranial pole. The right adrenal gland was round in shape, while the left was oval. The statistical results showed a significant difference between the left and right suitable adrenal glands in both animals, as well as a significant difference between the squirrel gland and the hamster gland, where it was found that the right and left squirrel glands are larger more significant, heavier, longer and thicker than the adrenal gland in hamsters after the following measures were adopted: weight, length, thickness, width, and size. 

Molecular investigation of feline calicivirus in cats in Mosul city, Iraq

Alaa K. Hamdan; Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 731-735
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131706.1993

The study included 200 cats of different ages, genders, types of breeding, source, vaccination programs, and health status. They were examined clinically and traditionally and recorded clinical signs appearing on them, and swabs were collected from the eye's conjunctiva and the pharyngeal area. RNA was extracted from the swabs and then converted into a cDNA molecule to investigate viral nucleic acid from collected swabs. Then, the open reading template gene two was detected using the primer for this within the applied polymerase chain reaction technique. The Molecular method found the highest infection rate in the oropharyngeal compared with conjunctival swabs. It was found in the highest percentage of infection in the age group more than six months, and the rate of infection decreased with age and in cats outdoors management and imported ones. While nonvaccinated cats recorded the highest rate of infection with the feline calicivirus. In conclusion, feline calicivirus affected the cats in Mosul, Iraq.

Comparative anatomical, histometrical, and histochemical study of esophagus between ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and black-shouldered kite (Elanus caeruleus)

Jehan M. Rajab; Sahar A. AL-Sharqi; Sabah A. Abdelrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 737-743
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131742.1998

The present study aimed to investigate the esophagus's anatomical, histometrical, histochemical aspects in the Ring-necked parakeet and Black-shouldered Kite. The esophagus in the parakeet was shorter and narrower than the kite esophagus. The crop was a well‐developed sac shape in the parakeet, while the crop was hardly recognizable in the kite. Histological study shows that the esophagus in both species was composed of four layers arranged from inner to outer (mucosa, submucosa, musculosa, finally serosa). These layers showed variances in the height of the fold, the glands number, and the wall layers’ thickness. The mucosa in the esophagus of the kite consisted of non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, while in the parakeet, mucosa consisted of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The esophageal glands were compound tubuloalveolar in the parakeet, while in the kite, there were simple alveolar glands. The folds in the kite were longest and contained more esophageal glands, while the parakeet glands were more prominent and had fewer numbers within the submucosa. The submucosa layer in the parakeet was thicker than that of the kite. The histochemical results showed a positive reaction of esophageal glands with Alcian blue (PH 2.5), while reacting negatively with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stains due to the acidic mucopolysaccharides secretions nature.

Gonadotropin profile in experimentally induced hypothyroid and hyperthyroid cyclic female rats

Jabber A. Al-Saaidi; Jaafar K. Al-Bedary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 745-751
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131830.2007

The current study examined the association of thyroid disorders with reproductive dysfunction by determining its effect on gonadotropin secretion in cyclic female rats. Sixty cyclic females were assigned to three groups (20 each) and supplemented, for 30 days plus two consequent estrous cycles, with drinking water (control), methimazole in drinking water (0.02% w/v) (hypothyroid group), and thyroxine in drinking water (0.002% w/v) and gastric gavage of 200 μg/kg body weight (hyperthyroid group). At late proestrus, ten females from each group (for each cycle) were anesthetized and dissected. Blood samples were obtained to assess thyroid-stimulating hormone, free and total triiodothyronine, free and total thyroxin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin concentrations. Ovarian and pituitary tissue samples were obtained for molecular analysis of ovarian thyroid receptor genes and pituitary TSH, FSHβ, and LHβ genes. In comparison with control, the Hypo group revealed increased serum concentrations of TSH and PRL and the expression levels of pituitary TSH and ovarian TRsTRs genes and significant decrease of FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, FSH, and LHLH concentrations and the expression levels of pituitary FSHβ and LHβ genes. In contrast, the Hyper group showed increased serum FT3, TT3, FT4, TT4, and LHLH concentrations and the expression levels of pituitary LHβ and ovarian TRsTRs genes and decreased serum TSH FSH and PRL concentrations and pituitary FSHβ and TSH gene expression levels. It is concluded that thyroid dysfunction is associated with altered serum gonadotropin secretion and reproductive failure. 

The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation on parasitemia, oxidative stress and serum biochemical parameters in Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs

Chigozie S Ukwueze; Polycarp O Akpa; Rita I Odo; Chinwe J Aronu; Boniface M Anene

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 753-760
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131843.2009

This study investigated the effect of resveratrol supplementation on parasitemia, oxidative stress and serum biochemical changes in the Trypanosoma brucei infected dogs. The mean pre-patent period (MPP) of infection was 5.75±0.96 (5-7) days and 9.00 ± 0.82 (8-10) days between infected un-supplemented and supplemented respectively, which differed significantly (p<0.05). There was a significant increase (P<0.05) in the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA) post infection (pi) on the infected untreated group compared with the infected treated groups and the control. The mean serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly (P>0.05) higher than the infected treated groups. The mean ALT of infected treated with both resveratrol and diminazene aceturate (DA) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than other infected treated groups. The mean creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected untreated group. The creatinine level of the infected treated with both resveratrol and DA was significantly (P<0.05) lower than other infected treated groups, whereas the BUN did not differ significantly (P>0.05) within the infected treated groups when compared with the control. The mean albumin and total protein were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected untreated group, but the infected treated groups did not show any significant (P>0.05) difference. However, the total protein was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the infected treated with resveratrol than in other infected groups. It was concluded that pretreatment with resveratrol is beneficial in managing T. brucei infection, as it delays the onset of parasitemia and restores damages done to the liver and kidneys when combined with diminazene aceturate. 

Secondary bacterial infection of hydatid cysts infected livestock animals (In vitro study)

Maimonah Q. Yahya; Zahraa Khairi-Aldeen Mohi-Aldeen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 761-768
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131873.2016

Isolation and identificationof the bacteria-infected hydatid cystsof livestock animals were carried out. The study lasted for five months. A total of 302 slaughtered livestock were checked to find hydatid cyst naturally infected livers and lungs of sheep and goat at local Mosul abattoir/ Nineveh/ Iraq. Each cysts' aspirated fluid was cultured separately on blood or nutrient agar at 37C for 24 hours then detected secondary bacteria. Each bacterium was incubated independently with 1000 viable protoscolices in a culture tube containing tryptic soy broth at 37°C and examined every two hours for 6 hours, followed by 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours afterward.The degeneration rate of protoscolices resulting from treatment with bacteria isolated depending on viability was studied in vitro.The results were revealed that the liver was the preponderant affected organ in sheep and goats. About 57.1% of sheep and 50% of goats harbored fertile cysts. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were observed in the infected cysts. The most common bacteria infect the cyst was Escherichia coli. The protoscoleces treated with the bacterial isolates had completely deteriorated, whereas 97% of protoscoleces throughout the control groups were still alive and intact even after completing the incubation time. The experiments detect a significant time-dependent scolicidal effect on decreased viability of protoscolices in vitro study. This could pave the door for more research into the scolicidal validity of bacteria or their by-products as protoscolices both in vitro and in vivo.

Studying an outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis in broilers in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Maan T. Jarjees; Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher; aqeel alshater

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 769-774
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131932.2024

The aim of this study was to provide field outbreaks data with FAdVs in Ninevah governorate to emphasize the importance of the disease due to high mortality and production losses. A total of 729,500 broilers collected from 64 flocks at 14 different locations in Nineveh governorate during the second half of 2020. were included in this study. Histopathological changes of the liver in infected birds have been studied. Molecular identification of FAdV was accomplished by DNA extraction from liver samples using DNeasy Tissue Kit. Results reviled that there were 51892 mortalities representing 7.11%. It was noted that the broiler flocks were infected during their 2nd-6th weeks of age, being the highest in the 5th week of age. Decreased mortality was detected from July to December. being 11.3, 7.91, 7.08, 6.38, 5.94 and 4.95%, respectively. Microscopical examination of the liver manifested the pathognomonic presence of eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies related to the disease. PCR findings revealed positive results of FAdVs. It could be concluded that the environmental stress and immunosuppressive agents could contribute to the percentage and duration of mortalities in broiler flocks. 

Psychrotrophic count influence on oxidative stability and aflatoxins in milk and cooking butter

Tawfik El-Bassiony; Gamela abdel-Malek; Marwa Khalifa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 775-780
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131958.2029

Milk and butter are among the precious foods susceptible to spoilage and rancidity due to psychrotrophic microorganisms' activities, which grow in abundance due to the richness of milk and butter in the nutrients and their ability to resist the cold environment milk and butter are stored. In this study, the total psychrotrophic bacterial and fungal counts were recorded. The rancidity represented by the Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value and aflatoxins B1 and M1 levels were also measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results reflected a strong correlation between the total number of psychrotrophic bacteria, the rate of rancidity and the total number of molds, and the levels of the aflatoxins in the milk and butter. In conclusion, the psychrotrophic bacterial and mold counts in the milk and butter must be monitored carefully and be added as a routine examination to the list of the butter examinations. 

The macroscopical and microscopical characters of the trachea in different avian species: A comparative study

Asmaa A. Sakr; Shafika A. Elsayed; Sozan A. Ismaeil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 781-789
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132095.2046

This study aimed to explain and compare the anatomical, histological, histochemical and histomorphometrical analyses of the trachea in different species of birds. This study includes 21 healthy birds from geese (Anser anser domesticus), cattle egrets (Bublucus ibis) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), 7 seven from each species. Anatomically, the trachea of the goose (the proximal and distal parts) was the longest of all the studied species, yet it had fewer cartilaginous rings than those of the cattle egret. Also, the tracheal length, beside the tracheal muscle in geese plays an important role in the phonation process. Histologically, the trachea is composed of four distinct tunicae: mucosa, propria submucosa, fibrocartilaginous, and adventitia. The epithelium that lined the trachea was ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium) with simple mucous tubuloalveolar glands in either proximal or distal parts depending on the species. The proximal part is made up of overlapped hyaline cartilaginous rings that partially ossified in geese and cattle egrets but did not ossify in sparrows. In the distal part, the overlapping faded in three investigated species.

Transabdominal ultrasonographic determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in mares

Eman H. Lazim; Dhafer M. Aziz; Mohammed A. Rahawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 791-796
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132142.2054

The study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of transabdominal ultrasonographic approach for pregnancy diagnosis and monitoring the viability of fetus in mares as an alternative approach to the transrectal ultrasonography to minimize the opportunity of misdiagnosis and prevent the deleterious effect of transrectal invasive. Forty-five mares were scanned by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography. Results showed that 26 mares were pregnant and 19 mares were non-pregnant. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the positive and negative predictive values of both approaches were 100%. Transabdominal approach required less time in comparison to transrectal ultrasonography to reach the final decision for non-pregnant mares 5.26±0.27 vs. 8.11±0.31 min, mares at second trimester 4.36±0.49 vs. 5.57±0.29 min and third trimester 4.12±0.51 vs. 5.86±0.26 min, respectively. Both methods recorded no significant correlation between the scanning time and the gestational age. The positive predictive values for determining fetal viability were 26.9% for transrectal and 80.8% for transabdominal ultrasonography. A significant variance was reported between the positive predictive values obtained by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography. In conclusion, the transabdominal is an effective, practical, and often essential approach of ultrasonographic for determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in mares, especially at the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. We recommended transabdominal ultrasonographic scanner as the first examination for mares presented for pregnancy diagnosis, if this approach does not accurately diagnose, the mares can be scanned transrectaly. So, we can minimize the stress and hazard of the transrectal examination.

Antidiabetic of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel ethanolic extract on alloxan induced diabetic mice

Tridiganita Solikhah; Cinta Atsa Mahesa Rani; Mela Septiani; Yan Arengga Syah Putra; Qonita Rachmah; Gahastanira Permata Solikhah; Bodhi Agustono; Maya Nurwartanti Yunita; Muhammad Thohawi Elziyad Purnama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 797-802
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132178.2061

Diabetes is a disease characterized by high blood glucose due to the abnormal response of the cells in the body on produced insulin or insulin resistance. Indeed, the treatment for diabetes mellitus lasts for a lifetime and causes various side effects, such as headache, hypoglycemia, vomiting, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Interestingly, Dragon fruit has potent antidiabetic activity and without side effects. Thirty Wistar mice were included in the study. Alloxan with a dose of 150 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally to all groups except the standard control group. Mice with blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and employed throughout the study. Mice were divided into five groups: standard control group without alloxan, diabetic control group with alloxan, treatment group of 100 mg/kg and 300mg/kg H. polyrhizus peel extract, and positive control group with 600 µg/kg glibenclamide. All treatments were given orally. Blood glucose level was checked on day 1, 7, and 14 on all groups using Accu-check instant glucometer. This study revealed that administration of alloxan to the diabetic control group significantly increased blood glucose level compared to the normal control group on day-1, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of H. polyrhizus peel extract and glibenclamide effectively decreases blood glucose levels, especially on day-7 and 14 compared to the control group (P<0.05).

Assessment of the analgesic effect of Alpha-lipoic acid by three acute pain models

Marwa R. Rehab; Ahmed S. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 803-807
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132184.2062

Alpha-lipoic acids are Known as a good analgesic in neuropathic pain, especially in diabetic patients. This research aimed to assess the analgesic activity of ALA by three acute pain models using broiler chicks. We used electrical stimulation, hot water test, and formalin test to elicit acute pain. The up and down method was used to calculate the median effect of the analgesic dose. The ED50 of ALA was 45.18 and 74.56 mg/kg intraperitoneally by electrical stimulation and hot water test, respectively. We demonstrated that the peak of analgesic effect was after one hour by using different doses and different times. ALA at 0, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally produces a dose-dependent analgesic effect by formalin test. In conclusion: ALA induced analgesic activity, probably by closing voltage-gated calcium and or voltage-gated sodium channels. These outcomes show that therapeutic doses of ALA can affect pain and may mask or reduce nociception induced by acute pain models.

In vitro study of curcumin calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (Curcumin-NPs) impacts on the meriz goat’s coccidian oocysts

Mohamed R. Ali; Saad M. Bayati; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Ammar A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 809-814
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132196.2067

Nanoparticles biosynthesis has an essential and increased role in delivering medical compounds. Calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (CaCO3-NPs) were prepared as a stabilized amorphous and incorporated with herbal curcumin extract as an anticoccidial agent in vitro. CaCO3 - NPs were tested against local meriz goat coccidian oocysts. Concentrations were used 2, 4, 8, 16, 30 and 50 mg/ml shows oocysticidal effects and sporocystidal effects at concentration of 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 µg. Sporulation inhibition assay was used for 24 and 48 hours. Results of significant oocysticidal effect were seen to inhibit in the concentration of 30 - 50 mg/ml and able to inhibit the sporulation of meriz coccidian parasite oocysts at a rate of 92.54±3.51%. The sporocysticidal effect was also significant with a curcumin nanoparticles concentration of 400-1000 µg/ml with a rate of 98.1±2.11%. The stability of prepared curcumin nanoparticles was examined against various pH levels 4.01, 7, and 9.21 at multiple temperatures 4, 25, 60, and 100°C. Investigation after 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours of treatment occurs according to various treatments. Stability was assessed by spectrophotometric indicated significant reductions for pH 4 and 9 after one hour of treatment and at the temperature of 60°C and 100°C after 12-24 hours of treatment. These results reflect promising hopes of exploiting CaCO3 curcumin nanoparticles to eradicate coccidiosis as they are composed of and prepared from natural substances.

Effect of dietary BHA supplementation on certain physiological values in broiler chicken

Hadeel M. Hameed; Hiyam N. Maty; Ashwaq A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 815-819
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132202.2068

Butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) is manufactured from a mixture of two isomeric organic compounds, 2-tertiary-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, and is widely used in poultry feed as a phenolic free radical scavenger. The current search investigated the impact of different doses of BHA on some hematological and hormonal features of broiler. Fifty-four one-day-old birds were utilized in this study randomly divided into three groups, the control group was given a standard ratio, the 2ed group was given a standard diet filled up with BHA at a rate of 2.5 mg/kg feed, and the 3rd group was given a standard ration fill up with BHA at a rate of 5 mg/kg feed by 18 birds/group, each with three replicates (6 birds/ repeated cycle). The study included three age stages (15, 30, and 45) days. The results showed a significant rise in RBC, WBC, lymphocytes, MCH, SOD, and CAT for the two groups of BHA during 30 and 45 days of treatment compared with the control with a significant improvement in the stress index, as well as a significant decrease in MCV during the three periods of treatment. Supplementation with BHA in both doses caused a significant rise in T3 and T4 during 45 days of the study compared with the control group. We deduce from this research that adding BHA to the poultry diets improved physiological and hormonal characteristics due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. It promotes significant health and growth.

Detection of the nuc gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from swamps and ponds in Mosul city by using PCR techniques

Omar H. Sheet; Reem A. Talat; Ibtihal I. Kanaan; Ashwaq A. Najem; Ali S. Saeed Alchalabi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 821-824
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.173276.2069

In most developing countries, rainwater is considered a significant water source for drinking, washing, bathing, and cooking. On the other hand, this water is the medium for transporting microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi to humans and animals. Most domestic and wild animals drink this kind of waterborne illness that leads to various types of diseases, which causes enormous economic losses. The current study was aimed to isolate Staphylococcus (S.) aureus from the swamps and ponds in various areas, including (Qawseat, Kukagle, Besan, Al-Arabi, and Al-Shlalat) that surrounding the Mosul city during the rainfall season. One hundred rainwater samples were collected from swamps and ponds in various Mosul city areas. The classical method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique had used to identify S. aureus isolates. The present study showed that the prevalence rate of S. aureus isolated from swamps and ponds was 12% (12/100) based on the classical and PCR methods used. All the positive S. aureus isolates possess the specific-species nuc gene. In addition, the results of the classical methods are similar to the results of the PCR technique. The present study concludes that the water of swamps and ponds is formed by rainwater exposed to contamination by S. aureus, which posed in the ground and is not fit for the drinking of animals and humans. 

New surgical model to induce irreversible liver fibrosis by surgical closure of major duodenal orifice in dogs

Marwan H. Khalil; Ahmed Khalaf Ali; Osamah muwaffag aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 825-831
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132219.2071

This study was conducted to induce and evaluate irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs by surgical closure of the major duodenal orifice. The study was performed on six healthy local adult dogs. Irreversible hepatic fibrosis was surgically induced in all animals by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla using non-absorbable suture material for 60 days. Induced hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by clinical, ultrasonographical examination, laboratory and histopathological methods. The clinical manifestation of the jaundiced dogs showed reduced food intake, pale-yellowish mucus membrane, inflammatory signs of wound site and severe post-operative pain. Biochemically, there was significant increased values of the aspartate aminotransferase ,  alkaline phosphatase , alanine aminotransferase , indirect bilirubin, direct bilirubin and total bilirubin especially during first two days after surgery followed by a gradual decrease of these values until the end of the but still higher than normal values. Ultrasonographic examinations showed abnormal change in the liver tissue such as increase in both size and wall thickness of the gall bladder and mottled heterogeneous appearance of the liver during the first two weeks following the surgical induction of the hepatic fibrosis and lasted until the end of the study. Histopathological evaluation of liver samples revealed necrosis of hepatocytes and deposition of eosinophilic material, infiltration of inflammatory cells, recent thrombus in the hepatic vein, fatty change. In conclusion, surgical induction of irreversible hepatic fibrosis in dogs was feasible technique by surgical closure of major duodenal papilla and the results were confirmed by the clinical, ultrasonographical, laboratory and histopathological examination.

Morphometric and molecular characterization of Moniezia species in sheep in Mosul city, Iraq

Eman G. Suleiman; Nadia S. Alhayali; Ahlam F. AL-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 833-837
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132278.2077

The current study examined 100 small intestines collected randomly from sheep slaughtered in the abattoir and butcher’s shops from different Mosul city / Iraq areas of both sexes (55 females, 45 males) and different ages. Moniezia expansa was diagnosed in 9 samples of intestines by studying the morphometric characteristics of these tapeworms, especially the mature segments, in which both the ovaries and vitelline glands appeared in the ring shape on either side of the body segments and the rosette-like shape of the interproglotidial glands. No significant difference was noticed between males and females of sheep in our study, and the infection rate was 10% in sheep less than a year old and older than two years, with no significant difference between the age groups. The results of the molecular analysis by using conventional polymerase chain reaction technique confirmed the diagnosis of these worms, which belong to the genus Moniezia, with a product reaction of 700 base pairs. The sequencing result shows two strains of Moniezia expanza, which isolated from Iraq (Moniezia expansa-Iraqi one and Moniezia expansa-Iraqi 2) were similar to each other had a significant distance to other strains. The study also showed that Moniezia expansa is different from the same species in other countries.