Volume 36, Issue 2, Spring 2022, Page 266-500

Effect of sodium benzoate on some biochemical, physiological and histopathological aspects in adult male rats

Safa A. Al-Ameen; Eman H. Jirjees; Fadwa Kh. Tawfeeq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 267-272
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129935.1705

Sodium benzoate SB is a white powder, used as preservative and food additive. Biochemical, physiological and histopathological effects of SB been tested in adult male rats. Twenty-four adult albino male rats aged100 day and weighted 250-350 g were used. Animals were divided into 4 groups. The first group considered as control, which received normal saline orally, other groups treated with SB by 300, 400, 500 mg/Kg of body weight respectively for 30 days. At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected from retro orbital sinus. Heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were obtained for weight recording. The results indicated a significant decrease of super oxide dismutase SOD activity and a significant increase of nitric oxide NO level of treated group 500 mg/Kg of body weight. Moreover, findings revealed that there are no significant changes in growth hormone GH activity and body weight. A significant reduction of heart weight of treated group 500 mg/Kg of body weight were observed. The histopathological changes ranged from mild to severe in the brain cortex, as focal gliosis, satellitosis, mild vacuolation and vasogenic edema in treated groups with SB by different doses. Also, some changes were observed in liver represented by congestion of portal vein, mild hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes, stenosis of sinusoids, steatosis and necrosis of hepatocytes in treated groups with SB compared to control group. It concluded that short-term exposure to high doses of SB may be considered an oxidant substance that caused oxidative stress. Furthermore, SB can harm various organs in the body. 

Subclinical ketosis: Prevalence and some risk factors in cross breed and imported breed dairy cows in Mosul, Iraq

Mohsin H. Ali; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 273-277
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129949.1707

Although ongoing control strategies are attempting to minimize certain metabolic disorders such as hyperketonemia, factors such as genetics, management, environment, and geography still present a potential challenge to the achievement of the desired results. In light of this, this study was conducted (i) to determine the prevalence of subclinical and clinical ketosis based on the concentration of ketone bodies (BHB) using ELISA Kit, and (ii) to examine a number of epidemiological risk factors related to the conditions. From October, 2020 to the January, 2021. A 80 blood samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey in different areas of Mosul. Data included age, management systems, parity, and origin. At the cut-off point ≥1.2-≤ 1.4 mmol / L, the prevalence of subclinical ketosis was 27.5% and for clinical ketosis it was 5%. Results revealed that the animals aged > 3 years were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to animals aged ≤ 3 years RR = 2.6471. Multiparous animals were more at risk compared to the primiparous (two or less births) RR = 2.0652. No significant difference between the animals’ origins RR = 0.6863. Indoor and outdoor system animals were more at risk for subclinical ketosis compared to the indoor system only RR = 2.1389. In conclusion, hyperketonemia is prevalent in Mosul. Certain risk factors should be taking into account when planning control programs. Attention should be paid to diagnosis, management, and control of this disease during the risk stage to avert economic loss to the dairy farmers.

Evaluation the antihyprlipidemic effect of apigenin flavonoid in mice

Zena S. hamed; Ahmad Sh. Altaweel; Khalid A. Shaban; Ghada A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 279-283
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130008.1718

The study’s aim was to examine the antihyperlipidemic effect of apigenin in mice as a model. Healthy adult albino mice of either sex were selected to use for this study. Four groups of animals were formed of 5 mice each. Animals Group 1 served as a negative control and fed the standard diet and tap water. Groups 2,3 and 4 were fed fatty diet and 1% water with H2O2 for 90 days to induce hyperlipidemia. After hyperlipidemic induction, group 2 served as a positive control, whereas group 3 was treated orally with apigenin 50 mg/kg/day for 14 constitutive days. Group 4 was treated by rosuvastatin (an antihyprlipidemic drug) orally at 7 mg/kg for 14 constitutive days. Blood samples were collected from all of the animals at the beginning of the study to measure the lipid profile. Then these were rechecked again after 12 weeks of feeding a high-fat diet, and then at the end of the experiment for the treated groups. The results demonstrated that the apigenin at 50mg/kg significantly reduced hyperlipidemia manifested by decreased TC, LDL-C, Triglyceride and elevation of HDL-C in comparison with the positive control group. The results, obtained by apigenin were the in accordance with those of the standard drug rosuvastatin for TC and LDL-C. This study concluded that apigenin lowered plasma cholesterol and triglycerides levels in mice. 

The effect of lipopolysaccharide extracted from Escherichia coli on total WBCs, granulocytes and on phagocytic activity in female rats

Aziz T. Koro; Adeba Y. Sharif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 285-289
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130030.1721

The present study was conducted to compare the total white blood cells count, granulocytes and phagocytic activity in female rats immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from two different isolates of Escherichia coli, one normal isolate from the gut of healthy adult and the other was pathogenic strain isolated from patients suffering from urinary tract infection. The study was included 35 female albino rats divided randomly into seven groups, three groups injected with different concentrations of LPS of normal flora of E.coli 90, 120 and 150 microgram/kilogram body weight respectively and the other three groups were injected with the same concentrations of LPS extracted from pathogenic strain of E.coli, the last group (7th) represented the control group which given normal saline only. The results showed that the LPS from normal isolate causes a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes, granulocytes and phagocytic activity in animals immunized with the concentration of 120 µg/kg compared with the control group, and the concentration of 150 µg/kg of the same extract resulted in a high significant increase in phagocytic activity and the concentration of 90 µg/kg did not stimulate any significant differences in all the variables, while immunization with the extract of pathogenic strain increases the total leukocytes at a concentration of 90 µg/kg only with a significant increases in phagocytic activity at all concentration, and it also did not cause any significant differences in the granulocytes count.

Histomorphometrical and histochemical postnatal development of cornea in indigenous rabbits

Omar Y. Younis Altaay; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 291-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130031.1722

The present study aims to clarify corneal development via analyzing of the histomorphologic and some histochemical parameters in local rabbits. Samples were collected from 25 Rabbits divided into five different age groups at 1, 10, 15, 30, and 40 postnatal day (PND), then the samples sectioned, processed, and stained with Hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson’s trichrome stain. Some sections were further stained with periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and toluidine blue (TB) stain for histochemical evaluation. Measurements of corneal layers performed for morphometric comparison among age groups. The finding revealed thickening of corneal epithelium, stroma, and corneal endothelium progressively with age and decrease of corneal layer’s cellular density concurrently with alteration of corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium cell’s type. The histochemical finding revealed late appearance of bowman’s and Descemet’s membranes after eyelid opening which responded strongly to PAS technique while stroma became metachromatic strongly responded to toluidine blue stain. In conclusion, cornea showed highly active histological development and cellular differentiation before and after eyelid opening.

Protoscolex metabolites of Coenurus cerebralis as antigenic-produced humoral immune response in sheep

Sura S. Alkhuzaie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 297-301
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130043.1727

The purpose of the current experiment was to test the immunization against Coenurus cerebralis in sheep. Sixteen animals (6 months old, from 1 October 2020 to 30 March 2021 in Najaf city) were recruited to perform the experiment, in which eight of them were injected twice at 21-day interval using the cellular metabolic antigen of C. cerebralis protoscolex cultivated and then emulsified by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The shots were injected intramuscularly at a dose of 1 ml (15 mg of antigenic protein determined in a separate experiment). The second group of eight sheep served as controls (injected intramuscularly with 1 ml sterile saline only at the days of injections). Blood samples were collected from all animals at day-0 (before injection) and at day 10, 18, and 24 after the first injection, and at day10, 16, 26, 40, 48, 53, 61, 80, 85, and 89 after the second injection. Serum activity was studied by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The findings, by iELISA, revealed that the cellular antigen of C. cerebralis protoscolices is an active stimulator of antibody response. Day-10 (after the first injection) showed significantly (P<0.05) 3.4 to 9.9 time-higher antibody levels compared to those from day-0. This elevation in the titer of antibodies was increased after receiving the second dose showing 6.3 to 12 time-higher antibody presence even at the final days of blood collection compared to those from day-0. No changes were noticed in the sera of the control animals. The obtained data allow us to conclude that metabolites synthesized by cultivation are active immunogenic components that activate the humoral part of the immune system manifested by the increases in the antibody titers. This gives a solid ground for future work regarding alternative methods of discovering immunization techniques against cestodes.

Phenotypic characterization and antibiogram of extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from sheep

Fatma R. Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 303-307
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130112.1732

This study aimed to isolate and characterize extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC producing E. coli in sheep in Mosul city. A total of 260 milk and fecal samples were collected aseptically from healthy ewes (n=60), their respective lambs (n=60), and ewes with clinical mastitis (n=40). Standard bacterial isolation and identification on special culture media were performed to isolate ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli. While special antibiotic discs D68C MASTDISCS® Combi AmpC and ESBL ID set were used to characterize positive ESBL/AmpC E. coli. The results showed that 99/260 (38.1%) of tested samples were ESBL-E. coli positive and distributed as follows, 7/60 (11.7%) and 39/60 (65%) from milk and feces of clinically healthy ewes, respectively, and 37/60 (61.7%) from feces of clinically healthy lambs, while 4/40 (10%) and 12/40 (30%) from the milk and feces of ewes with clinical mastitis, respectively. However, we could not obtain any AmpC positive isolate from all tested samples. The high recovery percentages of ESBL from feces or milk of sheep reflect the arbitrary use of the antibiotic in sheep farming. This could significantly increase the resistance of the bacterial population that might represent a potential source for transmission of antibiotic resistance to humans.

Histopathology and Immunohistochemistry of tumors in animals attending veterinary teaching hospital

Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Khalil W. Khalil; Abdull Rahman R. Edreesi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 309-314
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130114.1733

We aim in the current study to investigate the pathology and incidence of tumors that are excised surgically in Veterinary Teaching Hospital. This study collected the tissue samples from animals from 1 October 2020 until 1 April 2021. These samples were collected from animals that undergo surgical procedures to remove neoplastic growths in their body. After tissue grossing, samples were collected from tumor mass, then fixed in neutral buffered 10% formalin for 72 hours, then processed to embedded in paraffin wax. A routine Harris’s hematoxylin and eosin stain were also used, histochemical stains such as Masson’s trichrome and PAS techniques were used as needed. In exceptional cases, IHC protocol was used for diagnostic steps to some types of tumors included in the current study. The antibodies that were used are Vimentin for canine osteosarcoma, P53 for squamous cell carcinoma, Mdm2 for ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma, and CD10 for neoplastic lymphocytes. The result of the current study showed that the prevalence of tumor recorded was Marek’s diseases 22.8%, squamous cell carcinoma 22.8%, ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma 15.4%, third eyelid adenoma 15.4%, canine osteosarcomas 7.4%, venereal transmitting tumors 7.4%, and feline mammary gland tumor 7.4%. Histological examination of feline mammary gland tumor composed from server infiltration of neoplastic cells, these neoplastic cells identified as lymphocytes in a fibrous stroma. Third eyelid adenomas in cats and dogs were composed of well-demarcated nodules containing neoplastic sebaceous cells present in glandular form and combined by hyperplasia of epidermis extended inside the neoplastic mass. Venereal transmitting tumor in cat composed from cells with a round to oval shape and the cytoplasm is poorly defined by routine stain, with dense fibrous tissue. Osteosarcoma in a dog has a pleomorphic nature with an anaplastic form composed of islands of osteoid materials, and the tumor is composed of three types of osteoblast, chondroblast, and fibroblast. Pulmonary adenocarcinoma in sheep composed of a nodular formation containing dense collagen fiber deposition with transformation of cells lining alveoli into cuboidal or columnar cells can also be observed in other air passages. Squamous cell carcinomas are primarily found in skin lesions associated with the formation of pathognomic lesions known as keratin pearls. This lesion is composed of the acentric layer of keratin produced by neoplastic keratinocytes. Marek’s disease was observed in visceral organs such as liver, lung, kidney, intestines, and spleen composed from pleomorphic lymphocytes, diffusely proliferating small-to-medium-size lymphoblast. In conclusion, the incidence of tumor in animals that attending Veterinary Teaching Hospital belong to the College of Veterinary Medicine, the University of Mosul was in general high in comparison to other studies in Iraq and other countries, this high incidence should pay attention to the causes of these cancerous conditions and their relation to environmental etiology. 

Detection of canine distemper virus in stray and pet dogs in Mosul city, Iraq

Muhanad M. Saaed; Qaes T. Alsarhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 315-319
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130127.1739

The current work was carried out during the period from September, 2020 to March, 2021 in Mosul city, Iraq, with the objectives to detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) for the first time in Mosul using microscopic examination of blood smears, rapid serum antigen test and sandwich ELISA test as well as determine the agreement between the different diagnostic methods. A total of 92 blood samples were collected from suspected dogs with CDV (69 stray dogs and 23 Pet dogs). A primarily detection of CDV in blood smear by the presence of inclusion bodies in erythrocytes and leukocytes, followed by detection of CDV antigen in serum using rapid test and sandwich ELISA test. Results indicate that the infection rates of CDV in dogs were 32.6%, 13%, and 19.5% using microscopic examination, rapid test and sandwich ELISA test respectively. A statistically significant higher infection rate was reported in stray dogs compared to pet dogs based on all diagnostic tests used in this study. Based on Kappa values 0.413, 0.675, 0.745, there were moderate agreement between microscopic examination and rapid test, and substantial agreement between microscopic examination and sandwich ELISA test, also between rapid test and sandwich ELISA test respectively. In conclusions, CDV is widespread in dogs in Mosul city, Iraq and all tests used in this study are efficient for detection CDV based on compatibility between them.

Protective effect of quercetin against corneal toxicities induced by cisplatin in male mice

Semaa A. Baker; Mahdi A. Ali Abdullah; Ali A. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 321-326
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130145.1741

The Aim of study was conducted to evaluate the potential protective role of quercetin against the corneal toxicity which caused by administration of cisplatin in male mice. Thirty-six adult male albino mice were divided into three equal groups; Group I control, Group II cisplatin mice injected as single dose I.P of cisplatin 10 mg/kg, and Group III mice received Q 75 mg/ kg with cisplatin 10 mg/ kg. The treatment continues for eight days then the tissues were collected for histopathological study. The histopathological changes in the cornea of eye were demonstrated in groups of mice received cisplatin. The changes represented by damages of superficial epithelial layer, vacuolar degeneration, hyperplasia, separation of stromal layer and sever damage of the stromal hemorrhage, and perforation of sclera, edema and inflammatory cells infiltration as well as separation of descement membrane from stroma layer. While these changes were diminished when the mice are treated with Q in the combination of cisplatin in comparison to treated cisplatin alone mice. Cisplatin induced structural and histopathological changes in the cornea of adult albino rat that could be ameliorated by concomitant treatment with quercetin.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the broiler chicks model

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 327-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130163.1746

No former studies are dealing with the pharmacological (pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics) interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the chicks' model. The median effective doses (ED50s) for nefopam and tramadol produces analgesia has been estimated each alone as 9.24 and 0.83 mg/kg, IP, respectively. The interaction concerning nefopam and tramadol combination was estimated by isobolographic analysis to be 2.91 and 0.25 mg/kg, IP. The kind of interaction between nefopam and tramadol was synergistic as indicated by the interaction index 0.61. The analgesic efficacy of the combination was significantly different from nefopam and tramadol administered alone. Nefopam plasma concentration 18.48 mg/kg, IP for different measured times 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours 33.25, 27.10, 15.05, 13.61, and 2.45 µg/ml while the concentration was increased once coadministered with tramadol 1.66 mg/kg, IP by 22, 26, 43, 45, and 81% been 40.72, 34.27, 21.53, 19.76, and 4.43 µg/ml, respectively. Nefopam pharmacokinetic profile comprised of area-under-curve (AUC), area-under-moment-curve (AUMC), mean-residence-time (MRT), half-life (t1/2β), maximal concentration (Cmax) amplified after tramadol is coadministered with nefopam by 52, 260, 23, 15, and 22%. The elimination constant (Kel), distribution volume (VD), clearance (Cl) were diminished 13, 25, and 29%, similarly. The sum results suggested a synergistic interaction between nefopam and tramadol along with a modification in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which improve the therapeutic efficacy of nefopam in the chickens besides, advocate using these two drugs as preanesthetics in veterinary medicine.

Molecular characterization and microbial resistance of different bacterial isolates in some dairy products

Waleed K. Alkhafaje; Zakia A. Olama; Safaa M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 333-339
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130206.1764

Bacterial contamination of milk and dairy products is a common problem. In the last two years, the foodborne diseases caused by the intake of milk and dairy products have been mostly disturbed with Salmonella entertica, Listeria monocytogenes Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Campylobacter jejune. The study aims to isolate multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria in dairy products and study of the molecular characterization of that isolates. MDR bacteria were found in 30 out of the 131 bacterial isolates. The incidence of MDR bacterial isolates revealed the abundance of Staphylococcus sp. with 43.3%, Bacillus sp 16.7%, Salmonella 13.3%, E. coli 10 %, Enterococcus 6.7 % Psedoumonas 3.3 %, Shegella 3.3 % and Proteous 3.3 %. Molecular studies of genes presence or absence for class A contain TEM, CTX and BSHV, class B contain VIM, IMP, KPC and NDM, class C contain FOX and class D contain OXA-10, OXA-24 and OXA-58 were tested. NDM, TEM, CITM and OXA -10 genes were the most abundant the selected bacterial isolates. The results of this study indicate that cheese made from unpasteurized milk can pose a significant risk to consumers. Product manufacturing processes should be subject to health control-to-control pathogens. The novelty in this work depend on screening of gene responsible of the resistance from the bacteria isolated from dairy product using the molecular technique.

A review analysis of global Bluetongue virus-related research articles from 2000 to 2020

Ibrahim M. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 341-347
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130222.1770

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus, causes bluetongue (BT) disease of ruminants responsible for mortality and trade limitation. The objective of this study was to provide a descriptive review analysis of global research activity for the period 2000 to 2020. The number of articles, temporal evolution, geographical distribution, countries, funding agencies, authors, research theme, and the source was analyzed and presented in visualization maps. Search query resulted in 3878 documents from 5681 authors, and 2017 articles were analyzed. The annual number of publications showed a steep increase from 2005 to 2020 related to attention to BT as an exotic disease in Europe, as well as the interest in vector over-distribution due to climate change. Most of the studies were performed in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. The top active countries in article production were the United Kingdom and the United States. A considerable international collaboration network of the UK with the USA and European countries was observed. However, the collaboration was weak with Asian and African countries. The major research themes are genomic viral studies, the role of Culicoides as a vector, serological and molecular epidemiology, and vaccination. In conclusion, an increase in scientific production and international collaboration was noticed during the last two decades. However, international collaboration needs more attention to African, and South American countries. The current study provides useful references for the policymaker, academics, animal health professionals, and funding agencies to follow the past and except the future BTV themes. 

Histopathological effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the liver of Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix japonica

Nazhan M. Ahmed; Ameer M. M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 349-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130223.1771

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles have multiple beneficial uses, as they are used in many medical, industrial, economic, and other fields. Despite these many benefits, it is not without harm to humans and animals if used without control. Therefore, the present study aimed to discover the histopathological effects of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the liver of Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica. The study included three groups, the first group, the control group, which were dosed with distilled water for four continuous days, and the second and third experimental groups, which were dosed with Titanium dioxide nanoparticles at a concentration of 20 and 40 mg/kg, respectively. Four, fourteen, thirty and sixty days after the experiment began, the birds were sacrificed. The results showed the emergence of many histological lesions in the liver of birds of the two experimental groups, to varying degrees, in the four periods, among the most prominent tissue lesions that appeared in the second experimental group, the emergence of necrosis, hemorrhage, vacuolation, congestion, ballooning swelling, in addition to infiltration of inflammatory cells. While in the third experimental group, histopathological lesions appeared similar to second group, in addition to sinuses dilatation, Kupffer cells hypertrophy, hepatocyte enlargement, and necrosis of the walls of blood vessels and bile ducts. The study concluded that direct exposure to Titanium dioxide nanoparticles leads to damage to the liver tissue of these birds, which may affect its function and thus endanger its life.

The effect of retained placenta on the reproductive performance and its economic losses in a Holstein dairy herd

Eman R. Kamel; Hayaa A. Ahmed; Fardos M. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 359-365
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130287.1791

Retention of placenta (RP) is a failure of the fetal membrane to be expelled and remained from 8 to 48 hours, average 12 hours after parturition. There are a variety of risk factors for the occurrence of RP. So, the aim of this study was to quantify the relative risk of calving season, parity, and gestation length on the occurrence of RP, and assess the impact of RP on the subsequent reproductive parameters, and the economic losses. A data of 2940 purebred Holstein-Friesian cows were collected from reliable records of large commercial dairy farm, Sharkia governorate, Egypt. These cows calved during the period extended from January 2018 to December 2019. Cows that did not release the fetal membranes within the first 12 hours after calf expulsion were diagnosed with RP.Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that the important risk factors for the occurrence of RP were summer calving season and short gestation period. Odds ratio estimation for summer calving season compared to spring calving was 2.84. The probability of RP incidence in cows with shorter gestation period was 0.19 times more than cows with longer gestation length, and the total direct economic losses from RP was 47 $/cow.Finally, we can conclude that short gestation length and summer calving season are strongly correlated with the development of RP in dairy cows. Subsequently, the occurrence of RP significantly affects reproductive parameters resulting in economic losses in dairy herds.

Hepato-renal and hematological effects of flunixin and silymarin coadministration in rats

Imtithal A. Mohammed; Khalid A. Shaban; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 367-373
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130323.1800

The study aimed to explore the ameliorative effects of silymarin when administered with flunixin on the liver, kidney, and blood components in rats. The animals were divided into four groups; each one consists of five rats. The first group was served as a control. The second and third groups were treated with silymarin 200 mg/kg b.wt, p.o and flunixin 2.5 mg/kg b.wt, i.p respectively. The fourth group was treated with silymarin and flunixin concurrently. The involved rats were treated for seven consecutive days by a single daily dose. Following the treatment, the biochemical analysis ALT, AST, ALP, Urea, and Creatinine, blood analysis parameters RBC, HGB, HCT, WBC, and PLT, and a histopathological examination liver and kidney were studied for the involved animals. The results showed that flunixin increased the levels of ALT and AST and the concentrations of Urea and Creatinine, and the total number of WBC. Also silymarin caused a remarkable decrease in the flunixin adverse effects on the liver and kidneys. This was reflected from the histological features observed from the diverse tested groups. Based on these findings, the authors concluded that silymarin has the ability to reduce the harmful effects of flunixin on both the liver and the kidneys.

Molecular characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from cows in Mosul city, Iraq

Sumaya Y. Aldabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 375-380
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130341.1803

Cows are considered as reservoir hosts for many pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to broad-spectrum beta lactamase(ESBL). Presence of ESBL resistant K. pneumoniae in nasal of cows and beef meat constitutes a risk for public health due to transfer of antibiotic resistance gene from cows to environment, humans and farm animals. Therefore, the current study was concluded the detection of molecular characteristics of ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae that was isolated from both cow's nostrils and from local beef samples. Fifty nasal swabs were collected from farms cows in Mosul city, and 50 samples of beef from local butcher shops for the period from February to August 2020. Bacterial isolation and identification tests were conducted for ESBL resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae using MacConkey agar medium with-1 μg/ml cefotaxime. PCR was carried out to confirm the results using special primers (SSKP 1 F and SSKP 1 R) for Klebsiella (the target gene 16srRNA). Then, a molecular examination was performed using the precursors CTX-M, TEM and SHV. Through bacterial isolation, 36 (72%) and 28 (56%) isolates were belonging to ESBL resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from nasal samples and beef meat respectively. The CTX-M, TEM and SHV genes formed (100, 89.2, 85.7) % and (100, 72.2, 71.4) % for each the meat and nasal samples respectively. This study showed that cows play a major role in transferring ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from cows to humans as a result of environmental handling or consumption contaminated meat. 

Isolation, identification and genetic analysis of Mannheimia haemolytica in ovine clinical mastitis in Mosul city

Tariq J Rasheed; Dhyaa M. Jwher

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 381-386
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130347.1805

The aim of this study was to identify and diagnose of M. haemolytica strains as one of the most important causes of ovine clinical mastitis in Mosul city. One hundred and thirty-three milk samples were directly obtained from the udders of ewes infected by clinical mastitis from November 2020 to January 2021.Standard and conventional methods were followed for isolation and identification of M. haemolytica. Milk samples were cultured on blood agar 7% and MacConkey agar, then it was purified and was stained by Methylene blue. Later, different biochemical tests were Conducted. Molecular identification of M. haemolytica depending on 16srRNA gene, followed by sequencing, similarity and phylogenetic tree was generated. The results showed that 62(46.61%) of samples were positive for bacterial isolation, biochemical tests and conventional PCR technique. Sequencing results showed that the positive samples were belonged to M. haemolytica strains. The similarity within strain Ib001 and within strain 39433 were 100%, and 99.47% respectively. Poor management was associated with the high level of mastitis caused by M. haemolytica, so the application of prophylactic programs should be followed to limit the spread of the disease.

Molecular detection of ESBL/AmpC ß-Lactamase Escherichia coli isolated from sheep in Mosul city

Fatma R. Rafee Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 387-392
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130380.1810

Globally, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/Ampicillin ß-lactamase (AmpC) producing Escherichia coli has become the greatest threat for distributing antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, this study was designed to detect and screen the genes that confer resistance in E. coli isolated from sheep as main livestock in Mosul city. Forty E. coli isolates previously recovered from milk and fecal samples were included in this study. These isolates were obtained from healthy ewes, their lambs, and also from ewes with clinical mastitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the E. coli isolates targeting the 16sRNA gene. Furthermore, screening of different genotypes of ESBL/AmpC was conducted using specific primers. The results showed that the CTX-M gene was predominant among ESBL genotypes and recorded 40/40 (100%). While, SHV and TEM genes recorded 7/40 (17.5%) and 5/40 (12.5%), respectively. Moreover, fecal carriage of resistance genes was more than that obtained from milk in both healthy and diseased animals. However, none of the 40 isolates showed positive results for AmpC genes. The presence of different genotypes of ESBL E. coli isolated from feces or milk origin may act as a potential source for transferring antibiotic resistance to humans, other animals, and the environment.

Effect of orlistat and aquatic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves in histopathological changes in kidney of albino rat

Alya A. Al-Safo; Liqaa H. AlDulaimi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 393-400
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130400.1813

This study investigated the effects of orlistat and rosemary extract on kidney tissue when combined with a high-fat diet, as well as the association between these treatments and body weight, blood lipid profile, and oxidative stress status in male rats. 42 rats weighing 170-200 grams were divided into seven groups, each consisting of six rats. The experiment lasted 20 weeks and was divided into two phases: a stage of induced obesity using high-fat food (fattened), which lasted from week 0 to week 12, except for the control group, which was fed a normal diet. The treatment period lasted from week 12 to week 20, with daily dosing, and the totals were distributed as follows: the first control group was dosed with distilled water alone, the second group was fed a high-fat diet only, the third group was given rosemary aqueous extract at a 10 ml/kg, the fourth group was given orlistat at a dose of 100 mg/kg, the fifth group was given orlistat at a dose of 200 mg/kg, and the sixth group was given orlistat at a dose of 100 mg/kg as well as extract. The seventh group received orlistat at a dose of 200 mg/kg and the extract. When compared to the high-fat diet and the rest of the groups, the weights of the animals increased significantly, as did the lipid profile like TC and LDL, TG, and VLDL in the blood, which were accompanied by decrease in the levels of glutathione and increase malondialdehyde. When given a high-fat diet and orlistat, histopathological examination of the kidneys revealed changes in the renal tissue, including glomerular atrophy, necrosis and cloudy swelling of epithelial cells lining renal tubules, whereas when given the extract with orlistat, these effects were reduced. We conclude that rosemary aqueous extract has preventive and therapeutic antioxidant properties, as evidenced by its improved effect on the histopathological changes induced by orlistat drug in kidney tissue, as well as its improving effect on the state of oxidative stress in the kidney tissue and the level of lipids profile in the blood, and its weight-loss efficacy.

Some immunological responses in rats injected with prepared bacterin toxoid of local methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Abdullah A. Abdulazeez Sheehan; Mohammed H. Khudor; Fanar A. Isihak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 401-406
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130401.1815

This study was aimed to prepare bacterin toxoid from local isolate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from bovine mastitis in Basrah province. Isolated MRSA was detected and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. Then inactivated bacterin toxoid was prepared. A total of 45 male albino rats were used in 3 mainly groups to assess the bacterin toxoid. For immunological response, the concentrations of IL-4, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cells were estimated using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed increase in the concentrations of IL-4, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in vaccinated group comparing with non-vaccinated control group. Increasing concentrations of IL-4 enhance humoral immune response by stimulation of Th2 that effect directly on B-cells differentiating them to plasma cells responsible for production of specific antibodies against MRSA. Increased CD4+T-cells also enhance humoral immune response as a result of interaction between them and antigen-presenting cells which presented major histocompatibility complex (MHC) type II on their surface, while increased CD8+T-cells enhance cellular immune response as a result of interaction between them and somatic effected cells presented MHC type I on their surface leading to differentiation them to Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) responsible for the killing of effected cells. It was concluded that locally prepared bacterin toxoid proved their efficacy to stimulate both humoral and cell mediated immunity in rats as an experimental animal model.

Sero-prevalence of hypodermosis in cattle in Mosul city, Iraq

Duaa G. Alhamdany; Nadia S. alhayali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 407-412
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130397.1816

Bovine hypodermosis has been known as a veterinary disease that mainly caused by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum. This study aimed to determine sero-prevalence of cattle grubs in Mosul, Iraq utilizing indirect ELISA as well as effect of some risk factors on prevalence of hypodermosis. A total of two hundred blood specimens were collected from healthy and infested cattle through direct palpation. All samples were collected from cattle at Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Mosul abattoir, Kokjali and Bazwaya region during October 2020 to March 2021. Outcomes of iELISA showed 40.5% as an infestation rate of hypodermosis. Notably, infestation intensity has distributed as light, moderate and sever 11, 18.5 and 70.3% respectively. Interestingly, highest seroprevalence of hypodermosis was recorded in October 67.7%, and the lowest was recorded in February and March 22.2%, 25% respectively. Observations of current study also recorded the infection rate in age was 54.7% in animals less than 3 years old, and the lowest was 16% in animals more than 3 years old. Moreover, breed showed a significant risk factor 53.8% for imported cattle and 14.7% for local breed. Importantly, risk factor concerning area recorded the highest rate in Kokjali 52.2%. In contrast, the lowest rate recorded in Teaching Veterinary Hospital 14.8%. The present study is the first investigation to identify cattle hypodermosis by iELISA in Mosul, Iraq. iELISA has been approved as the best diagnostic tool for early detection of hypodermosis during the migrating phase. Interestingly, age, breed and months of study were significant risk factors. 

Effect of adding carrots as feed supplementation on reproductive performance in Awassi ewes

Nawaf N. Dhahir; Maythem A. Ismaeel; Ziyad T. Aldoori

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 413-417
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130460.1822

The present study was designed to estimate the effect of carrots supplementation on reproductive performance in ewes. Thirty Awassi ewes. Ewes were randomly divided into three equal groups, distributed as 10 ewes for each group. First group consider as control, second group feed 400 g carrot/animal daily, third group feed 800 g carrot/animal daily. Each group were synchronized with intra vaginal sponges and injected with 400 IU of eCG at the time of sponge withdrawal. Estrus ewes were conceived naturally with rams and pregnant ewes were followed until parturition. The results of current study demonstrated that G3 had high estrus response and fertility rate 90% compared with G2 and control 80 and 70% respectively. Fecundity rate increased significant in G3 200% compared to G2 and 125 and 100% respectively. Ewes in G3 showed the highest multiple lambing rate 66.67% compared with G2 25% and control 0%. Blood progesterone concentration was high increasing at the 18th day of estrus in the ewes for G3 and G2 compared with control, also, estrogen level at the day of estrus showed high increasing in G3 compared with G2 and control group. We concluded that carrots fed as a supplementation have essential effect on enhancement of reproductive performance in ewes. 

Histopathological changes on the pregnant rat's lung induced by sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 419-424
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130464.1824

Food additives and preservatives are widely used globally, which, despite their many benefits, have great harm if they are used without health restrictions or control, as they cause many health problems and tissue lesions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the histopathological effects on the lung of pregnant rats of two types of these substances: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and Sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Twenty-four pregnant rats used for this study, and they were divided into four groups equally. The control group was dosed with distilled water from the sixth day to the fifteenth day of pregnancy. The second was dosed with MSG at a 12g /kg concentration for the same period in the first group. The third injected with a concentration of 120 mg/kg of NaNO2 for the same period. The fourth was dosed with MSG and NaNO2 together, with the same concentrations and the above period. The results showed that the second group''s lungs showed many histopathological changes, including strong infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, necrosis of bronchioles and alveolar septa, and emphysema of some alveoli. In the third group, changes included hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, hemorrhage in the alveoli, desquamation and necrosis in bronchioles, peri-bronchial fibrosis, blood vessel congestion. The fourth group showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, necrosis in multiple lung areas, emphysema, fibrosis in some alveoli, and hypoplasia of the muscle fibers around the blood vessels. The study concluded that MSG and NaNO2 caused much tissue damage in the lungs of pregnant rats.

Effect of Aloe vera gel on the healing of cutaneous wounds in donkeys

Durgham M. Al-Sabaawy; Osama Hazim Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 425-432
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130479.1830

The efficiency of fresh Aloe vera gel was tested on the healing of large cutaneous wounds of the forelimbs in donkeys. Twelve adult donkeys from both sexes were used in this experimental study. They were divided into equal groups. A square shape cutaneous wound about 8*8cm, was induced on the lateral aspect of the forelimb exactly between humeral and knee joint. In group one, the induced wound was left without treatment, while in second group the wound was treated by local application of fresh Aloe vera gel. The evaluation of healing process results was based on monitoring the gross signs of wound healing, in addition to the study the histopathological changes at 15th, 30th, 45th postoperative days. In group one, the wound healing process was characterized by infection, congestion, inflammatory exudate, excessive granulation tissue formation, and no decrease in wound size, while in group two, the healing of wound was characterized by absence of granulation tissue overgrowth with decrease in wound size and little occurrence of infection and congestion. The histopathological observations in first group was showed intensive granulation tissue formation with massive infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and delay of reepithelization, while in second group, overgrowth of granulation tissue was lesser, little infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, rapid reepithelization with more maturation and stretching of collagen fibers. It was concluded that the Aloe vera gel can be used successfully as topical treatment to improve and enhance large cutaneous wound healing in donkeys

3-D nanocomposite scaffolds: Tissue engineering for bone reconstruction

Saffanah Khuder Mahmood; Intan Shameha Binti Abdul Razak; Mohammad Tariq Yaseen; Loqman Mohamed Yusof; Zaid K. Jeber; Fufa Gimba; Md Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 433-444
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130481.1831

A challenge to the orthopedic surgeons in veterinary and human fields is the treatment of delayed union, malunion and nonunion. Apart from renovation of arrangement and constant fixation, in many cases, adjunctive measures such as bone-grafting or the use of bone-graft substitutes, are of dominant significance. In general bone-graft materials comprise one or more components: an osteoconductive matrix, which acts as a scaffold to new bone growth; osteoinductive proteins, backing the mitogenesis of indistinguishable cells; and osteogenic cells, which can form bone in the proper environment. Our review focuses on the currently existing bone graft and graft substitutes for the novel therapeutic approaches in the clinical situation of orthopedic surgery. This review is based on an extensive literature search of different composite scaffolds developed as bone regenerative therapies. The settlement and drawbacks of different composite scaffold developed techniques, the properties of generally used ceramics and polymers, and the properties of presently investigated synthetic composite grafts. To follow, an exhaustive review of in vivo models is used to test composite scaffolds in segmental bone defects (SBDs) to serve as a guide to design suitable translational studies and to recognize the challenges that require to be overcome in scaffold design for successful transformation. This includes the formative of the anatomical position within the animals, selecting the accurate study period, and an overview of scaffold presentation evaluation.

Molecular detection of Trypanosoma species in sheep and goats in Mosul city

Marwa S. Mahmood; Wasan A. Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 445-449
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130488.1835

In this study, we examined blood samples of 385 sheep and goats of different ages, sexes, and sources under routine microscopic examination of the blood smear (wet, thin, thick, buffy coat layer smears) to detect Trypanosoma. Results show that 81 samples were positive. These samples are succumbed to the molecular detection of Trypanosoma and other species by the extraction of parasitic DNA this parasitic DNA is detected in samples using KIN1, KIN2, and AITSF, AITSR primers. After that, conventional polymerase chain reaction was applied, and the results showed that 81 samples had a positive reaction in using KIN1 and KIN2 primers, while the positive samples were 76 when using AITSF, AITSR primers. Moreover, results showed a high rate of infection in sheep as compared with goats using both pairs of primers and two species of Trypanosoma in sheep and goats. Molecular was recorded, which include T. conglense and T. vivax. Animals more than 1-2 years old group showed a high rate of infection as compared with other ages group, and females have recorded a high rate of infection as compared with males. According to the source of animals, imported animals showed a high infective rate compared to native ones. This study is the first recorded Trypanosoma species in small ruminants in Mosul city.

A comparative study of nano magnesium oxide versus platelets rich fibrin to repair the induced radial fracture in dogs

Yassir F. Abdulmawjood; Moyaser G. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 451-458
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130500.1836

This project evaluated the effects of nano magnesium oxide versus platelets rich fibrin on induced radial fracture bone healing. Eighteen males and nonpregnant females of adult local stray dogs, weighing 17.6±0.85 kg and aged 2.08±0.13 years, were used. These trials animals were randomly divided into three groups of equal numbers. In the first group, Control group (C), a transverse radial fracture was induced then immobilized by external fixation as gypsum. In this group, the fracture line was not treated with any bioactive material. In the second group, platelets rich fibrin group (PRF), the fracture line was treated by adding platelets rich fibrin. In the third group, nano magnesium oxide (NMO), the fracture line was treated by adding a suspension of nano magnesium oxide. The radiographic results showed that the fractured bone healing was faster in the second group than in the first and third groups, while the third group was better than the first group. The concentration rates of serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were increased in the weeks followed the surgical operation. Depending on the radiographic pictures and serial rates of alkaline phosphatase, the second PRF and the third NMO groups were the better-fractured bone healing than the first one. In conclusion, this study revealed that using each platelets rich fibrin and nano magnesium oxide enhanced and improved the healing of the induced radial fracture.

Effect of autologous peritoneum and platelet-rich fibrin graft on healing of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

Nebras M. Raffea; Asmaa H. Allawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 459-470
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130529.1840

In the present study, the effect of autogenous peritoneum graft (PG) with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) was evaluated on intestinal anastomosis healing in dogs. Eighteen local breed adult dogs were anesthetized then jejunal intestinal resection and anastomosis were created on all animals. Animals were divided into 3 equal groups (6 for each). In first group (control): An end-to-end intestinal anastomosis was performed using simple interrupted suture pattern only. In group PG: The anastomosis site was sutured as in control group and was wrapped with PG. Where as in PRF+PG group: The anastomosis site was sutured also as in first group and was wrapped with PRF and PG. Healing process was studied in all above mentioned groups clinically, grossly, histologically and radiographically at 15 and 30 days post operation. Results were revealed that the utilizing of PG caused a valuable influence on anastomosis site healing. This impact was manifested by faster re-epithelization of mucosa, increased collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, reduced adhesions, and decreased stenosis degree comparison with control group. Also there was less adhesions, less stenosis degree, increased in epithelization of the mucosa in the group treated with PRF+PG than the group treated with PG alone. In conclusion the current study has shown that autologous peritoneal graft application has a positive and beneficial effect on intestinal anastomosis healing. Also the results highlighted the promising effects of PRF in conjunction with PG on intestinal anastomosis healing. The application of PRF with PG at the intestinal anastomosis site is successful, safe, and highly efficient with no complications.

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs at Basrah, Iraq

Jihad A. Ahmed; Hassanin H. Al-Autaish; Kamal M. AlSaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 471-477
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130539.1841

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs due to vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency was suspected in local adult lambs of Basrah, Iraq. The study was conducted on 82 adults local breed lambs 8-11 months of age. Suspected animals show panting with increase abdominal respiration and mouth breathing, recumbence and unable to stand with acute death within 24-48 h. Fifteen clinically healthy lambs were considered as controls. The hematological changes indicated a significant decrease in RBC, Hb, and PCV reflected macrocytic hypochromic type of anemia. Indices of clotting factors show significant changes in diseased adult lambs. Results of the biochemical changes indicated a significant decrease of vitamin E, and the glutathione peroxidase, in diseased animals, whereas, a significant increase indicated in the values of AST, CK and troponin I. Results of the post-mortem examinations showed enlargement of the heart with a white-colored irregular patch. Furthermore, results of histopathological changes indicated an acute cellular degeneration of myocardial fibers associated with diffuse interstitial edematous fluid in the myocardial parenchyma and acute cellular degenerative myocardial fibers with a marked degree of degeneration in the myocardial parenchyma. It has been concluded that, acute enzootic muscular dystrophy has an adverse harmful clinical effect on adult diseased lambs which could always be terminated with death.

Traditional and molecular diagnosis of Haemonchus contortus in sheep in Babylon province, Iraq

Balkes F. Hade; Suha T. Al-Biatee; Haider M. Al-Rubaie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 479-481
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130533.1842

Haemonchus contortus one of gastrointestinal helminthes characterized by miner intraspecific variation and a major variation among species which exploited to determine species simultaneously depend on PCR techniques, by amplification of DNA from parasites so goal of study was traditional and molecular detection of this parasite in sheep. Experiment was conducted using adult worms collected from abomasum of sheep obtained from abattoir in Babylon province. All worms divided into two groups, first group for morphological study and second group stored in 70% ethanol for DNA extraction, ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene were amplified using PCR technique sequenced and analysis with a phylogenic tree.According to the available data this study recordedHaemonchus contortus in sheep depend on ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene sequences for the first time in Iraq with accession no. LC552170 and LC552171 using molecular data.The phylogeny analysis depended on ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene partial sequences were closely related and high identity 94% with Germany H. similis sequence MN708992.1 and 93% identity with New-Zealand and Austria H. contortus sequence KC998713.1 and KJ724288.1 respectively, with a low genetic variation among all comparison sequenced isolates.

Efficacy of Urtiea dicica extract for amelioration of brain lesions induced by ethylene glycol in male rabbits

Ahmed M.A. Alsaidya; Hana Kh. Ismail; Enas S. Mostafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 485-488
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130563.1848

The nervous system is the most delicate organ to neurotoxic substances that affects the development of neurochemicals, including neurotransmitters, and organization of ion channels. Urtica dioica (Nettle) is one of the medicinal plants, which has been increasingly highlighted used for its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative components. This study aimed to evaluate the improvement effects of Urtica dioica extract on the histopathological lesions of nervous system in rabbit model. Fifteen male rabbits of 700-800 grams separated into three groups, the first group is the control, and the second group were treated with 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) in water for 30 days, group three were combination treated group with both EG and Urtica dioica at 100 mg/kg for 10 days. Microscopic histological examination discovered generalized congestion of blood vessels at the cerebrum and cerebellum, degeneration and necrosis of the neuronal cells of the cerebral cortex which characterized by swelling of the degenerative cells, while necrotic cells characterized by shrunken and pyknosis of the cells in the cerebellum cortex presents of inflammatory cells in the meninges. In conclusion, the histopathological examination of brain sections of rabbits treated with ethylene glycol in addition to Urtica dioica extract showed slight improvement in the histological pictures of the cerebellum and cerebrum.

Infections and molecular characterization of anisakid nematodes from two species of marine fish northwest Arabian gulf

Majid A. Bannai; Muna M. Jori

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 489-497
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130613.1851

The present study provides new insight into valuable information on the diverse structure of the anisakid population, discusses the limited species richness, and also discusses the relationship with other closely diversity-related taxa in NCBI databases in the Epinephelus diacanthus and Epinephelus coioides fish. The fishing area consists of various locations in the Arabian Gulf. A total of 69 E.coioides and E. diacanthus were examined, (n= 48) were infected. Larval stages (n=1,119). Isolated larvae were encysted within the mesenteries peritoneum and viscera of fish organs, with a prevalence of 81.25% of infection and 59.459 % in the E. diacanthus and E. coioides respectively. Molecular analysis was carried out on thirty individuals of nematode parasites who have examined the morphology and showed some appearance differences, by amplifying internal transcribed spacers ITS and ITS-1 of nuclear rDNA (rDNA) by PCR using the primer sets NC5/NC2 and SS1/NC13R of DNA products. Evolutionary analyses were conducted in MEGA X. based on the identity percentage in the GenBank database showed that they belong to anisakid nematodes, in particular, they belong to nine distinct taxa within the Hysterothylacium spp. The presence of the same species individuals in one host may be the cause of these genetic variations at the species level, and that's what the current study has recorded. It has been found that there is an overlap in the order of nitrogen bases between the same species, and this occurs through the fertilization process, while the rest is clean or have only a few parasites. 

A Comparison between ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-midazolam or all of them to induce balance anesthesia in rabbits

Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 499-506
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130618.1852

The objective of this projectwas to study the induction of smooth anesthesia characterized by good induction (hypnosis), analgesia and good recovery with mild side effects caused by drugs. The effect of using Ketamine with both xylazine and midazolam KXM was investigated in adult rabbitsand compared with the positive control group that was administered with ketamine alone K at 40 mg/kg i.m, and with ketamine - xylazine group KX at 40 and 4 mg/kg i.m respectively, and with ketamine - midazolam group KM also at 40 and 4 mg/kg i.m respectively. Administration of xylazine and midazolam each one alone at 4 and 2 mg/kg I.M induced analgesia in a dose-dependent manner through a significant elevation of the electrical voltage after injection when compared with its value before injection. A minimum doses of a mixture KXM at 20,2 and 2 mg/kg i.m respectively, induced good hypnosis with rapid induction and long duration with recovery periods without significant variations in vital physiological parameters (respiratory rate, heart rate, and rectal temperature) and some biochemical parameters (GPT and GOT and glucose level) comparing with groups K, KX and KM. The outcomes of this work were revealed to the induction of proficient general anesthesia that was described by effective hypnosis with analgesic efficacy throughout the administration a minimum doses of ketamine/xylazine/midazolam combination in rabbits.

Ultrasound image analysis for detection of fatty liver and grading its severity in buffaloes at Mosul, Iraq

Ziena H. Hasan; Osamah M. aliraqi; Ielaf O. Abdul Majjed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 507-511
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130666.1864

The study aimed to (ⅰ) examines whether quantitative and qualitative digital analysis of hepatic ultrasound images can be used to detect fatty liver and grading its severity, (ⅱ) to estimate the concentration of serum β-hydroxybutyrate content in normal and diseased animals. A total of 50 buffaloes (15 clinically normal and 35 suffered from decreased milk production, loss of appetite, and loss of body weight) 2-4 weeks after parturition were studied. Buffaloes were examined by real-time ultrasound using a 3.5 MHz convex probe. Ultrasound images were saved for qualitative and quantitative analysis, using computer aid Fatty-Liver software (programmed in Matlab language). Based on the digital analysis of ultrasound images, the diseased buffaloes were classified as mild (n=20), moderate (n=7) and severe (n=8) fatty liver affection. Results indicated that the concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate estimated via ELISA were 0.409, 0.735, 0.923, 1.708 mmol/dL in normal, mild, moderate, and severe diseased buffaloes respectively. However, a significant difference has been encountered among normal and diseased animals. It has been concluded that buffaloes at Mosul suffered from fatty liver and digital analysis of ultrasound images was a suitable method for clinical diagnosis, furthermore, estimation of β-hydroxybutyrate was a suitable method for laboratory diagnosis.

The effect of vitamin E on the histological structure of kidney in rats treated with cyclophosphamide

Ahmed A. Obaid; Maha I. Alsammak; Mustafa S. Salah Fadhil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 513-517
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130689.1865

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a cytotoxic alkylating drug that is commonly used to treat autoimmune disorders and cancer. CP causes nephrotoxicity by producing highly reactive radicals devoid of oxygen. A fat-soluble vitamin E that interacts as a free radical scavenger, inhibiting nitrosamine production and blocking lipid peroxidation from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The aim of this research was to see if vitamin E may help combating CP induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty-two adult albino female Westar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and received daily treatment for thirty days. Group A considered as control group, receiving normal saline IP at dose of 0.3 ml, group B given 15 mg/kg b.w. of cyclophosphamide IP, while group C received cyclophosphamide with vitamin E at dose 200 mg/kg, oral administration of vitamin E one hour before injection of cyclophosphamide, in group D they received vitamin E orally at dose of 200 mg kg body weight mixed with olive oil daily by oral gavage. In group B the cyclophosphamide causes highly significant reduction in body weight and histologically showed atrophy of most glomeruli, distention in bowman’s space, tubular degeneration and luminal hyaline cast material, while in group C showed most of the glomeruli normal except atrophy of few number of glomeruli and focal epithelial degeneration of renal tubules. Our study found that one of the primary mechanisms induced by cyclophosphamide may be nephrotoxicity due to oxidative stress, and pretreatment with vitamin E reduces cyclophosphamide-induced nephrotoxicity.

Detection of endoparasites in mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in north Sumatra province, Indonesia

Eri Yusni; Agung Batubara; Cahya Frantika

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 519-524
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130703.1867

The purpose of this study was to determine the species and the prevalence value of endoparasites that infect male and female mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in Tanjung Balai Port, North Sumatra Province. This research was conducted from August to September 2020. Research on endoparasite identification was carried out at the Laboratory of the Technical Implementation Unit for the Implementation of Fishery Product Quality (UPT PMHP), Medan. The method used in this study is a survey method with direct collection at the research location. The sample was taken using random sampling techniques. Endoparasite research was conducted on 30 fish samples, divided into 15 samples of male mackerel tuna with an average size of 26.92 cm and an average weight of 258.451 g, and 15 samples of female mackerel tuna with an average size of 29.50 cm and an average weight of 352.249 g. Four genera of endoparasites were found that infect male and female mackerel tuna, namely Rhadinorhynchus sp., Echinorhynchus sp., Acanthocephalus sp., and Neoechinorhynchus sp. with the highest prevalence value, namely the type of Rhadinorhynchus sp. 6.66% in the stomach and 76.66% in the intestine, the type of Echinorhynchus sp. 3.33% in the stomach and 33.33% in the intestine, as well as Acanthocephalus sp 26.66% and Neoechinorhynchus sp 13.33% only in the intestine.

Effects of Hypericum perforatum on serum lipid vascular systems in mice

Zena S. Hamed; Rana R. Abed; Mohammed S. Almashhadany; Marwan M. Merkhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 525-530
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130708.1868

Herbal products are increasingly used against lipid to attenuate its negative impact on vasculature system. However, there are uncertainty regarding the best administration approaches and preparation of herbal product to be used due to variation in absorption rate and extent with subsequent impaction on the lipid levels. The aim of the present study was comparing the pharmacological and analytical aspects of soaked versus powder form of Hypericum perforatum; a well-known anti-hyperlipidemic herbal product, using atorvastatin drug as a reference drug for comparison in addition to controlling groups (on/off lipid diet) handled as an additional control group. To conduct this research, the hyperlipidemia mice models were created by exposing the mice to a fatty diet and using H. perforatum and atorvastatin for evaluation. The plant extracts were also analyzed for active constituents. The results indicate that the plant analysis detected the presence of different antihyperlipidemic agents and the plant has effectively reduced plasma lipid parameters in exposed mice compared to control group; especially when taken forms of the plant was used. The study concluded that; soaked H. perforatum extract shown an effective reduction of lipid parameters and analysis of which revealed the presence of herbal active constituent which might be utilized in industrial pharmacy for new drug innovation.

Genotyping of Salmonella enterica strains from animal and human origin using three molecular techniques

Juan S. Cruz-Méndez; Julián D. Ortiz-Muñoz; Iang S. Rondon-Barragan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 531-538
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130764.1877

This study aims to characterize different Salmonella enterica subsp molecularly. enterica strains (n=49) were isolated from human gastrointestinal cases in the Tolima region and poultry from Santander and Tolima regions using PCR-RFLP, PCR-ribotyping, and PCR-SSCP. The band patterns obtained with each technique were analyzed by building dendrograms based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method and using the Dice coefficient. On the other hand, the discriminatory power of each technique was assessed using Simpson's discriminatory index. The genetic profiles of the gnd gene obtained with AciI restriction enzyme and the PCR-SSCP carried out with groEL gene allowed the inter-and intraserovar differentiation. Finally, the PCR-ribotyping method exhibited the highest discriminatory power (0.8571). In conclusion, we show three PCR-based genotyping methods providing an alternative for identifying similarities and differences within Salmonella enterica strains from different geographic and biological regions.

Improved vaccination protocol to enhance immunity in lambs of Kuwait farms

Hana A. Burezq; Faten Khalil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 539-548
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130837.1883

The susceptibility of lambs to infective diseases should be minimized by improving the immunity of lambs through effective vaccination procedures to abate lamb mortality in sheep farms. In this regard, field experiments were carried out with 180 pregnant ewes of Naeemi sheep breed at the PAAFR (Public Authority for Agriculture and Fisheries Research Station, Kuwait). The results revealed that the concentration of serum Ig’s in blood samples collected from ewes vaccinated during pregnancy with Pasteurella, Clostridia, FMD (Foot and Mouth Disease) and PPR (Peste des Petits Ruminants) vaccines was significantly elevated as vaccination against these four diseases agents would have ultimately resulted in circulating antibodies protecting the animals against natural exposure. Theconcentration of colostral Ig’s produced by vaccinated ewes during the pregnancy period was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the normal colostrum secreted from unvaccinated ewes during pregnancy, ensuring the positive role of the colostrum in transferring passive immunity. The results clearly illustrated no cases of mortality and abortion, as vaccination has played a role in maintaining the health of ewes by overcoming the targeted pathogens and preventing any abnormalities in the pregnant ewes. The present study confirmed the improved immune status of young lambs born to ewes vaccinated twice during pregnancy, reflecting improved health status. It is recommended to maintain 21 days’ intervals in vaccinating ewes with different vaccines for specific diseases.