Volume 36, Issue 1, Winter 2022, Page 1-265

Exploration of local isolate of highly pathogenic avian influenza clade as vaccine candidate to prevent mass outbreak in East Java

Suwarno Suwarno; Nanik Sianita Widjaja; Jola Rahmahani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127331.1498

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 is a major problem in poultry industry in many countries. It became endemic disease in Indonesia since 2003. Recently, research revealed that current circulate HPAI in Indonesia has switched from clades 2.1 to To eradicate this disease, methods such as stamping out and quarantine seem not suitable applied since poultry industry is one of main sector in agricultural commodity in some areas such as Central Java, Yogyakarta, and East Java. It provides large of job opportunity for native people from rural to city areas. To prevent the morbidity of this disease, vaccination use local seed is primarily needed. This research was conducted to explore local isolate of HPAI clade as vaccine candidate. Samples were obtained from some areas in East Java where outbreak occurred. Molecular characteristic according to Neuraminidase (N) gene was conducted. Samples has close relativity to circulating virus was used as seed vaccine then processed into killed vaccine production. It was challenged to observe the protectivity on poultry. The effectivity of the vaccine was measured through Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay. The result of study showed that isolate DOD_3_2013 has close relativity to circulating virus thus it used as vaccine candidate. Challenged test showed that this vaccine candidate induced higher antibody titer compared to control. The average of antibody titer was 8.2 (log2) with the protection level 100%. It is concluded that this isolate could be used as vaccine candidate to eradicate HPAI clade around East Java. 

Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection in layer chickens of Bangladesh

Ahsan Raquib; Answar Uddin; S.M. Nurozzaman; Mohammod Misbah Uddin; Golam Ahsan; Md Masudur Rahman; Md Mahfujur Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 9-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127511.1506

Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes major health hazards in poultry birds in Bangladesh which results in huge economic losses every year. This study was carried out to estimate and analyze the prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection in commercial layer chickens at Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh during the period from November 2018 to October 2019. A total of 505 serum samples from 94 commercial layer farms of Kishoreganj Sadar Upazila and Pakundia Upazila of Kishoreganj district were collected. Serum plate agglutination (SPA) was performed to detect the antibody against MG. Prevalence was found 73% in the Kishoreganj district by SPA test. MG was significantly (P<0.01) more prevalent in Pakundia Upazila 82% than Kishoreganj Sadar Upazila 61.11%. In case of season, winter season had significantly higher (X^2=30.94, p=0.000) prevalence of MG infection. In relation to age, seroprevalence of MG infection was highest 78% in birds of 65 weeks’ age and lowest 71% in 6-25 weeks’ age birds. Any significant (P>0.05) association was not found between flock size and seroprevalence of MG. Seroprevalence was highest in flock containing above 2600 birds. MG infection is prevalent in the chicken population of Kishoreganj district, Bangladesh. Measures should be taken for successful prevention and control of this disease in Bangladesh.

Molecular characterization and phylogenic analysis of Anaplasma spp. in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah governorate, Iraq

Shadan H. Abdullah; Hiewa O. Dyary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 15-20
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128475.1581

Anaplasma spp. are significant arthropod-borne bacteria globally, but documented information about anaplasmosis in small ruminants in the north of Iraq is insufficient. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and identify sheep and goat tick vector populations in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, north Iraq. The study population consisted of 470 sheep and 145 goats from 45 livestock farms in 10 geographical locations of Sulaymaniyah Governorate. The study was accomplished from April to December 2017. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein and used for DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using primers based on the 16S rRNA of Anaplasma spp. Fragments of PCR products were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Anaplasma spp. was 58.9% based on the PCR results. Furthermore, 58.9% of sheep and 57.9% of goats were positive for anaplasmosis. The sequences represented 100% identity with previously documented GenBank isolates of A. ovis from Iran, the Netherlands, China, and Mongolia. Altogether, 150 Ixodid ticks were picked from small ruminants within the same flocks and were identified based on morphological features. Various infestation rates were observed; about 40% of the Ixodid ticks belonged to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 34% belonged to Rhipicephalus turanicus, 18% were Hyalomma anatolicum, and 8% were Boophilus microplus (Rhipicephalus microplus). The present report is the first molecular study of Anaplasma species in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah Governorate in northern Iraq to the best of our knowledge. The study concluded that anaplasmosis was endemic in small ruminants from the investigated areas. 

Survey and diagnostic study of Eimeria truncata in geese and ducks

Ahlam F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 21-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128585.1591

This trial was aimed to determine the prevalence of renal coccidiosis in domestic geese and ducks in Nineveh governorate, Iraq. One hundred and thirty birds of both sexes and different ages were randomly purchased from many localities of Nineveh governorate during the period between 2017and 2018. According to geese and ducks' age, the overall infection was 70.00% and 51.66%, respectively, 74.35% for geese and 53.19% for ducks Eimeria truncata in geese showed that 49 (70 %) were positive, while 31(51.66%) were positive for ducks. Cloacal fecal samples for Eimeria truncata oocytes' were tested by flotation technique revealed that 22.85% were positive for geese and 16.66% for ducks. The dimensions of Eimeria truncata development stages (schizonts, macrogametes, microgametes, and oocytes) were measured. The histological sections of the infected geese and ducks' kidneys showed the different developmental stages of the Eimeria truncata parasite with various pathological changes. 

Effect of Oregostem® and imbalance diet on body performance and reproductive efficiency in male quails

Hiyam N. Maty; Mahmood S. Al-Maatheedi; Suha M. Alghazal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 29-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128810.1602

This study was aimed to determine the influence of Oregostem® and imbalance diet on body performance, hematology and spermatogenesis of male quails. A total of 160 birds have been distributed into four groups (40 birds) each with 2 replicates starting at 12 weeks of age, the four treatments includes:(G1) was fed on balanced diet only. (G2) was received a balanced diet with Oregostem® with drinking water. While G3 was fed on imbalance diet (ground yellow corn) and G4 received imbalance diet with Oregostem®. The parameters including body performance, reproduction, blood and biochemical Figure and histology of testes were measured at 4th and 8th weeks from beginning of treatment. The results showed that the supplementation of Oregostem® caused a significant increase in body and right testis weight, gonadosomatic index, sperm count as well as live sperm in G2 relative to other groups at 4th and 8th weeks post treatment. In G3, WBC and lymphocytes decrease significantly with increasing hetrophils percentage and stress index at 4th and 8th weeks post treatment. Also there was a significant decrease of cholesterol with an increase of total protein and creatine kinase in G3 at 8th week of treatment. While the groups treated with Oregostem® did not differ from control group. This study concluded that liquid form of Oregostem® had a positive effect on body weight, sperm count with improvement hematological and biochemical parameters of the male quails.

Detection of endometritis using uterine cytobrush and ultrasonography in mares

Mohammed A. Rahawy; Ammar G. Al-Haaik; Eman H. Hayawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128858.1608

The objective of this study was todetect the percentage of Polymorph nuclear cells) PMNs (from the uterine smears using the local manufactured uterine cytobrush instrument, and to determine the echogenicity the intrauterine fluid byUltrasonography. Thirty (Arabian) repeat breeder mares were used. Animals were examined through rectal palpation and ultrasound. Mares were divided into 4 groups depending on the results of: 1) the amount of intrauterine fluid using ultrasound; 2) the endometrial samples were collected during estrus cycles, 3) the numbers of uterine epithelial cells and PMNs using locally manufactured cytobrush tool, 4) the number of lymphocytes. The results showed that the incidence of endometritis had significantly related to that age of the animals. The number of PMNs were significantly different between groups. The mean number of PMNs was 1.63±0.23, 3.34±0.18, 4.78±0.26 and 5.26±0.46 in G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively. The echogenicity of the accumulated fluid in the endometrial lumen was significantly associated with the percentage of lymphocytes. The mean number of lymphocytes was 1.02±0.42 and 1.84±0.37%, in G3 and G4 respectively. This study concluded that the cytobrush technique is rapid, cheap, safe technique and easy to obtain samples from mare's uterus in the field. Consequently, Ultrasound and cytological techniques could be recommended for diagnosis of endometritis in mares.

Extraction and purification of lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (local Isolate) and study its pyrogenic activity

Ammar M. Al-AAlim; Ali A. Al-Iedani; Mohammad A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 45-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128963.1614

In this study, we tried to extract and purify the LPS from E. coli local isolate and determine the molecular weight, purity, and pyrogenic effect of the product and compare it with standard E. coli O55:B5 LPS, the E. coli LPS was extracted by using hot phenol method then SDS- PAGE was used with both Coomassie blue and silver nitrate stain to determine its molecular weight and protein contamination also we used HPLC to the estimation of E. coli LPS purity and finally the pyrogenicity of extracted E. coli LPS was tested by using rabbit pyrogen test. The result showed that the hot phenol method with enzymatic treatment gave highly pure LPS with a high yield reach up to 242.4 mg, staining the SDS page gel with Coomassie blue and silver nitrate uncover the high purification of the extracted LPS (ELPS) with no protein contamination, with a molecular weight range between 15-23 kDa, HPLC test reveals that purity of ELPS was 100 % compared with standard LPS. The rabbits' pyrogen test confirmed that the biological activity of ELPS. In conclusion, the LPS was extracted with high purity compare with standard LPS and without any protein or DNA contamination by using the hot phenol method also the extracted rough LPS was slightly lighter than the standard LPS used but this did not affect its biological activity which remained intact 

Evaluation the role of Apsa-mos® as immunomodulator on the level of antibody titers in broiler chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus.

Thanoon Y. AL-hbiti; Zahra A. Al-Noaimy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 53-56
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128983.1615

The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of Apsa-mos® as immunostimulant on the level of antibodies in broiler chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease live attenuated vaccine (β1 and lasota strain) at 10, 24-day old respectively. Forty, one-day-old chicks were reared in this experiment. They were divide into four groups and treated as follows: Chicks in the 1st group were treated as control one (G1); Chicks in the group 2 (G2), were vaccinated with live attenuated β1 NDV vaccine at 10 days followed by attenuated lasota NDV strain vaccine at 24 days of age, chicks in the group three (G3) were vaccinated as in group 2 but amended with Apsa-mos® at a rate of 1 mg / kg of feed; Chicks in the 4th treatment was given Apsa-mos® only at a rate of 1 mg / kg of feed. Antibody titers after administration of NDV vaccines were estimated using ELISA technique. The results showed a significant difference in the titers between the vaccinated and non-vaccinated birds with higher values when Apsa- mose® was added, in comparison with groups 1 and 4. No significant changes were noticed between granulocytes differential counts and in the values of stress factor of heterophiles/lymphocytes (H/L ratio) in all treated groups. Amending Apsa-mos® to the feeds of the treated birds G3 and G4 has no negative effect on the treated and play a positive role by restoring the normal architecture of lymphoid tissues of bursa of Fabrecious and caecal tonsils. we concluded that the giving of Apsa-mos improve the immune state of the chicks in both types humeral and cellular immunity especially in G3 and decreased the influence of the vaccine in this group and increase the immunity in G4 also Apsa-mos decrease the effect of the vaccine in G3 seen in histological changes in bursa of fabricious and cecal tonsils.

Detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in cats in Mosul city

Wasan A. Alobaidii; Zeena D. Mohammed Zaki; Manal H. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 57-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128997.1616

This study is the 1st trial to detect of Dirofeleria imitis in cats in Mosul city, Iraq, Dirofilariasis is the most dangerous nematodes which infect cats, through this study blood samples was collected from 200 cats (different ages, source and rearing management) to investigate from the mature female worms of D. immitis by using direct ELISA, results showed total percentage of infection was 7% (14/200 animals), the relationship between the infection with age of cats was proportional to the age of cats, as the percentage increases with the age of cats, the high prevalence of infection was recorded in cats more than 2 years old 4%, the kittens less than 1 year old showed low prevalence of infection 0.5%, statistically there is a significant differences (P<0.05) between the oldest animals with other ages, significant differences (P<0.05) between Outdoor cats which recorded high prevalence of infection 4%, while Indoor animals recorded low prevalence of infection 3% with D. imitis, 10 of imported cat was infected with D. imitis with high prevalence of infection (5%) when compare with native cats 2%, without significant differences (P<0.05) between two groups, this study was conducted that the prevalence of D. imitis is high in adult cats, with high prevalence in outdoor rearing and the cats with imported origin. 

Detection of Maedi-visna virus in sheep in Nineveh province

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi; Dhiyaa A. Mossa; Mozahim Y. Al-Attar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129075.1622

This is a primary study in detecting a specific antibody of the Maedi-visna virus (MVV) in blood samples and viral antigen in nasal swabs from sheep. Two hundred and forty nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from sheep of different ages and health statuses in Nineveh province, Iraq. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay was used to detect specific antibodies against MVV specific proteins gp135 and p25, Whereas Agar gel immune diffusion (AGID) was used to detect antigens from nasal swabs using specific antibodies against gp135 proteins of MVV. Serological results using ELISA showed the total prevalence of MMV 22.9% and the highest prevalence of infection in sheep less than one-year-old 36.5% when compared with older animals 8.4%. Animals that suffering from respiratory problems had a higher prevalence of infection 25.7% compared with healthy animals 6.9%. AGID showed an identical reaction between Maedi-visna viruses and specific rabbit antisera with a total infection rate of 12.9%. The highest prevalence of infection was 22.4% recorded in animals less than one-year-old, the lowest percentage of infection in animals more than two years of age was 1.4%. Animals suffering from respiratory signs also showed high prevalence of infection 13.8%, while the lowest percentage of infection were recorded in healthy animals 4.6%. It has been concluded that the high prevalence of infection rate in sheep less than one-year-old and the animals which suffered from respiratory problems had higher prevalence according to ELISA and AGID testes.

Perturbation of liver function markers and serum electrolytes associated with Echinococcus granulosus infection in sheep

Ibrahim F. Ali; Tamara W. Jihad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128926.1624

Histopathological alterations in the liver of intermediated hosts infected with Echinococcus granulosus parasite can be occurred by necrotic expansion as a result of an increase in growth of the parasite larva stage (metacestode), which may cause perturbation in production of liver function markers. Thus, this study aims to determinate the liver biochemical profile and some serum electrolytes of E. granulosus-infected sheep at different hydatid cyst infection ratios (IRs). fifty livers from naturally E. granulosus-infected sheep with five livers from uninfected-sheep as a control group were enrolled in this study. Cardiac blood samples under sterilized conditions were gently collected and isolated sera were biochemically assayed for determination of liver function markers including; Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP), as well as the level of some serum electrolytes including Ca, K, Na and Cl using fully automatic biochemical analyzer, FUJI-Film. The current data indicated a progressive increase in the level of AST, ALT, ALP, Ca and K. The level of ALB and TP were gradually declined with a rise of liver infection ratio with hydatid cysts. In conclusion, the current findings indicated perturbation of liver function markers and the level of some serum electrolytes, mainly Ca and K in E. granulosus-infected sheep based on the infection ratio of liver. Additionally, acute and chronic infection of E. granulosus parasites in sheep can be determined based on the level of liver function markers in serum.

Some physiological and biochemical criteria in the local buffalo infected with stomach and intestinal worms in the city of Samarra

Dakheel H. Hadree; Osamah H. Shihab; Raouf M. Fadhil; Khalid A. Hadi; Jassm M. Suleiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 71-75
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129140.1629

The study included 70 local buffalo animals (between six months and two years), 50 buffalo were confirmed to be infected with gastrointestinal worms and 20 were considering as a control group. The results of the feces tests showed that local buffalo was infected with different types of worms. It was observed that worm incidence was as follows: 85% Nematodes, 10% Cestode and 5% Trematode. The results of the study showed a significant decrease in the total number of red blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, total number of platelets, and significant increase was observed in the total number of white blood cells and was most likely caused by a significant increase in the rates of eosinophil's. Also the results showed that the effect of worms on some biochemical parameters was significant decrease in total protein concentration, albumin, and globulin. So, it could be concluding that buffalo spread in the city of Samarra suffers from parasitic diseases that affect the health of animals, through change the study criteria, so a therapeutic program must be adopted by cattle breeders to control parasitic diseases and thus improve the health and production of animals.

COX1 gene and ITS-2 region: A comparative study of molecular diagnosis of Parabronema skrjabini in camels (Camelus dromedaries), Al-Najaf Province, Iraq

Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Haider H. A-Fatlawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 77-84
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129228.1634

The current study was contributed to the analysis of the nucleotide sequence pattern of the nucleotide sequence of the tissue DNA isolates based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS2rDNA) gene and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial DNA (COX1 mtDNA) using the traditional polymerase chain reaction (150 samples of abomasum collected directly from camel carcasses after working in Al-Najaf slaughterhouse from 1/10/2019 to 1/2/2020). ITS2rDNA were well suited for the prepared primer with size783 bp and identical ratio ranged 81.17-99.73% of the same species, as indicated a high similarity of the isolates taken from two-humped camels in China or less related to Parabronema skrjabini in sheep and goat. In addition, the study identified the number of the mutations within the four COX1 gene and ITS-2 region, which were the most conservative region of the host's species, supporting the concept of host specificity with Parabronema skrjabini. The COX1 gene and ITS-2 region applied to confirm the diagnosis using a universal primer, as it included eight isolates with a size of 689 bp, identical values were ranged from 84.99-98.02% depending on the multiple sequence alignment and showed an increase in the substitution level among isolates at an upper taxonomic level. Studying of the COX1 gene and ITS-2 region in Parabronema skrjabini demonstrated a significant relation in the cluster and an early common ancestor with isolates of the two-humped camel (China). As for the COX1 gene and ITS-2 region, the phylogenetic relationship supported the ribosomal gene results, especially with Habronema muscae or related species such as Habronema majus, Dirofilaria repens, Dipetalonema evansi, Setaria tundra, Cercopithifilaria sp towards the root node. Therefore, considering COX1 gene and ITS-2 region as an ideal tool in determining the phylogenetic history of the sequence maps, but less conservative mode than the ITS2 ribosome gene based to a taxonomic species level.

Major-surface-protein-4-gene-based detection of Anaplasma marginale isolated from sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Saba F. Klaif; Asaad J. Abid; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Mansoor J. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 85-88
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129230.1635

This study was purposed for confirming detection and typing of Anaplasma spp in infected sheep from Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. Sampling of 50 blood specimens was performed from clinically-identified infection of anaplasmosis. The samples of the blood were subjected to DNA extraction followed by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based detection of the Anaplasma marginale using major surface protein (MSP4) gene. The results have shown that 8 blood samples were infected with A. marginale. The PCR-based identification has revealed a confirmative identification of the Anaplasma marginale in the infected sheep. The study identifies Anaplasma marginale as a member of infectious agents that affect sheep in the study city. 

Anatomical study of arterial blood supply of the brain in local breed rabbit

Adnan A. Alhasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 89-94
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129231.1636

Current work aims to investigate the brain blood supply of the local rabbit, where 14 rabbits of both sexes were used with weights ranging from 3-3.5 kg. This study revealed that the rabbit's brain is supplied by the vertebral and internal carotid artery (ICA). The union of the vertebral arteries creates the basilar artery that runs on the ventral surface of the pons and medulla oblongata, forming at its end the posterior communicating arteries (PCA), as well as at the path of the basilar artery from which the following arteries are formed, which are the anterior cerebellar arteries, pons arteries, 1st posterior cerebellar artery, 2nd posterior cerebellar artery, and the medullary arteries. The ICA enters the cranium through the foramen lacerum, forming the anterior carotid network, from which an artery exits anteriorly, called the intracranial part of the ICA, and caudally exits the (PCA). The following arteries are created from the intracranial part of the ICA, which is the accessory anterior communicating artery that connects with the posterior communicating artery and the posterior cerebral artery (PCEA) forming the closed circle of Willis, the middle cerebral artery is also created anteriorly and laterally to distributed on the two cerebral hemispheres of the brain, as well as the anterior cerebral artery which directed forward to gives the marginal artery which represents the first terminal branch of the anterior cerebral artery, and at the marginal artery going toward the olfactory tract and then to the olfactory bulb from which the internal ethmoidal artery is created. The anterior communicating artery originates from the anterior cerebral artery and it is a small artery communicating the left and right anterior cerebral arteries with each other, and the posterior cerebral artery originates from the PCA, as well as the anterior cerebellar arteries arising from the PCA and accessory posterior communicating artery (APCA) and the anterior part of basilar artery, to supply the hemispheres of the cerebellum and the cerebellar vermis.

Effect DEHP plasticizer on MDA concentration and histopathological changes in Contronix contronix japonica

Aws Z. Hamoodi; Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 95-101
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129395.1645

In this experiment, we aimed to recorded the effect of chronic oral exposure to DEHP on lipid peroxidation and histopathological lesions induced in different organs. A total of 150 quail chick divided into two groups (75 quail’s chicks at each group), control group left without any treatment all time, the second group was orally administrated 5% of DEHP (278.05 mg/kg bw) three times per week and lasted for 60 days. At 30 and 60 days old, a total number of 25 from both groups were euthanized. Blood samples were collected to determine the serum concentration of DEHP and mono ethyl hexyl phthalate (MEHP), liver and kidney to estimate tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), samples from different organs for histopathological examination. The result showed that the concentration of DEHP and MEHP in blood's serum and concentration of MDA in liver and kidney significantly increased with time in comparison with the control group; besides, oral administration of DEHP induced sever pathological lesions, in brain, aorta, intestines, liver, lung, ovary and testis. In conclusion, the DEHP and its metabolic product MEHP significantly increased in serum and cause significant increase in concertation of MDA in liver and kidney tissues, produces a significant histopathological change in brain, aorta, liver, intestine, lung, ovary and testis that can cause a life-threatening condition.

An epidemiological and therapeutic study of Sarcoptes scabiei parasite in cows of Anbar province, Iraq

Suad Sh. Shahatha; Inaam M. Ayyed; Mohammed O. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 103-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129420.1646

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in cows in Anbar province, Iraq. The parasite was diagnosed in the laboratory via examining skin scrapings taken from the suspected cows. The results indicated that the infection rate in cows with S. scabiei reached 37.5%, the animals of 3 months - Hammada articulate had a great effect on the parasite, however, the concentration 10 mg/ml leads to the complete disappearance of all parasites and the cure of the infected cows on the 14th day of treatment, which is equal to the drug Abamectin in its effect on the parasites. The current study concluded that cows in the study areas were infected with scabies mites at a high rate, and this calls for finding safe treatment methods by using medicinal herbs and plants because they contain many active compounds that affect the parasite and lead to its mortality, and they are safe strategic alternatives to harmful chemical drugs. This necessitates the establishment of an integrated control approach through treatment with effective plant extracts and to maintain the cleanliness of the animal environment.

Histopathological changes in kidney and pancreas induced by energy drinks in adult male rats

Ahmed H. Qassim; Maha A. Alsammak; Ashraf A. Ayoob

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 111-116
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129435.1647

The study aims to assess the impact of various doses of red bull on kidney and pancreas of male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were assigned to three groups (10 animals/ group). Control group (1) received standard diet and water, group 2 and group 3 received daily oral doses of 10 ml/kg/rat and 20 ml/kg/rat of the energy drink (red bull) respectively for 30 days. Under light microscope no tissue changes were seen in kidney and pancreas of control group. In group 2 red bull causes vacuolar degeneration as well as coagulative necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, vascular congestion in the glomeruli and in the interstitial space of the kidney, in addition to atrophy of the glomeruli, as regard to pancreas it causes vascular congestion of the islets of Langerhans, increase in the size of the islets, besides, necrosis of Langerhans cells. In group 3 red bull leads to more atrophic glomeruli, massive coagulative necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, marked vascular dilatation and congestion in the interstitial space and degenerative changes of the renal tubular epithelium, whereas the pancreatic tissue revealed reduction in the size of the islets of Langerhans, vacuolation and degeneration of their cells, necrosis of other islets with mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and degenerative changes of pancreatic acini. It is concluded that administration of red bull to rats for 30 days will affect the histological structure of kidney as well as pancreas and this effect is a dose dependent.

Orf disease in local goat; clinical and phylogenetic study in Al-Qadisiyah governorate, Iraq

Khalefa A. Mansour; Muthanna H. Hussain; Asaad J. Abid; Qassim H. Kshash

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 117-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129489.1651

This study aimed to diagnose orf virus ORFV from infected goats in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate of Iraq, using polymerase chain reaction and construction of phylogenetic tree. Clinical examination was made on 400 goats in different herds and crusty scabs were collected from forty infected goats. All scabs were subjected to (PCR), sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis involving the presence of GIF gene GM-CSF* inhibitor factor, a characteristic gene of the ORFV. The typical proliferative skin lesion with overall orf prevalence results by PCR was 10% with low mortality rates and high significance variation with age and gender. Two positive PCR amplicons were sent for partial-gene-based sequencing and Phylogenetic analysis. Multiple alignments of sequences presented close identities with two Iraqi global isolates of the virus. This study didn't only report novel sequences from the local orf virus isolates, but it also provides important data about transmission of local sheep orf virus into local goat during closely rearing and grazing and orf outbreak in small ruminant in Iraq might be suspected. 

Effect of boric acid on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabbasi; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 123-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129497.1653

The aim of this study to explore the therapeutic effect of boric acid on the neurobehavioral (motor activity) level, and histopathologic changes in the brain, liver and kidneys against fluorosis. In this study rose chicks have been used and determined medium lethal sodium fluoride dose at 346.5 mg/kg orally. The chicks divided into four random groups each one consists of 10 chicks. The first group considered to be a control group, the second received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride, the third group received 10 mg/kg of boric acid and the fourth received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride and boric acid at the same previous dosages. After two weeks of daily treatment, neurobehavioral measures were taken, the use of boric acid has a major effect to improve the neurobehavioral measurement and develop complications of ALT, AST, creatinine, Ca, MDA. The results indicate that boric acid may be a therapeutic agent against the fluoride toxicity of the brain, liver and kidney. This result support by histopathological changes which represented by inflammation, congestion of portal vein and dilation of sinusoids in the liver and vacuolation, vasogenic edema and gliosis in the brain and Kidney of showed segmentation of glomeruli, dilation of Bowman’s space, necrosis of epithelial cells renal tubules and hemorrhage of NaF group, while the liver of the NaF with boric acid group showed an improvement the results of histopathological examination of the liver, brain and kidneys compared to the NaF group alone. The results revealed that boric acid has a preventing effects against fluoride after two weeks of treatment with boric acid.

Morphological and phylogenetic characterization of Oestrus ovis larvae in sheep: Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq

Nadia S. Alhayali; Mohenned A. Alsaadawi; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 133-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129529.1656

The fly larvae infect the nasal cavities and sinuses (frontal and maxillary) of sheep, goats, and a range of wild ruminants, forming a disease called oestrosis (Nasal myiasis or nasal bot). The disease is one of the significantly diseases for the Iraqi small ruminant industry that causes detrimental economic losses. The current work was carried out to morphologically- and molecularly-characterize O. ovis larvae collected from sheep in a slaughterhouse in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. The study depended on collecting 20 larvae (at different stages) from 20 sheep from 15 October till 17 December 2020. The morphological examination was done using a stereomicroscope and relying on larval characteristic features, including the posterior end, spiracles, and cephalopharyngeal skeleton. The molecular characterization was performed utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial gene sequencing (PGS) methods of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene at 700-bp and 300-bp regions. Morphologically, the first-stage larvae (L1) showed characteristic mouth hooks, while the second-stage larvae (L2) revealed clear terminal stigmas. For the third-stage larvae (L3), the color of body segments and their spines' were the most important features for this larval stage. The PCR showed amplification at both regions 700bp and 300bp, in 8 and 7 isolates, respectively. The PGS revealed 15 different local isolates in genetic level aligned with isolates from Kyrgyzstan, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. This study shows the important strain differences of O. ovis that infect the local sheep in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq.

Histopathological finding about different type of tumor that affected skin of sheep

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Ahmad A. Sultan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 139-143
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129532.1657

The current study was undertaken to record and describe various neoplasms that affect sheep's skin and to determine the relationship between tumor occurrences, age, and sex of the animals. A total number of 12 sheep were examined for abnormal masses in different skin areas including head, eye, ear, udder, teat, the animals age was ranged between 2-6 years. Three different types of cancer were diagnosed in sheep as squamous cell carcinoma, fibroma and papilloma with incidence rates 41.6, 25.1, 33.3% respectively. Neoplasms were recurrent in females more than males and in old ages more than young animals. It can be concluded that the malignant neoplasm especially squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant tumor found in sheep.

Nefopam and ketorolac: Isobolographic analysis of analgesic effect and pharmacokinetic profile in chicks

Omar Y. Jassim; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 145-150
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129540.1660

There are no prior studies on the pharmacological interaction between nefopam and ketorolac and on their pharmacokinetics in the chickens. The median analgesic effective doses (ED50s) of nefopam and ketorolac were estimated individually as 8.39 mg/kg, i.m. for each drug. Thereafter, their values were determined together in combination as 2.63 and 2.63 mg/kg, i.m. after administration at the ratio of 1:1 of their ED50s. The pharmacodynamic interaction between nefopam and ketorolac was designated as synergistic through the interaction index 0.62. Plasma concentrations of nefopam alone 16 mg/kg, i.m. in different measured times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours were 34.07, 31.34, 22.53, 19.03, 14.81, and 10.37 µg/ml, whereas the plasma concentrations increased to become 44.67, 43.52, 45.71, 32.83, 20.96, and 22.54 µg/ml when administered with ketorolac 16 mg/kg, i.m. by 31, 39, 103, 73, 42, and 117 %, respectively. The changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of nefopam included increases in area under curve (AUC0-∞) 130%, area under moment curve (AUMC0-∞) 210%, mean residence time (MRT) 35%, half-life (t1/2β) 27%, time maximum (Tmax) 300% and concentration maximum (Cmax) 34%, whereas other values were reduced which included elimination rate constant (Kel) 21%, volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) 45% and clearance (Cl) 3%. The net results indicated a synergistic interaction between nefopam and ketorolac in addition to an alteration in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which may enhance nefopam therapeutic efficacy in chicks.

Histological changes of CA and DG regions of hippocampus of rats’ brain after exposure to Acetaminophen in postnatal period

Saif M. Albo Hussin; Luma I. Khalel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 151-158
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129569.1664

Authors reported that exposure to acetaminophen postnatally may be linked to increasing the risk of ASD. However, the reports on its effects on the brain are scanty, and the knowledge concerning their safety is little as there is a traditional left out of the clinical trials by users. The present work tried to elucidate the histological effects of acetaminophen on the hippocampus of neonate male rats after early postnatal exposure. The pups were categorized into2 groups, the control group, and the acetaminophen treated group. The acetaminophen treated animals were injected subcutaneously with acetaminophen of 60 mg/Kg/day from postnatal day (PND) 7 to PND 14, while the control group treated with normal saline with a similar approach. The histopathologic assessment revealed a diminishing in the pyramidal cells layer thickness of Cornue Ammonis. Some areas are devoid of cells with the appearance of Ghost like cells indicating features of neural cell death, degenerated neurons in the pyramidal layer are noticed. Features of nuclear clumping of pyramidal cell layer were shown. Moreover, several changes including vacuolations in the granular layer of DG with disorganization in DG. Neuronal processes presented with clumping. Apoptosis in the granular cells layer and hilus of a section of DG with the appearance of many astrocytes and microglial cells. Exposures to clinically relevant doses of acetaminophen in the postnatal period were shown to affect the histology of rat hippocampal regions, and a balanced risk assessment based on the best professional judgment must be prioritized.

Epidemiological study and identification of some flea species infesting wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and cape hares (Lepus capensis) in northern Algeria

Imene Ammam; Mohamed Rahal; Karim Rahal; Idir Bitam

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 159-165
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129596.1665

Wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and cape hare (Lepus capensis) are hosts for different flea species and have high medical and veterinary importance, fleas of wild leporids are of special concern since they can act as vectors for diseases, including zoonoses. This study was designed to identify flea species infesting these animals with the description of their epidemiology and the assessment of factors influencing their infestation importance in five provinces located in northern Algeria, to evaluate their implication in the transmission of pathogens. In total, 86 wild leporids were checked from July 2014 to September 2020. Fleas were collected from the fur of animals with tweezers and identified using appropriate keys. The findings showed that 32/86 (37.2%) of animals were infested with fleas. Four flea’s species were identified on cape hares Ctenocefalides felis (51.06% of fleas identified), Ctenocefalides canis 34.04%, Spilopsyllus cuniculi 10.63%, and Archaeopsylla erinacei 4.25%,with a seasonal peak in December. The same, four flea species were found parasitizing wild rabbits Spilopsyllus cuniculi 90.7%, Ctenocefalides felis 4.65%, Ctenocefalides canis 2.32%, and Pulex irritans 2.32%,with the highest importance in March and April. Moreover, this study showed no influence of female gestations on the rate of flea hare infestations. However, S cuniculi rate was correlated with the breeding cycle of the wild rabbits. These findings revealed that, the temperature and the humidity can be important factors that influence on wild leporids flea infestation.

Protective effect of Urtica dioica in liver and kidney damages induce by ethylene glycol in rabbits: A histopathological study

Muataz A. Al-Akash; Haitham A. Rajab; Ibtisam N. Al-Assaf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 167-170
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129606.1666

Urtica dioica is used in the many countries as seasoning and as an herbal medicine (antioxidant). In this study, adult male locale rabbit was separated into five groups, Group 1 considered as control, Group 2 to 5 animals were treated with 0.75% ethylene glycol (EG) in water to induce renal and liver damage till 30th day. The group 3 to 5 animals were feed extract of the plant of U. dioica at a dosage of 100 mg/kg body weight from day 15 to the day 30. The extracts were administered twice daily orally. Liver histopathological changes characterized by vacuolar degeneration and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, congestion and dilatation of central vein and sinusoids. Renal histopathological changes characterized by deposition of oxalates, blood vessels congestion infiltration of inflammatory cells and change in renal glomeruli in GE treated groups. While histopathological changes in the animals group treated with U. dioica extract and ethylene glycol showed an increase improvement of the histological features of liver tissue, were limited dilatation of renal tubules with less deposition of oxalates, as well as slight infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interstitial tissue. Finally, as a conclusion we noticed that U. dioica extracts had the ameliorative effect of ethylene glycol-induced hepatic and renal histopathological.

Genotyping of avian infectious bronchitis virus in broiler farms in Duhok province, north of Iraq

Renas H. Isa; Jassim M. Abdo; Yousif M. AL-Barzinji

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 171-175
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129635.1670

Infectious bronchitis disease is becoming the most challenging disease in broiler fields in Iraq. This disease leads to massive economic loss every round of production. Three vaccine strains H120, Ma5, and 4/91 are used to combat the disease during the production period while outbreaks occur continuously. This study aimed to investigates the prevalence and circulation of Mass and 4/91 IBV strains in the broiler fields in Duhok province which is the first record in the area. Positive samples were obtained from suspected flocks to this disease during 2018-2020. A specific region of S1 was amplified using specific pairs of primers. Genotyping was performed by nested PCR using specified primers for detecting both Mass and 4/91 strains. In the results, all of the positive flocks were infected with nephropathogenic strain 793/B or 4/91. Two of the positive flocks had an infection with both Mass and 4/91. These results indicate that more than one strain circulates in the area as well as shows the weakness of vaccines used in broiler fields. 

Clinical and subclinical mastitis in buffalue in Mosul area, Iraq

Abdulsatar S. Sadoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 177-186
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129644.1671

This paper aims to investigate the occurrence of clinical and sub-clinical cases of mastitis in buffaloes, and to identify the differences in the components of the mastitis milk, to facilitate the investigation of a number of epidemiological risk aspects in relation to the occurrence of mastitis and to detect the different bacterial species associated with the disease. Eight hundred buffalo milk samples were randomly extracted from the animals of different ages in Mosul city, Iraq and examined by California mastitis test (CMT) and Ultrasonic milk analyzer. According to the clinical signs and CMT, the results indicated the prevalence of the clinical and subclinical cases of the disease in buffaloes to be 10.62% and 27.37% respectively. There was a substantial rise in the population of somatic cells /ml in both clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis. The risk factors included third trimester of lactation period, old ages 10-11 years, outdoor feeding animals, > 30 buffaloes/herd, northern and southern parts of the city, Spring and Winter seasons. In clinical instances of mastitis, the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus was 25.88%, Streptococcus agalactiae 18.82%, Streptococcus pyogenes 16.47%, Corynebacterium bovis 14.11%, Escherichia coli 10.58%, Pseudomonus aeruginosa 7.05%, and Pasteurella multocida 7.05%. In the subclinical cases of mastitis, the prevalence of Staphylococcus chromogens was 14.61%, Staphylococcus xylosus 12.78%, Streptococcus agalactiae 11.87%, Streptococcus dysagalactiae 11.41%, Streptococcus uberis 10.04%, Proteus vulgaris 10.04%, Klebsiella pneumonae 9.58%, Escherichia coli 8.21%, Corynebacterium bovis 7.30%, and Pasteurella multocida 4.10%. It is concluded that mastitis leads to a significant reduction in the levels of total solids, lactose, protein, fat, density, and a significant rise in the levels of pH values and electrical conductivity of the milk samples of clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.

Clinical management of a severe traumatic cutaneous myiasis at the base of the antler in a fallow deer, Dama dama: A case report

Wan-Nor Fitri; Muhammad Azrolharith; Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse; Eric Lim; Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi; Annas Salleh; Zulfakarudin Zamri; Azrul Hisham; Aznida Che Ali; Wahid Haron; Falah Baiee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 187-190
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129663.1674

Cutaneous myiasis is the infestation of larvae of flies in the vertebrate. The condition causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry indicating the importance of a systematic approach to clinical management. The incidents of two episodes of severe cutaneous myiasis wound at the base of the antler in a 5-year-old semi-intensively managed male Dama dama deer was described. Physical examination revealed a foul-smelling necrotic wound around the left cornual region measuring 5cm×4cm in radius and 3cm in depth and fly eggs were seen on the surface of the wound. The clinical findings suggest the diagnosis of a severe cutaneous myiasis. The case was managed by wound debridement and flushing with hydrogen peroxide 3% and diluted hibiscrub 0.05%, followed with povidone iodine 2.5%. Topical ointment, Dermapred® and insecticide, Negasunt® were applied topically. Parenteral administration of flunixin meglumine 2.2 mg/kg for 3 days and Oxytetracycline 1 ml/10 k every 72 hours, given twice both through intramuscular route. Supplement injections, Vitavet® and Catosal™ were given to improve the wound healing process. The outcome of the wound improved post-14 days of treatment. Administration of timely combination of antimicrobials, pain management and flies control are leading factors to a good healing process.

Acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of lambda-cyhalothrin in chicks

Shahaad A. Alrawe; Muna H. ALzubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 191-200
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129674.1678

A Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is classified as a synthetic type II pyrethroids, available in the local market, used to eliminate insects, which is widely used for spraying homes. This study aims to reveal the acute and subacute toxic effects of LTC in chicks as a biological model. The acute (LD50) by up and down method recorded through 24 hrs. The signs and toxicity scores were estimated, the sub-acute toxicity effects of LTC in the open-field activity and tonic immobility test, body-weight and histopathological effects were recorded. The oral LTC LD50 in chicks was 228.5 mg/kg. Oral administration of LTC at doses 57.12, 114.25, and 171.36 mg/kg, which represented 25%, 50%, and 75% of LD50 respectively, caused signs of toxicity such asdepression with wing dropping, feathered by closed eyelids, gasping, and recumbency. LTC causes a significant decrease in chick’s weight, locomotor activity in the open field activity represented by increase latency to move, and decrease the number of lines crossed. The liver and brain show histopathological changes such as congestion, focal infiltration of mononuclear cells, hemorrhage, coagulative necrosis, and vasogenic edema. In the brain, the lesion was represented by shrunken in purkinji, demyelination of axon and hyper atrophy of astrocyte, the lesion was more severe in both organs when exposed to a high concentration and for longer periods. Our results demonstrated that LCT has a moderate toxicity in chicks, and causes behavioral and histological toxic effects, especially with sub-acute toxicity. Therefore, we do not recommend using it, and restricted application in homes and agriculture.

The role of PLGA/TPGS nanoparticle on xylazine-ketamine anesthetic activity in male albino rabbits

Omar A. Bader; Adnan M. Jasim; Mohammed J. Jawad; Hussein H. Nahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 201-206
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129688.1679

D-ɑ-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (Vitamin E TPGS or TPGS) has been approved by food and drug administration (FDA) as harmless adjuvant and is largely used in drug systems delivery. Physicochemical and biological possessions of TPGS provide many advantages for its usage in drug delivery, such as high bio-compatibility, increased drug solubility, improved drug penetration and selective anti-tumor action. The aim of the study was to use the TPGS polymer as a drug release model to regulate the release of the anesthetic xylazine-ketamine in order to minimize therapeutically reference dose, avoid side effects, and improve efficacy. The study performed on 15 adult local breed male rabbits, divided into 3 groups with same number which injected intramuscularly with single dose of suggested anesthetics. Group 1 injected with ketamine and xylazine. Group 2 injected with ketamine and xylazine as same dose of group 1 loaded by PLGA-TPGS. Group 3 injected with Ketamine and xylazine loaded by PLGA-TPGS with half dose of Group 1 and 2. The following physiological parameters were evaluated: heart rate, respiratory rate, degree of muscle relaxation, onset of action and stages of anesthesia before administration the drug at time zero then at 10, 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration, also induction of anesthesia, surgical anesthesia and recovery time were recorded. Nanoprecipitation technique was optimal method for preparing small particle size as well as reduce dose for therapeutic effect. Small and large dose was showed perfect analgesic and muscle relaxant activity of xylazine-ketamine drugs. Ketamine 30 mg and xylazine 10 mg loaded PLGA showed elevation of conciseness period as well as increase muscle relaxant. Ketamine 30 mg and xylazine 10 mg loaded PLGA reduce heart rate but onset of action delayed when compared with reference drug. The process of nanoprecipitation was ideal for forming small particle sizes and reducing the dosage for therapeutic effects. PLGA loaded with ketamine-xylazine demonstrated improved cycle concentration (walk time) as well as improved muscle relaxant, finally the protocol created an excellent anesthetic combination for induction of general anesthesia. 

Prevalence of non-infectious claw disorders in Egyptian dairy farms in relation to the flooring system

Walid Refaai; Mohammad Gomaa; Abdelbasit M. Abdelaal; Ahmed S. Behery; Ahmed Abdelaal; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 207-211
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129754.1685

Lameness is one of the most prevalent and costly maladies affecting dairy cattle. It has been ranked as the third after mastitis and reproductive failure. One of the leading causes of lameness is corium tissue damage and hence claw horn lesions development. Flooring system was found to have an impact on the development of such lesions. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to study the effect of flooring system on the development of four non-infectious claw disorders in Egyptian dairy farms. Another objective was to study the effect of claw disorders on reproductive performance and total milk production. Four dairy herds with earthen floor (n=2) and desert floor (n=2) from Ash-Sharkia and Ismailia Provinces were included in this study. Results revealed that the prevalence of white line disease (WLD) was the highest among recorded lesions in earthen floor farms (2.7%) followed by sole ulcer (SU) 2.1% and sole abscess (SA) 1.7% then vertical wall fissures (VWF) 1.6%. While in the desert floor farms, VWF and SA were reported in 0.8% of animals followed by WLD and SU in 0.4% and 0.3% of animals, respectively. The non-infectious claw disorders were detected mainly in hindlimbs in earthen floor farms when compared to forelimbs (6.6% and 1.5%, respectively) while in the desert floor farms were nearly equal for the forelimbs (1.1%) and hindlimbs (1.2%). In conclusion, the animals housed in earthen floor farms were more susceptible to non-infectious claw disorders than those housed in desert floor.

Ovario-utero protective effect of silymarin in ethidium bromide treated female rats

Hayder G. Abdulshaheed; Jabber A. Al-Saaidi; Jawad K. Al-Arak

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 213-211
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129798.1688

This study was conducted to qualify the ameliorating potency of silymarin against toxicity in ethidium bromide (EtBr) treated female rats. Eighty female Wistar rats aged 100 days, weighted 170-175 g were randomly allocated to control, orally supplemented with drinking water, and three treated groups, orally supplemented with silymarin 200 mg/kg BW, EtBr 10 mg/kg BW, and combination of EtBr and silymarin (SEtBr), respectively. Each group was allocated to two subgroups, sacrificed after 20 and 40 days of treatment. Bodyweight gain, uteri, and ovaries weight were recorded. Ovarian samples were obtained for histopathological examination. EtBr group females recorded the lowest body weight gain, relative weights of ovaries and uteri, and ovarian follicle number, whereas S group females recorded the highest body weight gain and follicular number, while the ovaries and uteri weights were either higher or close to the control group, at both experimental periods. Histopathological findings of both periods revealed necrosis, cirrhosis, ischemia, and prominent hemorrhage in the blood capillaries in EtBr treated ovarian tissues, but many of the ovarian follicles being mature and the atretic follicles were hence found to be high in number, whereas silymarin treated females showed normal ovarian tissues and viable ovarian follicles as that in control females. The combination-treated females, at 20 days, revealed necrotic primary ovarian follicles with some macrophages infiltration, whereas 40 days’ period showed normal ovarian cortex, medulla, and ovarian follicles. In conclusion, silymarin treatment in combination with EtBr has a potent amelioration effect against ovarian toxicity, in a duration-dependent manner.

Therapeutic effect of taurine on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabsy; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 223-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129854.1692

The study aimed to investigate if taurine could help reduce sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in chicks. The chicks in this study were divided into four equal groups, each with eight chicks: the control group, sodium fluoride 20 mg/kg group, taurine 3 g/kg group, the fourth group was dosed with each of the sodium fluoride 20 mg/kg and taurine 3 g/kg groups all groups were dosed orally. The dosing was set at 5 days/week for 4 weeks. After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, the group treated with taurine alone or with sodium fluoride showed an improvement in neurobehavioral and motor activity, as evidenced by a reduction in the duration of chick immobility in the immobility test and an increase in the number of squares cross in the open field test compared to the group treated with sodium fluoride alone. The level of ALT enzyme and calcium in the group treated with sodium fluoride increased significantly compared to the control and taurine group alone, and with sodium fluoride, AST and creatinine levels increased significantly after 4 weeks of sodium fluoride treatment compared to the other groups. When it came to measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione, the sodium fluoride group alone showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde and significant decrease in glutathione after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment when compared to the control and the other groups. The histopathological examination confirmed the previous findings, with the histological sections of the liver, kidney, and brain showing a significant improvement in the group treated with sodium fluoride and taurine after four weeks of treatment. We conclude from this study that taurine has a clear therapeutic effect against oxidative stress, as evidenced by behavioral and motor behavioral effects, as well as levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde, and liver function enzymes, and serum creatinine, as well as histopathological examination of the brain, kidneys, and liver. 

Transabdominal ultrasonographic determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in buffalo cows

Dhafer M. Aziz; Barra D. Al-Watar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 233-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129858.1694

The study was conducted to evaluate the application of transabdominal ultrasonography for the determination of pregnancy and fetal viability in Iraqi buffaloes. Thirty-two buffaloes at different periods of gestation were included. The buffaloes were palpated transrectally and transabdominal ultrasonography was applied to determine the pregnancy and fetal viability status. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, the positive and negative predictive value of transrectal palpation were 93.7, 100, 83.3, 90.9, and 100%, and for transrectal palpation were 78.1, 100, 58.8, 68.2, and 100%, respectively. The values of accuracy and specificity in the first trimester obtained by transabdominal ultrasonography were lower than those obtained by rectal palpation (66.6 vs. 94.4% and 62.5 vs. 90.9%), whereas the same values of accuracy and specificity were at second and third trimesters. Notwithstanding the values of the transrectal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography sensitivity were 100% in the three trimesters of buffalo’s gestation. At the first trimester of gestation, transabdominal ultrasonography required more time in comparison to transrectal palpation to get the final decision. Conversely, transrectal palpation required more time than transabdominal ultrasonography to diagnose the pregnant buffalos which were at the second and third trimesters of gestation. The transabdominal ultrasonography pregnancy diagnosis in the third trimester was faster than at the second and first trimester, a highly significant (P<0.001) negative correlation was reported between the time required for pregnancy diagnosis and the gestation age. It can be concluded that the transabdominal is a practical approach of ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and determination of fetal viability in buffalo cows especially at the second and third trimesters of gestation. 

Toxicity of fluoxetine hydrochloride on some selected vital organs of pregnant mice Mus musculus

Baidaa A. Mohammed; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 239-243
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129864.1695

The current study intends to look at the impact of the fluoxetine hydrochloride on specific tissues lung and pancreas of mature pregnant mice. The two doses used during the study were 45,75mg/kg b.w. from the 7th to the 17th day of pregnancy. Experimental animals received fluoxetine orally at a dosage of 45mg/kg b.w. The findings indicate variable pathologic changes in the lungs. At the dose of 75 mg/kg b.w. hyperplasia of pneumocytes occurred. In the pancreas, there were no detectible lesions at the dose of 45mg/kg b.w. while at the dose of 75 mg/kg b.w. the severity of tissue lesions was seen. In conclusion, antidepressants may stimulate oxidative injury throughout the body's internal organs, particularly if taken at high doses during pregnancy. Consequently, these lesions have a great impact on the heath of both fetus and pregnant mice since the most common lesions were observed in fetus which cause abortion which effect on the health of pregnant mice.

Effect of mobile frequencies exposure on histology of retina and cornea in pregnant albino mice

Rawah N. Alshammary; Zeena D. Mohammed Zaki; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 245-249
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129839.1701

In the current study, the potential effects of the Nokia mobile device were studied with frequency 900-1800 Mhz on the eyes of pregnant and non-pregnant female Swiss mice. The mice were divided into three groups: The first group is a control group consisting of five mice, the second group consists of 10 mice and the third group consists of 10 pregnant mice. Female mice of the second and third groups were exposed for a 3 hour / day and for a 30 days to a mobile device. After the end of 30 days, mice were euthanized and tissue samples were taken from the eyes of pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Microscopic examination showed, that there are significant effects on the cornea and retina of the eye, especially in pregnant females, which supports the current studies conducted on the effect of mobile phones on the eyes represented by vascularization where some sections showed newly formed blood vessels in stroma layer just beneath bowman's membrane and retina degeneration. This study concluded that the exposure to the mobile radiation led to serious histological changes in the tissues of eye which may lead to blindness.

Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Escherichia coli isolated from milk of cattle affected by mastitis

Azhar A. Neamah; Khilood H. Fahad; Jenan N. Sadeq; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 251-254
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129934.1702

This evolution-based study aimed to reliably identify the epidemiological prevalence of Escherichia coli that wasrecovered from affected milk of cattle by mastitis, study the evolution of this bacterium, and describe some isolates using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and DNA sequencing. Here, we collected 50 cattle milk samples and submitted them to conventional bacterial isolation and identification using enrichment culture method and biochemical tests. Then, we confirmed the results by PCR technique based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results showed that E. coli was isolated from cattle at (36%), and this was confirmed by PCR that showed highly specific detection of E. coli isolates at (100%). DNA sequencing of partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene showed (99%) homological identity with NCBI-Blast E. coli isolates and the phylogenetic analysis showed genetic similarity (0.5 genetic changes). In conclusion, this was the first study in Iraq to report genetic relationship between E. coli isolated from milk of mastitis-infected cattle. Therefore, it is essential to define the role of animals as an important source in the distribution of some pathogens that are related to public health.

Morphological and Molecular diagnosis of Hypoderma spp. in Mosul city, Iraq

Duaa G. Alhamdany; Nadia S. alhayali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 255-259
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129942.1704

Hypodermosis is a distinctive ectoparasitic disease infesting cattle; Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum are the most common causes of this myasis. In this study 78 larvae were collected from infected cattle by extraction in the Educational Veterinary Hospital, from Kokjali and Bazwaya flocks and from the skin of slaughtered in Mosul abattoirs for the period from October 2020 to March 2021. Morphological identification by using stereomicroscope depending on patterns of spinulation of the 10th abdominal segment and peritremes structure of L3 classified as H. bovis and H. lineatum. Molecular technique by traditional PCR applied on 16 L3 of the genus Hypoderma revealed that the reaction product was 500 bp by amplification of mt CO1 gene while the results of PCR-RFLP using restriction TaqI enzyme for differentiation between the two species indicated reaction products 300bp for H. bovis and 200bp for H. lineatum respectively. The results of molecular analysis by PCR and PCR-RFLP proved the existence of these two species of Hypoderma in Mosul. 

The effect of therankeron D6 on the healing of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Ibraheem A. Zedan; Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Muneer S. Al-Badrany; Ahmed Kh. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 261-265
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129975.1712

To investigate the effects of systemic administration of Theranekron (Tarantula cubensis) extract as homeopathic remedy on anastomosis healing after surgical intestinal resection. Eight healthy stray dogs (age 1-1.5 years, weight 15-20 kgs) were randomly divided into two groups; control (4 animals) and treatment group (4 animals). Intestinal resection and anastomosis were performed in all animals in both groups. Theranekron D6 (3 ml) was administered subcutaneously one week before surgery and at operation time in the treatment group whereas animals of the control group were injected 3 ml of normal saline at the same time points of treatment group. All animals were kept for 15 days following surgery and a segment of intestine was removed for histopathological and press pressure measurement. The results showed that no post-operative complications have been observed in both groups. The gross examination of the anastomosis site revealed sever adhesions with omentum and other intestinal segment of the all animals of the control group in comparison to the treatment group where lesser adhesions with omentum without any adhesion with the other intestinal segment have been noticed. There was slight difference between control and treatment group in relation to histopathological examination. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that Theranekron was able to improve the healing process of the resected and anastomosed intestinal segment