Supplement I-III


Effect of ultrasound on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro and in vivo

Asmaa A. Ali; Baraa B. Ramadhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.126906.1410

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of ultrasound on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus by enforcing steady numeral of frequencies during a certain interval (20000 pulse/s) (1.8 w/cm2), using exposure time 30,20,15,12,10 and 5s, individually and respectively. Consequently, six albino mice groups were immunized against cystic echinococcosis, which injected with exposed protoscoleces, to acquire specific cell-mediated immunity, called delayed type-hypersensitivity (DTH) which assessment by measurement the foot pad density. The results displayed significant excess (P≤ 0.001) of DTH by increase of foot pad thickness in injected groups. The results showed maximum thickness of 1.54 mm, 1.4mm, 0.9 mm. after 3h, 24h, and 48h post - injection, respectively, that compared with the thickness of control group 1.072, 0.638, 0.328 mm, respectively, during five months of experiment. The present research exhibited the action of ultrasonication technique on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vitro. Conclusion, Ultrasound frequencies used in the present study could be have consequential impact on the cellular immunity in albino mice.

Effect of nefopam in normal chickens and its relationship to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress

Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 7-12
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127013.1433

The objective designated to discover the analgesic effect of nefopam in the normal (non-stressed) chickens and its possible alteration due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress (OS) in 7-14 day old chickens. The analgesia of nefopam has been increased by 47% in the stressed chickens by measuring the analgesic Median Effective Dose (ED50) value. This value was 9.10 mg/kg, IM in the normal chickens where it became 4.80 mg/kg, IM in stressed chickens. There is a significant rise in the antinociceptive action of nefopam 18 mg/kg, IM by 88% in the stressed group of chickens in comparison with the normal one elicited by an electro-stimulation and formaldehyde 0.05 ml of 0.1% tests for induction of nociception. The observations showed several significant stimulatory modifications in the neurobehaviour when nefopam treated with a subtle dosage 1 mg/kg, IM in the stressed chickens concerning the latency to move, squares crossed and time of the tonic immobility response test. Significant damage was detected in the liver function when nefopam injected at 18 mg/kg, IM in stress chickens in comparison to normal one by 28, 33 and 65% as estimated through Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate trans-aminase (AST) and Alanine trans-aminase (ALT) concentrations in the serum, respectively. The sum of data findings indicated that H2O2-inducedOS increased the analgesic activity of nefopam in the chickens; despite the changes occur on the neurobehaviour and liver function. The dose of nefopam should be reduced when preparing the therapeutic regimen in the stressed animals.

Acute toxicity of metronidazole and its interaction with chlorpyrifos in chicks

Douaa H. Alsanjary; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 13-18
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127035.1442

Metronidazole is antimicrobial drug for human and animal use, The more characteristic side effect associated with use high dose of metronidazole is neurotoxic signs, some of these signs that recorded in animal represented by ataxia and tremor, there is limited information is available on the pharmacological profile of metronidazole in birds The aim of our study explain some of its neurological effect in chicks by its interaction with one of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos that have well-known excitatory effect on nervous system. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos were determined depending on up and down method. The intraperitoneal and oral LD50 of metronidazole were 516.9 mg/kg, 3061.8 mg/kg respectively. The oral LD50of chlorpyrifos was 13.705 mg/kg, intraperitoneal treatment of metronidazole with Oral treatment of chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:1, 1: 0.5, and 0.5:1, respectively of LD50at the same time increased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the isobolographic analysis showed that the points of interaction occurred above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each; while oral treatment of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:0.5 LD50at the same time decreased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the point of interaction was above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each in conclusion we found that isobolografhic analysis for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in different percentages and routs of treatment reveal to antagonist effect despite the similarity in the toxic signs.

Comparison the efficiency of different techniques for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered ewes

Sura S. Aghwan; Haitham S. Al-Bakri; Sadam M. Albaqqal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 19-23
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127058.1452

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of human and other warm-blooded animals causes toxoplasmosis. In the present study a total of 50 uterus samples collected from slaughtered ewes were investigated for detection of T. gondii. Several techniques have been used to diagnose the infection with this parasite. Firstly, the impression smears staining methods used for the all samples using giemsa stain. Secondly, uses of direct fluorescence technique by acridine orange method for staining the impression smears of the uteri. As well as the histological section technique was used to determine the developmental growth stages of the parasite of all uterus samples and finally the serological method by latex agglutination test was used for the detection of antibodies of parasite. The results showed that detection of T. gondii using these four methods was 100, 80, 80 and 50%, respectively. It was concluded that the impression smears of the uterus staining with Giemsa stain was more readily, effectively and efficiently, followed by the direct immunofluorescence technique and histological section stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain technique, and finally the serological method.

Study the analgesic effect of diclofenac and silymarin coadministration in chicks

Yasser M. Albadrany; Ahmed S. Naser; Mohammad M. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127065.1453

The study aimed to investigate the analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac and silymarin in chicks. The up and down procedure was used to assess the effective median analgesic dosages (ED50s) of diclofenac and silymarin administered intraperitoneally either alone or at the same time in chicks. Also, Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were measured by using the formalin test. Isobolographically, ED50s of drugs were assessed for the manner of interaction between both. Formalin testing also supervised analgesic and anti-inflammatory coadministration impact of diclofenac and silymarin at doses 5 and 40 mg/kg and 2.5 and 20 mg/kg respectively. Analgesic ED50s for diclofenac and silymarin in chicks were 9.3 and 76.6 mg/kg separately. Concomitant administration of drugs at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 and 0.25:0.25 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 2.3:18.6 mg/kg and 2.2:16.5 mg/kg separately. ED50s isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs. Additionally, coadministration of both drugs had effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect, as seen by formalin test, led to a significant rise in latency to lift right foot beside a significant decline in foot lifting frequency when compared with control value, the anti-inflammatory reaction was demonstrated by a significant decrease in foot thickness compared to control value. In conclusion, the data indicate that diclofenac and silymarin coadministration controls acute pain synergistically, and suppress inflammatory reaction.

Control of stray dog population by single intratesticular injection of tannic acid

Ibraheem A. Zedan; Muneer S. Taha Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 33-36
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130454.1826

The present study was aimed to perform the alternative technique of chemical castration for controlling the increasing population of stray dogs. Eight adult male dogs were used in the current study. The dogs were Experimentally divided randomly into two groups. The first group included four dogs that were injected intratesticular with tannic acid while the second group which includes four dogs were injected intratesticular with normal saline and considered as a control group. The clinical examination, hormonal assay, and histopathological changes were detected. The result of the current study shown testicular tissue swelling in both treated and control groups this swelling subsided gradually within 48 hours, but without any serious complications. There were no significant changes in testosterone levels in both the control and treated groups. The histopathological results of the treated group after 30 days post-surgery showed focal necrosis and desquamation of germinal cells and Sertoli cells. We can conclude that chemical neutralization is a simple technique, can be used for controlling the increasing population of stray dogs. 

Multi-drug resistance profile of extended spectrum β-Lactamases producing Escherichia coli isolated from sheep in Mosul city

Fatma R. Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 37-40
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130475.1829

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major threat due to their ability to overcome different types of antibiotics. However, Extended Spectrum β-lactamase E. coli (ESBLE) imposes an additional threat due to their ability to resist the 3rd generation cephalosporins. Accordingly, our study aimed to investigate the antibiogram profile of ESBLE isolates obtained from sheep. A Total of 40 ESBLE isolates were included in this study which represents sheep fecal and milk samples. Twelve antibiotics were selected to perform antibiotic sensitivity tests following standard microbiological methods. The results of the study showed that the highest resistance percentages were recorded for tetracycline 97.5%, ciprofloxacin 80%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 65%, and streptomycin 57.5%. While other antibiotics recorded lesser values. On the other hand, all isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and tobramycin each at 92.5%, followed by chloramphenicol and levofloxacin each at 82.5% and nitrofurantoin 72.5%. While fewer values of sensitivity were recorded for streptomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and, tetracycline. The study concluded that ESBLE of sheep origin that have additional resistance features to other antibiotics could be a major threat for spreading resistance and contaminating the environment and finally impose negative impact for response to antibiotic treatment in humans.

Phynotypic and genotypic identification of Eimeria species in backyard chicken in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Adnan M. Ahmed; Haitham S. AlBakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 41-46
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130487.1834

Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by a parasite of the genus Eimeria. This parasite mainly affects poultry species and causes great economic losses in the poultry industry. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coccidiosis in the local breed of domestic chicken in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. 450 faecal swabs and intestinal samples (intestinal scraping) were collected from different local breeds of home-bred chickens from October 2020 to the end of March 2021. All fecal samples were examined using the flotation method by using sugar solution, and Eimeria was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction method. Fecal examination results showed that 32.6% of the total samples were positive for Eimeria oocysts, classified into six species including E. brunetti, E. mitis.E. maxima E. acervulina E. necatrix, E. tenella with infection rates are 57.5, 44.2, 42.1, 26.5, 20.4, 16.3%, respectively. The phenotypic results were genetically confirmed by the result of the reaction of 455 base pairs. The prevalence of coccidiosis was highest in chickens less than three months of age 49.2% and lowest in chickens older than 6 months 23.9%

First serodetection and molecular phylogenetic documentation of Coxiella burnetii isolates from female camels in Wasit governorate, Iraq

Mawlood A. Al-Graibawi; Afaf A. Yousif; Hasanain A. Gharban; Jakob Zinsstag

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 47-52
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130888.1890

This study aims to detect Coxiella burnetii in one-humped female camels (Camelus dromedarius) using ELISA and confirmation of infection by PCR with the phylogenetic analysis of local isolates. The 91 adult female camels were selected for clinical examination and blood sampling from different areas in Badra and Al-Numaniyah districts in Wasit governorate, Iraq, from February to April 2019. The prevalence of Coxiella(C.) burnetii was 19.8% and 4.4% by ELISA and PCR, respectively. Targeting 16S rRNA genes from three positive samples were documented in the Genbank-NCBI under accession numbers of MN900579.1, MN900580.1, and MN900581.1. Clinical evaluation revealed insignificant variation in temperature, pulse, respiratory rates, and lymph node enlargement among the positive and negative animals. The findings also showed that camels of the Badra regions have positive signs. burnetii compared to other regions, and the infection was increased significantly in April and March. In conclusion, our findings confirmed the prevalence of C. burneth among Iraqi female camels, suggesting that these animals might be a source of the pathogen for humans and other animal species. Therefore, further studies are necessary to provide more detailed data about the prevalence of C. burnetiito to improve effective control measures.

Isolation and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp., enteric bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. associated with respiratory tract infections of sheep

Teba A. Aziz; Inam J. Lafta

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 53-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131098.1917

Sheep are considered as an important part of livestock in the worldwide, particularly in Iraq, as they provide meat, milk, leather, wool, and manure. The present study aim is isolation and identification of staphylococci, enteric bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. Totally, 115 samples were collected from sheep (100 samples were collected from the nasal cavity of local sheep suffering from respiratory infections, and 15 samples were collected from apparently healthy local sheep). All the samples were collected from seven flocks located in Abu Ghraib and Al-Radwaniyah, Baghdad governorate, Iraq. The samples were taken during the period from October 2020 to February 2021. Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., andenteric bacteria were detected firstly by using classical diagnostic methods, and secondly they were identified to the species level by using the corresponding analytical profile index (API 20 staph, API 20NE and API 20E) and via the Vitek2 system. Importantly, from nasal swabs, 79% bacterial isolates were obtained, including Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Raoutltella planticola, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus among others. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed multi-drug resistant S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. To conclude, several aerobic bacteria were isolated from the nasal cavity of diseased sheep. An extensive study is needed to determine the economic and public health impacts of these bacteria.

RAPD-PCR and phylogenetic analysis of E. coli isolated from human and cattle urinary tract infections

Dunya A. Mraidi; Inam J. Lafta

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 59-66
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131100.1918

This study aimed at isolating uropathogenic Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections (UTIs) of human and cattle to examine the molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationship of the isolates. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from UTIs of human and cattle. The isolates identification was done using routine diagnostic methods and confirmed by Vitek2. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 10 antimicrobials. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was applied to identify the genetic diversity among E. coli isolates from human and animal origin by using five different octamer primers. The gelJ software for the phylogenetic analysis created Dendrograms. Out of 50 human urine samples, E. coli was isolated from 12 (24%) samples, and was positive in 5 out of 50 (10%) of cattle urine samples. Concerning the antimicrobial susceptibility test, both human and animal isolates revealed rather approximate results when tested mainly against Imipenem, Cefotaxime, and Ciprofloxacin. These antimicrobial data might indicate presence of a degree of similarity between the human and animal isolates. Using RAPD-PCR, three of the primers produced polymorphic bands; therefore, they were used for further analysis of the results. Either of P1, P3 or P4 primers showed presence of similarity between human and cow isolates. To conclude,RAPD-PCR and gelJ software might be of attractive use to identify and analyze the occurrence of genetic relationships, as this could assist in controlling the routes and sources of infection transmission between human and animal in order to prevent zoonotic infections. 

Clinical and immunological study of specific Mycobacterium bovis-BCG transfer factor in lambs

Elaf A. Nayyef; Mawlood A. Al-Graibawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 67-72
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131305.1939

This study was designed to prepare and evaluate the specific Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) transfer factor (TF) from spleen cells of two lambs vaccinated subcutaneously S/C with BCG vaccine twice 2 weeks’ intervals, similarly one lamb injected with normal saline used as a donor of non-specific TF. The lambs were clinically examined at zero time and along 3 days post each immunization, then, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) was checked post 4 weeks. TF was obtained from spleen cells of the lambs, inspected for sterility; safety.TF was evaluated in 4 groups (five in each) of lambs 3-4 months old. The first group (recipient) was injected S/C with 2 ml of specific BCG-TF, similarly the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were injected with non-specific TF, BCG and normal saline respectively. The clinical signs and DTH test were checked as described above, only the specific TF recipient and BCG vaccinated lambs gave a positive DTH test. The serum concentration of inerlukin-17 (IL-17), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and migration inhibitory factor (MIF) cytokines were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which revealed a highly significant increase in the TF recipient lambs in comparison with the control and vaccinated groups. It concluded that the prepared specific M. bovis-BCG transfer factor was effective to induce cell mediated immunity via DTH and increasing the serum concentration of cytokines in recipient lambs.

The effectiveness of biogenic silver nanoparticles in the treatment of caprine mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus

Ali H. Al Dujaily; Alaa K. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 73-78
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131415.1946

The aim of the present study is to determine the efficiency of silver nanoparticles in mastitis treatment induced by Staphylococcus aureus, 20 lactating goats were infected intramammaryinoculated with 1.5×108 cfu/ml of virulence Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of caprine mastitis and at 48hr post inoculation, the animals were divided randomly into four groups equally, 1st group left without treatment as control positive, 2nd group treated intramammaryinfusion with 5 ml Silver nanoparticle after 2h from infection daily for 3 consecutive days, 3rd group treated intramammaryinfusion with 5 ml Silver nanoparticle after 72h from infection daily for 3 consecutive days, 4th group treated intramammaryinfusion with 5 ml Silver nanoparticle mixed with gentamycin after 72h from infection daily for 3 consecutive days. The silver nanoparticles used in this study were created using a green method from Bacillus clausii. The Scanning electron microscope was spherical and homogeneous form, with a size range of 25 to 45 nm. Results showed severe clinical signs of the mammary gland with heavy bacterial isolation in 1st control groups at 3, 6-, 9-, 14- and 21-days post infection, while animals that were intramammary treated with Silver nanoparticle alone or combination with gentamycin showed a disappearance in clinical signs of the mammary gland and bacterial isolation, it was concluded that Silver nanoparticle had a strong action against mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Immunohistochemical and pathological changes in BALB/c mice immunized with whole sonicated Listeria monocytogenes antigens and the effect of probiotics

Thamer J. Shihab; Zainab I. Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 79-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131562.1970

The current study was undertaken to investigate the role of macrophages as a cellular immune function against immunization with whole sonicated Listeria monocytogenes antigens (WSLMAgs) and the effect of probiotics. A preparation of WSLMAgs containing whole L. monocytogenes cell, after two subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c mice with 0.5ml WSLMAgs (0.5mg/ml) at an interval of two weeks. The bacterial identification was conducted by a conventional culture method using Listeria selective media PALCAM and confirmed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), As well as, the immunohistochemical and pathological change of it was studied in vivo by inoculating mice with pre-challenge WSLMAgs and post-challenge with virulent L. monocytogenes (1×108 CFU/mL). The results revealed the cellular immune function against pre- and post-immunization in spleen organ via lymphocytic hyperplasia in white pulp and coalescence of lymphoid follicles and marker F4/80+ show the immune-positive cells in aggregation adjacent to lymphoid follicle or focal aggregation of macrophages between follicles. In conclusion, the effectiveness of sonicated L. monocytogenes pre and post-immunization then challenge with virulent L. monocytogenes in the induction of cellular immune response, might serve as an immunization platform for applicants.

Pathological study of genitourinary invasion by Aspergillus flavus in male rats

Sadeq O. Kadhim; Inam B. Faleh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 87-94
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131580.1974

Due to the widespread of A. flavus spores and the high risk of its mycotoxins in our environment, we investigated the pathological effects of A. flavus on genitourinary system in experimental rats using a whole sonicated antigen (WSA), and modified mycotoxin (mycotoxoid) in the immunization process. Fifty albino male rats were involved, subdivided into five group, each group of 10 male rats. Group one as a negative control received phosphate buffer saline, group two as a positive control received a challenge dose of 1×106 /0.5ml viable conidia/rat, while group three was immunized by a mixture of WSA and mycotoxoid, G4 was immunized by WSA alone, and G5 was immunized by mycotoxoid alone. The immunization was performed in two doses with 2 weeks interval. The results showed a high immune response (in group three G3) stimulated by the mixture (WSA and mycotoxoid), which revealed a significant increase in both IL-17 and IFN-γ. After experimental infection, the sero-analysis showed a significant increase in IL-17 and IFN-γ serum levels compared with the mixture-immunized group which showed no significant increases. In addition, the histopathologic sections illustrated severe chronic inflammation with a typical fungal granulomatous reaction in the prostate glands and kidneys compared with the WSA-immunized groups which showed mild histological reactions. Finally, we conclude that A. flavus is a serious opportunistic pathogen that can disseminate into genitourinary organs inducing severe pathologic lesions and even death. Moreover, we found that immunization by WSA and mycotoxoid can significantly reduce both immune and histopathological effects of A. flavus and its mycotoxins.

Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic infection; A critical and updated analysis: A Review Article

Wassan Nori; Alaa I. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 95-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131607.1980

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic illness caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. It may infect humans and pets, as well as other warm-blooded mammals. Toxoplasmosis can be silent in the general public but it can be deadly in immunocompromised patients. This neurotropic protozoan has been linked to an increased risk of behavioral changes in infected animals and mental illnesses in human beings. The detection of a biological pathogen linked to schizophrenia is critical to comprehend the pathogen's biological influence on affected cases. Moreover, in schizophrenia cases, toxoplasmosis infection and lipid profile disturbance are frequent. The exact underlying pathology is yet unknown. Pregnant women are a particular risk group; they are liable to a higher risk of infection, leading to miscarriage, stillbirth, or permanent impairments in the unborn child. This review aimed to explore the up-to-date knowledge on this zoonotic parasite and critically analyze current information, inconsistencies, and implications on public health. We discuss the pathological pathways by which it produces its devastating effect on the central nervous system in both animals and human models, in addition to its enigmatic impact on lipid profile. 

Evaluation of bacterial contaminants and heavy metals in cow and buffalo raw milk sold in Baghdad governorate

Aseel M. Al-Rudha; Nuha K. Khalil; Noor A. Altaai

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 101-105
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131744.1999

The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial contamination and heavy metal concentrations in 80 samples of raw milk (cow:40 and buffalo:40) gathered from local markets in Baghdad, Iraq. The culture results were classified into ten categories: E. coli was 100% in each cows and buffaloes, Enterobacter Spp 23.75% (25% cow, 22.5% buffalo), Pseudomonas Spp 13.75% (15% cow,12.5% buffalo), Klebsiella Spp 15% (17.5% cow, 12.5% buffalo), Staphylococcus aureus 12.5% (15% cow, 10% buffalo), Staph. epidermidis 5% (for each cow and buffalo), Proteus spp. 10% (12.5% cows, 7.5% buffaloes), E. coli O157 15% (25% cow, 5% buffalo), Yersinia enterocolitica 3.75% (5% cow, 2.5% buffalo) and Salmonella 13.75% (25% cow 2.5% buffalo). The averages of heavy metals concentrations in cow milk samples were (0.62±0.25), (0.25±0.22), (0.31±0.20) and (21±2) mg/kg and in buffalo milk samples were (0.60±0.3), (0.33±0.15), (0.27±0.11) and (18±2.5) mg/kg for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) respectively. The high concentrations of pathogenic bacteria and metals found in the milk products is a sign of inadequate hygiene and sanitation during milking and post-milking operations, as well as excessive levels of heavy metal pollution in the environment which will affect meat and milk produced by these animals.

Trypsin dose optimization for glaucoma induction in rabbit model

Nour M. Muharib; Hameed A. Altmeme

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 107-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131748.2001

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease identified by optic nerve damage and loss of retinal ganglionic cells. The aim of the study was to test the precise dose of trypsin to induce glaucoma in a rabbit model. Nine White New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group one (G1) normal animals as control, group two (G2) the animals were injected with 0.2 ml of 0.04% trypsin and group three (G3) injected with 0.2 ml of 0.05% trypsin into posterior chamber of eye. A schiotz tonometer was used to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) before the injection, two days after injection and once a week until the end of the second week. At the end of the second week, the histology of the retina and optic nerve was studied. G3's intraocular pressure increased by 43.7%, while G2's intraocular pressure increased by 0.7% compared to G1. Retinal ganglionic cells (RGCs) decreased in G3 by 91.5% and G2 by 43.8% in comparison with G1. Optic nerve histology in G3 displayed decreased Schwann cell quantity with vacuolation and low orientation of nerve fibers compared with G1 and G2. Group three had the highest increase in IOP due to obstruction of drainage canal and preventing outflow of aqueous humor. This resulted in mechanical compression on the retina, ending with loss of RGC and degeneration of the optic nerve. The conclusion is that 0.2ml of 0.05% trypsin is the proper dose for the induction of glaucoma.

Effect of adding nettle plant on some physiological and biochemical parameters of broiler chickens

Abdullah F. Abdul-Majeed; Ghadeer A. Rahawi; Amar M. AL-Chalabi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131844.2010

The objective of this study is to find out the impact of the nettle plant (Urtica dioica L.) on broiler, because of its wide spread in our regions, and insufficient information about its effects on the broiler, as most of the current researches refers its uses in folk medicine. So, this research had been conducted to evaluate the effects of adding 0.25 and 0.5% crushed nettle/kg diet on the blood picture and some biochemical indices of broiler. 180 broiler chicks (Ross 308), one-day-old were randomly distributed into 3 groups (60 birds/group) with 3 replicates/group (20 birds/replicate), and treated until 42 days age as follows: 1st group (Control): standard diets without additives, 2nd group: 0.25% nettle/kg diet, 3rd group: 0.50% nettle/kg diet. Results showed that crushed nettle plant led to an increase in the values of packed cell volume, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and it's shortened clotting time, as well as a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the number of basophils compared to the control group. In regard to the biochemical profile in the blood serum of broiler, most of biochemical indices values became better and significant when adding nettle (high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, risk index, total protein, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). In conclusion, nettle can be given to broiler in these proportions to improve the hematological and biochemical indices due to its properties and contents.

Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical mastitis in lactating ewes

Zainab A. Ahmed; Afaf A. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 121-126
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131854.2013

This study was conducted for estimation of subclinical mastitis prevalence caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) in apparent normal lactating ewes in the areas around Baghdad (Al-Rasheed, Al-Yousifya, Al-Latifya). 400 milk samples from 200 ewes were collected and examined by California mastitis test (CMT), Bacteriological examination was done by culturing on Blood agar, Mannitol salt agar, Staph-110 agar and Chrome agar then bacteria examined by Gram stain and biochemical test. Antibiotic sensitivity test and molecular assay by PCR were done to detect methicillin- resistant strains with the phylogenetic study. The results showed that 49/400 samples gave positive to CMT in the field and positive to S. aureus isolation. The percentage of subclinical mastitis in ewes was 12.25% in this study. All isolated bacteria were resistant to methicillin 100%. The result of PCR revealed that 16.32 % (8/49) of the MRSA were possess mecA gene, while no isolate carried the mecC gene, PCR-product for 8 positive samples of mecA target gene were sequenced, analyzed, and reported in Genbank-NCBI and obtained accession number and became a reference to Iraq and the Middle East and the world. Ongoing work will add to this set more type strains are published and it is available for download at ID: MZ359756.1, M Z359757.1, MZ359758.1, MZ359759.1, MZ359760.1, MZ359761.1, MZ359762.1, MZ359763.1 (mecA gene). Seven samples that match the global results by 100%, and one sample contains a mutation at the site 1539, Nucleotide. Our conclusion revealed that detection of subclinical mastitis in sheep very important caused by S. aureus and all S. aureus was resistant to methicillin and some strains possess mecA gene. However, absence of mec A in other MRSA isolates requires detecting the alternative genetic possibilities related to the resistance profile and fragment of gene used.

Standard techniques for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue: A Pathologist’s perspective

Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Asseel M. Rahawi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 127-135
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131918.2023

Histopathology considered as an essential keystone to understanding diseases on a cellular level, without examining affected tissues and cells; will lack the accurate diagnosis. The most common protocol that used worldwide for histopathology is termed as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded techniques; this protocol is the oldest protocol and still used, this technique not invented once, but it is started with a simple process of tissue fixation then undergo several successful steps as it's known today. This protocol depends on formalin to induce tissue fixation and preservation simultaneously, followed by a series of steps to facilitate infiltration of hot paraffin wax in the cells to adjust the density of tissue similar to that of paraffin wax to support tissue during sectioning process at few micrometers of thickness. Many protocols have been invented and modified subsequently to increase the accuracy of tissue processing and facilitate their study under light microscopy. Additionally, the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples can be considered the most durable process till now. In this review, we are trying to view all fundamental aspects of classical tissue processing that was depended since 1850s, starting from tissue examination, sampling, accessory, labelling, fixation, dehydration, clearance, infiltration, and embedding with hot paraffin wax. Additionally, explain the routine sectioning and staining with classical Hari’s hematoxylin and alcoholic eosin staining protocol. 

Isolation and molecular detection of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk of cows

Dunya D. Taher; Safana A. Yassin; Mariam H. Abdulkareem

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 137-141
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131957.2030

Staphylococcus aureus is a microbe associated with human’s food poisoning. It is caused by isolates producing different heat stable enterotoxins which act as one of the most spread worldwide gastroenteritis causes. The goal of the current study was to assess the incidence of S. aureus (enterotoxigenic) in the raw milk samples of cows which were collected from various places of Baghdad city. Isolation and identification of S. aureus were done by conventional laboratory method and the diagnoses were confirmed by using molecular method RT-PCR to detect the specific gene of S. aureus nuc gene. In addition, we investigate the occurrence of some of Staphylococcal enterotoxins genes such as SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, and SEE. We found that 12/50 (24%) of the isolates were S. aureus and these isolates carried one or more of the enterotoxin genes such as enterotoxin type SEC 12/12 (100) followed by enterotoxin type SEA 7/12 (58.33%) and only 1/12 (8.33%) was type SED, while type SEB and SEE were negative 0%. Some of the isolates have genes that coded for two enterotoxins patterns such as SEA and SEC 7/12 (58.33%) and SEC and SED 1/12 (8.33%). Fewer of the isolates expressed only one genotype of enterotoxin gene like SEC 4/12 (33.3%). This study has proven that there was a high chance of occurrence for the enterotoxigenic S. aureus at the raw milk of cows in Baghdad city. 

The study of biogenic iron oxide nanoparticles effects on iron status in male rabbits infected with T. evansi

Majida A. Alqayim; Lazem H. Altaie; Laith S. Ghali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 143-147
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.132058.2039

The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of propolis-iron oxide nanoparticles in eliminating the T. evansi parasite and rehome stasis of deleterious iron status in experimentally infected rabbits. Twenty male rabbits were divided into equal four groups (n=5). the 1st group as Control negative, 2nd control positive, 3rd trypanosomiasis and treated with propolis iron oxide nanoparticles, and 4th trypanosomiasis and treated with diminazene,2nd ,3rd, and 4th groups were inoculated with T. evansi, and were checked for the onset of parasitemia. After 15 of the onset of parasitemia 3rd group was treated with propolis- iron-oxide nanoparticles 30 mg iron /kg BW, and 4th group was treated with diminazene drug with a single dose 3.5 mg/kg BW. The result showed that experimentally infection with T. evansi caused a significant decrease of serum iron and ferritin and a significant increase in total iron-binding capacity and unsaturation iron-binding capacity, as well erythrocytes fragility, bilirubin totally and partially. Treatment with propolis-iron oxide nanoparticles improved iron status parameters to semi-normal values much better than diminazene drug, in addition, reduced the total bilirubin concentration and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes toward a normal state. It can be concluded that the propolis-iron oxide nanoparticles proved successfully rebalancing iron status and eliminating the parasite and making iron available. 

Immunotherapeutic effect of chitosan and listeriolysin O on Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice

Hero I. Ali; Shaimaa N. Yasssein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 149-155
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.132332.2082

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary chitosan and listeriolysin O (LLO) on the immune response against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. L. monocytogenes isolate was obtained from the unit of Zoonotic Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Baghdad. It was reactivated and cultured on PALCAM agar and exposed to a confirmatory diagnostic test. listeriolysin O (LLO) was extracted and purified. Sixty mice were used and divided into four groups each one involving 15 mice; the first group was fed on diet supplemented with a chitosan for 4 weeks. At the end of the 2nd week, normal saline was injected S/C; the second group was fed on a normal diet without any addition. At the end of 2nd week, 0.3 ml of LLO was injected S/C, then the booster dose of LLO was given after 14 days of 1st injection; the third group was fed on a diet supplemented with chitosan as in G1, and treated as in G2 and the fourth group fed on a normal diet without any addition and treated as in G1. A skin test was performed on 5 mice of each group while a Challenge test by injection of 0.2ml of 1x109 CFU/ml of viable L. monocytogenes intraperitoneally was performed on other mice. The concentration of IgG titer and IL6 were measured. The results revealed that the third group recorded significantly higher values in the skin thickness, IgG, and IL6 concentrations when compared with other groups at different times which indicate that LLO and chitosan may support each other to provide the most beneficial effect by eliciting of good cellular and humeral immunity against listeriosis.