Volume 30, Issue 1, Spring 2016, Page 1-22

Dual effect of changes in temperature and pH on stability of cefquinome in vitro

L.A. Kafi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116860

The current study includes the dual effect of changes in temperature and pH on stability of cefquinome in vitro. Cefquinome was exposed to different phosphate buffer solution with a pH of 6,7 or 8 and each one was exposed to different temperatures which were 30̊C,50̊C or 70̊C in a water bath during 24 hours. Samples were collected after dissolving, after exposure to different pH and after 1,3,6,12 and 24 hours of exposure to different temperatures and pH values. Microbiological assay was used to analyze the samples. The results showed that there was a significant decrease in cefquinome concentrations (antibacterial activity) in alkaline medium with increasing temperature within the time. In conclusion cefquinome is affected by increasing temperature in alkali medium which causes a decrease in its concentration that will affect efficacy of cefquinome due to the degradation process.

Comparison of seasonal effects on some hematological and biochemical parameters between ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes

R.N. Sani; M. Moezifar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 5-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116861

This study was conducted to compare the effects of season on some hematological and biochemical parameters in ewes with subclinical mastitis and healthy ewes. A total of 1192 milk and blood samples were collected from ewes between February and April (791 samples in spring), August and October (401 samples in summer). California Mastitis Test (CMT), milk culture, hematologic and serum biochemical parameters were obtained from the medical records. Samples which were positive by bacterial culture and CMT as were deemed to have glands with subclinical mastitis (SCM). The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in our study was around 12% (in one year). Of 144 (18.2%) and 47 (11.72%) positive samples in CMT, 134 (16.94%) and 44 (10.97%) samples were positive for bacterial culture in spring and summer, respectively. Comparison of results of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in ewes with SCM and healthy ewes in spring and summer showed that WBC counts, total protein concentrations and plasma fibrinogen in both groups of ewes were significantly higher in spring than summer (P˂0.05). The results of the present study indicated that when interpreting hematological and serum biochemical parameters in ewes with SCM should be consider the effect of season on these parameters.

Sequential changes of serum and liver subcellular oxidants and antioxidant concentrations in silymarin treated male rats

J.A.A. Al-Sa'aidi; H.J. Shoabith

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116862

The present study aimed to investigate the role of silymarin as an antioxidant and/or it activity in induction of the endogenous antioxidants in intact adult male rats. Seventy males were randomly devided into control and  silymarin treated groups (35 each), and were drenched with drinking water and silymarin suspension (200 mg/ kg b.w) daily for 40 days. Each group was allocated to 5 equal subgroups; sacrificed before treatment (0 day), and after 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of treatment. At the end of each period, males were anaesthesized, dissected and blood samples were obtained for assessment of MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. liver samples (1 g) have been removed and homogenized for assessment of liver subcellular MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. At the end of each periods, serum and liver subcellular MAD concentrations showed no significant changes between groups, whereas SOD, CAT, and GSH concentrations significantly increased at 10, 20, 30, and 40 day periods in silymarin treated males compared with control. It can be concluded that silymarin antioxidant activity is of pharmacological value not only as an antioxidant by itself but also as an inducer of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants even in normal intact male.

Alteration of serum haptoglobin concentration in normal parturition and dystocia affected cows

D.M. Aziz; S.H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 19-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116864

This study was designed to investigate the alteration in serum haptoglobin (Hp) concentration in dystocia affected cows in comparison to those having normal parturition. Thirty cows included in this study, seventeen with normal parturition and thirteen with difficult parturition (dystocia). Blood samples, from cows that having normal parturition, were collected every three days during the last two weeks of gestation, at calving, 3, 7, and 10 days postpartum. Blood samples from dystocia affected cows were collected at calving, 3, 7, and 10 days postpartum. Serum Hp concentration was determined using ELISA. The results gradual increase of Hp concentration prepartum from 190±70 mg/L at the 10th day before calving to 250±30 and 260±100 mg/L at 7th and 3rd day prepartum, respectively. At day of parturition, Hp concentration increased to 300±140 mg/L, to reach 330±150 mg/L at 3rd day postpartum. Hp concentration at 7th and 10th day postpartum declined to 230±90 and 220±160 mg/L, respectively. Serum Hp of dystocia affected cows was 360±240 mg/L at calving. At 3rd day postpartum, Hp increased to 660±220 mg/L. At 7th and 10th days postpartum, Hp concentration declined to 510±300 and 400±110 mg/L, respectively. No variation in Hp was observed between the cows giving twins and those giving single calve. There was no significant effect of dystocia causes on serum Hp at calving and at 3rd day postpartum. It be concluded that normal calving and dystocia elevated the serum Hp concentration, and insufficient dilatation of birth canal was the most effective cause of dystocia. Also comparison of serum Hp concentration at 3rd and 7th day postpartum can be used as an indicator for the development of complications.

Molecular characterization of Blastocystis sp. isolates from human, cattle and sheep by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene

Abdul Aziz Jamel Al-Ani; H. S. Albakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.119164

Blastocystis sp. is an enteric unicellular, anaerobic, protist that could be isolated from humans and many other farm and wild animals, in addition to rodents, reptiles and insects. This study aimed to characterize Blastocystis isolated from fecal samples of human, cattle and sheep using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Pre-determined samples were selected from human, cattle and sheep that showed to be positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU ‑ rRNA) then examined by RFLP analysis using HinfI enzyme to determine the molecular patterns. The results of RFLP analysis revealed the presence of three different patterns of human isolates which were in difference with the other three patterns of cattle isolates. However, sheep isolates showed only one pattern. This study shows that RFLP analysis is a simple and rapid technique that could be used to characterize and differentiate Blastocystis sp. in humans and animals.

Diagnosis of pregnancy and pathological conditions in the genital system of small ruminants by ultrasonography

Barra D. Al-Wataar; Rania M. Abdullah; Yasmen A. Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 9-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.119165

The current study aimed to investigate the possibility of using ultrasonography through abdominal probe in recording percentages of pregnancy, twins and genital pathological condition which affect the uterus for cases admitted to veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province as well as regulated visits to breeding projects of small ruminant and college of agriculture and forestry / Kirkuk university for the period from 01/10/2015 to 01/04/2016, which included 281 of ewes and does. The result of current study showed that that ratio of pregnancy was 75.9% in ewes and in does 47.6% while in case of twins in ewes 19.0% and in does 38.1%., while the genital pathological cases like endometritis and mucometritis (after birth) ratio in ewes 2.5% and in does 9.5%, in cases of pyometra in ewes 1.3% and in does 0.0%, while cases of embryonic deaths ratio in ewes 1.3% and in does 4.8%. It was concluded from the current study that; the possibility of diagnosis the genital pathological cases which affect the uterus as well as the identification of the single and twin pregnancy with investigation of the viability of embryos in both ewes and does by using ultrasonography with abdominal probe.