Volume 29, Issue 1, Autumn 2015, Page 1-34

Evaluation the protective effect of diphenhydramin against acute toxicity induced by levamisole in male mice

M.Y. Matti; G.A.M. Faris

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116849

The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of different doses of diphenhydramin against acute toxicosiswith Levamisole. The Mechanism of levamisole induced acute toxicity and that of protective effect of diphenhydramin againstLevamisole toxicosis also examined on the level of cholinesterase (ChE) activity. Subcutanous injection of 100mg/kglevamisole in male mice with induced cholinergic over stimulation and death in 100% of animals. The Toxicosis was notrelated to the significantly decreased in plasma, red blood cells and brain ChE activity. Injection low dose of diphenhydramin2.5mg/kg S.C. 15 min before levamisole produced protective effect against acute toxicity with levamisole. Significantlydecreased the severity of toxicosis and increased survival rates to 100%. Diphenhydramin at low dose alone or with acute doseof levamisole did not Produced Significantly inhibition in ChE activity.The data suggested that the toxic effect of Levamisolewas not related to inhibition of ChE. The low dose of diphenhydramin protected mice from Levamisole toxicity. The antidoataleffect of diphenhydramin not at the level of protection from ChE inhibition. There was no adverse interaction between twodrugs.

Comparative morphometrical and histological study of lingual papillae in two different ages of the Iraqi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

A.A. Hasso

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 9-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116851

Twenty two tongues of buffalo collected from the slaughter house of Mousl city (11 tongues for adult animals 3-4 years
and11tongues for small ages 1 weake-2 monthes). Two groups were used in this study, twelve samples for anatomical study
and ten samples for histological study, in each group of this study, the tongues were divided into four regions from apex to the
end of the root. The tongue is a muscular organ which consists of dorsal and ventral surfaces, it is formed from three parts
(apex, body and root). The lingual fossa and torus linguae both appear on the dorsal surface. The total average of the tongue
length in adult animals (36.00±0.97) cm while the highest average of the length, width and thickness found in the third region.
The total length in small ages was (16.92±0.98) cm and the highest average of length and thickness again it happens in third
region and the highest width in this age group found in the second region. The investigation of the normal anatomical
structures of the tongue distinguished four lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvalate) while the lenticuler
papillae absent in both age groups. The filiform and fungiform papillae spread over the dorsal surface and ventro-lateral
surface terminat abruptly at the ventro-lateral border forming a distinct straight line from apex to the torus linguae in both ages.
The present work reveals that the highest average of filiform papillae in both surface (dorsal and ventro-lateral surface) founds
in second region in adult group, while in small group founds in first region. The highest average of fungiform papillae in both
surface of both age groups are in the apex of tongue. The highest average of conical and circumvalate papillae in both age
group (adult and young) were on torus linguae. The histological study has been used the shape, diameter and the type of
epithelium which covered the papillae in both groups. The filiform papillae are long fine projection beading back word with
highest average of diameter in both age groups occuring in the third region. The epithelium covering these papillae is
keratinized stratified squamus epithelium. No trace of connective tissue core has been found in these papillae. The fungiform
papillae in both ages take the shape of small rounded projection, containing taste buds in adult group only. The highest average
diameter located in the third region of both groups. These papillae are covered by mildly keratinized stratified squamus
epithelium. The conical papillae in both age groups exist on the dorsal surface in the torus linguae as a conical projections in
different sizes. The large sized papilla located towards the side edges of the tongue whereas the smaller sized ones spread
along mid-dorsal. This gives them "V" shape pattern, with apex towards the front. These papillae covered by highly
keratinized stratified squamus epithelium with a connective tissue core. The circumvalate papillae exist on the dorso-lateral
surface, on the end of the torus linguae and the beginning of the root, in two irregular rows on either side. The diameter of
these papillae peaks in the third region in the adult group whereas in young group it peaks in the fourth region. These papillae
are surrounded by gustatory groove. In adult groups, unlike the young group, there could exist more than one papillae in each
gustatory groove. These papillae are covered by mildly keratinized stratified squamus epithelium, with connective tissue core.
Taste buds exist on either side of these papillae in both age groups. Also been noticed von Ebner ducts open beneath these
papillae. The lenticular papillae are not noticed in both age groups.

Histopathological effects of Doxorubicin on pancreas in male Albino rats

I.A. Ali; H.J. Jumaa; H.Kh. Ismael

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 23-28
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116852

The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino
rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5) month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first
group include (35) rats. The second group were (20) rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema
around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis) at the concentration of
(4,5) mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There
were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had
histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

The antioxidant activity of propofol in chicks

A.S. Naser; F.K. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 29-34
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116853

The aim of this study was to detect the antioxidant effects of propofol in chicks by estimation of glutathione concentrationin blood plasma, brain and liver as well as total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant effects of propofol in vitro by usinghydrogen peroxide as oxidative stress. Propofol at 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally significantly increased after 4 hours theconcentration of glutathione concentration in plasma and brain compared with the control group and with 5 and 10mg propofolgroups. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p significantly increased glutathione concentration in the liver compared with thecontrol group. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased the efflux rate constant by 882, 1031 and 920 %, increasedglutathione turnover rate by 880, 1028, and 917 % and decreased the turnover time by 89, 91 and 90% in the liver. In the brainpropofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased efflux rate constant as 26, 600 and 2826 % and increased glutathione turnoverrate by 29, 616 and 2894 % and a decreased in the turnover time by 21, 86 and 96%. Propofol at 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.psignificantly increased after 20 hours the TAC in the serum of the chick by 38 and 48%, respectively compared with thecontrol group. Propofol at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 micromoles / liter decreased erythrocyte hemolysis induced byhydrogen peroxide in vitro 10 micromoles / liter in a concentration depended manner by 25, 49 and 64 % respectively. In conclusion, Propofol have antioxidant effect in vivo and in vitro in the chicks. Propofol have a protection against oxidativestress.

Aflatoxin B1 residues in imported and local broiler,s breast and thigh muscle in Kurdistan region

A.M. Shareef; S.N. Taheer; M.Y. Yalda; I.Q. Sito; E.P. Candlan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116854

Residues of Aflatoxins and their metabolites might be present in meat and other products of animals receiving Aflatoxin
contaminated feeds which could subsequently create health problems in man. Eighty nine imported (Iran/Khosh pokht);
(Turkey/Yam-tapilic, Lades, Senplic, Kapidac, Kozoa, Oznesilpilic) and (Brazil, hilal, Sadia), and 90 locally produced
(Hoshiar poultry farm, Nihad poultry farm, Hokar poultry farm, Mansoor poultry farm, AL-Shimal poultry house, Mardin
poultry house and AL-Eetimad poultry slaughterhouse) broiler breast and thigh muscle samples were examined for residual
Aflatoxin B1 using ELIZA test. Results revealed that out of 89 imported samples only 21 (23.59%) were positive, but only 2
(2.24%) were rejected, while the remaining 87 samples (97.75%) were acceptable. Concerning the local samples, results
showed that 19 samples (21.11%) were positive, but 10 (11.11%) were rejected, while the remaining 80 samples (88.88%)
were accepted. The public health importance of residual AFB1 in broiler meat samples was discussed.

Evaluation healing of jejunal anastomosis in preoperative dexamethasone treated dogs

M.D. Kako; A.M. Al-Hasan; A.S. Al-Qadhi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116857

The objective of this study is to evaluate the healing process of jejunal anastomosis by the aid of histopathology and
measurement of bursting pressure of anastomosis site in thirty two adult preoperatively with dexamethasone. The animals were
randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group 1: consists of 16 dogs underwent apposition end-to-end jejunal anastomosis
using simple interrupted suture technique which in turn divided into 2 subgroups: subgroup A: consists of 8 dogs treated
preoperatively for 15 days with dexamethasone at a dose of (0.2mg/kg) given I/M. Subgroup B: control group consists of 8
dogs not treated with dexamethasone. Group 2: consists of 16 dogs underwent inverted end-to-end jejunal anastomosis using
continuous Lembert suture pattern that also divided into 2 subgroups: subgroup A: consists of 8 dogs treated preoperatively for
15 days with dexamethasone at a dose of (0.2mg/kg) given I/M. subgroup B: control group consists of 8 dogs not treated with
dexamethasone. The result of bursting pressure measurement showed higher tensile strength in the control groups (445±9.6) in
comparison with the steroidal groups (255±25.3) for both techniques. The histopathological study showed that the healing was good in all groups but the rupture that occur due to shedding the pressure lead to non discrimination between which is better in terms of healing. Massonʼs trichrome showed that collagen content of subgroups taking dexamethasone was lower than that of subgroups not treated with dexamethasone.

Detection of broiler feeds contamination with Aflatoxins using rapid immunochromatographic test strips

B.S.S. Khalaf; N.M.A. Younis; N.T.M. Sideeq; Y.S.M. Sultan; A.M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 0-0
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116858

Twenty pellet broiler feed samples (started or finished) were collected through October to December 2013, from 12 broiler
flocks and 8 feed mills in Nineveh governorate, for the detection of Aflatoxins residue using total Aflatoxins rapid test strips
kit. Results show that 3 (15%) of the feed samples were positive while 17 feed samples (85%) were negative to residual

The first unequivocal report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116859

The aim of present study was to report spontaneous Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) infection in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (E. intestinalis) infection in cattle in Mosul city - Iraq. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 142 rabbits and 115 cattle during the period from June, 2012 to June, 2013. Thin smears were prepared from the fecal samples and stained with different fecal stains, as well as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. Infected rabbits were necropsied and pathology of the infection was described. The result showed that microsporidiosis was detected in 41 (26.9%) rabbits and in 12 (10.4%) cattle. E. cuniculi spores were identified in 31 out of the 41 rabbits (73.2%) and E. intestinalis in 7 out of the 12 cattle (58.3%). Infected rabbits showed vasculitis, granulomatous encephalitis, chronic interstitial nephritis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholangitis, vasculitis and non – suppurative pneumonia, infiltration of mononuclear cells in most layers of the intestines, and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues. E. cuniculi spores were seen in the liver, kidneys and lungs. This study considered the first one that report microsporidiosis (E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis) in Mosul city - Iraq.