Volume 28, Issue 1, Spring 2014, Page 1-67

Effect of ration wetting in productive and physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature

D.Th. Younis; S.Y. Abdul Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89334

The study aimed to identify the effect of ration wetting with water contained mixture of probiotic, Potassium chloride and Vitamin C in productive and some physiological performance of quail reared under high temperature. Four hundred unsexed quails (one day old) on litter in semi opened house. Proper environmental condition was available and the house minimum and maximum temperature was about 25-40C. Birds distributed randomly into four treatments each with four replicate (25 birds/ replicate).Two rations. Starter and finisher were used and water and diets were supplemented ad libitum until age of marketing (42 days).The experimental treatments were as follow: T1 reared on standard ration (control) without wetting T2, T3 and T4 ration supplemented with 25, 50 and 75 ml water contains mixture of 6 gram probiotic, 3 mg potassium chloride and 150 mg Vit. C/kg ration, respectively at the time of feeding. Statistical analysis of data showed a significant increase in live body weight, weight gain of birds fed wetted ration compared with control and significant improvement in feed conversion ratio in T4 and no significant differences between treatments in feed consumption, dressing percentage, mortality rate, total protein, albumin, triglyceride, liver glycogen concentration, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, and a significant decrease in serum glucose, glycogen concentration in heart tissue and ALT, AST concentration.

Effect of using different management systems for feeding on testis dimensions and sexual behavior in Awassi rams

Kh.H. Sultan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 7-13
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89335

This study was conducted on 15 Awassi rams (aged 35 month) with average weight 78.57 ± 0.24 kg to evaluate the effect of using different systems of feeding on body weight, testis dimensions, sexual behavior, testosterone and estrogen concentrations in Awassi rams. The rams were randomly assigned into 3 groups (5 rams / group) and treated for 3 months as following: 1st group: T1 (control): rams was rationed once daily, 2nd and 3rd groups was rationed twice and four times daily respectively. Body weight, Scrotal circumference (Sc) and testis dimensions were measured, the rams were subjected for sexual behavior test at the end of study by using of 3 ewes in estrous cycle. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the study. Results showed that body weight was increased significantly (P≤0.05) in T2 at 3rd month of study, also Sc increased significantly in T2 and T3 as compared with control, also results showed a significant increase in Sc in T2 and T3 in 3rd month as compared with 1st month of treatment, while increased significantly the right and left depth of testis in T2. The most sexual behavior parameters were improved significantly (P≤0.05), kicking, number of serving were increased significantly in T2 , while jumping without serving, jumps for first serving, time for first jump were decreased significantly (P≤0.05) in T2 and T3, also time for first serving is decreased in T2 as compared with other treatments. Testosterone concentration increased significantly in T2 at 2nd and 3rd month of treatment, while estrogen concentration decreased significantly in T2 at 3rd month of treatment. In general, the results of this study showed a significant increase in body weight in T2 which reflected in some of testis dimensions and improvement in sexual behavior parameters with increase in testosterone concentration at 3rd month of treatment.

A comparison of some physical traits of Iraqi sheep wool

S.F. Al-Dabbagh; H.R. Sabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 15-18
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89336

This study included analyzing data recorded of wool produced bales from Awassi, Karadi and Arabi sheep distributed in Mosul region, north and south of Iraq respectively for two years 2011 and 2012. Randomized samples were taken from these bales for dipped wool before shearing and raw wool (not dipped) to study percentage of clean wool (CW), vegetable matter (VM) and fiber diameter (FD). The results revealed a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01) for the breeds and status of wool on these three traits, a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) for productive year only on (FD), and a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01) for wool status on both (CW) and (VM). No significant effects were noticed for the interactions between the three studied factors on the traits except for the interaction of productive year × wool status which affected significantly (P≤ 0.05) on (CW) and (FD).

Diagnostic study of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in stray dogs and cats in Mosul city, Iraq

E.D. Hadi; E.G. Suleiman; Q.T. Al-Obadi; S.H. Arslan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 19-24
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89337

The current study revealed the diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in fecal samples which collected from stray dogs and cats in Mosul city. The total percentage of infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. in dogs were 42%, 26%, while the percentages in cats were 52%, 16% respectively and the single infection with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in cats and dogs formed highest rate was 75%, 50% respectively. The infection rate with Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. appeared higher in animals aged less than one year. High percentage of infection with Giardia spp. appeared in the females of cats and dogs were 28.12%, 17.5%, while the high infection rate with oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. appeared in males of dogs and cats were 50%, 60% respectively.

Anatomical, histological and histochemical study of the eye of snake Hemorrhois ravergieri

E.Kh.H. Al-Khalefa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 25-36
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89338

The aim of present study was to determine the anatomical and histological structure as well as some histochemical aspects of the eye in Hemorrhois ravergieri snake by using the light microscope. The results show that the eye was spherical and located at head sides. Histologically, the sclera composed from collagen fibers located between it fibroblasts and pigment cells. The cornea divided in to peripheral cornea and central cornea, from the special results that appeared in the central cornea was the appearance of the tertiary spectacles on its external surface. The lens was spherical, translucent and didn't contain a pigment cells in its surrounding. The Uvea composed from Choroid, Ciliary body and Iris. The Choroid composed of connective tissue contained collagen fibers, blood vessels and pigment cells. Ciliary body appeared concave in its middle and give a few folds. While, the Iris connected to Ciliary body and it straight toward the lens and it convex toward the cornea. The retina appeared duplex and it composed from eight layers and two membranes. The photoreceptors layer contained one type of rods and two types of cones that were the single and double cones. From the distinct results that appeared in the retina of this snake that the appearance of blood vessels which supplied the retina, this mean the retina in this snake was vascular, and the vitreal vessels that lined also appeared. Also, from the distinct and strange results that appeared in the retina of this snake was appearance of strange vascular structure which may be a Supplemental nutritive device.

Genetic evaluation for milk production, the weights of kids at birth and weaning for dairy Damascus goats

K. Fattal; Kh. Elnajjar; M. Roukbi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 37-42
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89339

The Objective of this research, study the performance on Shami goats of the studied traits.which include milk production kg, and litter size weight at birth and weaning kg were 270.24±67.24, 8.42±0.53 and 23.98±2.94, respectively. The value of the litter size number at birth and weaning, age and weight at first insemination, the values were 2.98 ± 0.04 and 2.20 ± 0.19, and 46.73±0.57/kg and 19.24±0.26/ month, respectively. Determine the effect of some genetic factors and non genetic (year of birth, parity, kids sex, age and weight at insemination) of the studied traits. And estimate some genetic parameters (heritability and genetic correlation) of the studied traits Statistical analysis was made of the studied traits 10knowledge of the genetic and environmental in fluencies in it. Duncan has been used to separate the means of the factors affecting the studied traits. And also use the animal model to estimate the genetic parameters. Estimates of heritability for milk production traits and litter size weight at birth and weaning were 0.14, 0.08, 0.20, respectively. Reached values of genetic correlations between the production of milk and both of the litter size weight at birth and weaning -0.17 and -0.01, respectively. While the genetic correlation between the litter size weight at birth and at weaning was 0.09.

Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris) and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river

M. Roukbi; M. Al-Saloum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 43-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89340

Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010), aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris) belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research which included an incubating in Colchicine medium (0.06%) for 2.5 -3 hours. Fishes were chopped and placed in hypotonic 0.4% KCl solution for 30 min. Afterwards, tissues were fixed in fresh Carnoy solution (3 parts methanol: 1 part glacial acetic acid). Cell suspension was dropped onto slides, dried and then stained in 4% Giemsa solution. Chromosome spreads on microscope slides were examined and several metaphase plates were selected and photographed. Chromosomes of fish studied were grouping into series, i. e., meta-submetacentric and subtelocentric-acrocentric elements, and aligned serially from the larger to smaller, karyograms were constructed and chromosomal formulas and the number of arms were established, as following: Cobitis taenia: 2n=50=14m/sm+36t/st (NF=64), Nemachilus tigris: 2n=50=12m/sm+38t/st (NF=62), Gambusia affinis (female): 2n=48=1m+2sm+45t/st(NF=51), Gambusia affinis(males): 2n=48=2m+46t (NF=50(.

A comparison of phenotypic performance of wool physical properties in Awassi ewes

S.F. Al-Dabbagh; N.Y. Abbo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 49-54
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89341

Data from two different animal stations were recorded on two flocks of Awassi ewes. Data were analyzed for two productive seasons 2010 and 2011 years to estimate wool yield, Physical Properties and the phenotypic relationships between them. The results revealed a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01) for the flock on all wool properties except for fiber diameter (FD). and a highly significant effects (P≤ 0.01) for year on clean fleece weight (CFW) and clean wool (CW), and a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) on vegetable matter (VM) and (FD). Interaction of flock × year had a highly significant effect (P≤ 0.01) on (CFW), (CW) and (VM), and a significant effect (P≤ 0.05) on greasy fleece weight, staple length (SL), fiber length (FL) and (FD). Phenotypic correlation between wool traits in both flocks were mostly highly significant (P≤ 0.01) between positive and negative ranged from -0.200 and 0.490, -0.203 and 0.498 for the correlation between (CW) and (VM), and between (SL) and (FL) respectively. With a significant correlation (P≤ 0.05) -0.113 and 0.098, -0.155 and 0.099 between (VM) and (FD), (CFW) and (FD) respectively. While the rest were non significant.

Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on kidneys in rats

I.A. Ali; H.J. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 55-62
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89342

The aim of this study was to investigate the histolopathological effect of doxorubicin on rat kidney tissue. The drug was administrated by rats at the dose of (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) mg/kg intrapertonial every (84) hr for the three weeks and the doses of (1, 2, 3) mg/kg intrapertonial every 84 hrs for six weeks. The animals were scarified after 48 hr. of last injection. The study revealed congestion, thrombus, blood vessels hemorrhage, vaculation in the cells of glomerular tuft and tubular, tubuo-interstitial degeneration, tubular casts. The injury score revealed significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules in the animals that received 5 mg/kg of doxorubicin for three weeks and also significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules of the animals that received 3 mg/kg of doxorubicin for six weeks as compared with control animals. We concluded that the doxorubicin has histopathological effect on kidney.

Improvement of the Shami goat semen quality by adding bovine serum albumin

O.I. Azawi; O.J. Salman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 63-67
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89343

The present study was aimed to improve the quality of Shami goat semen diluted with Tris diluent by adding bovine serum albumin. In the current study, six male goats were used. Semen was collected using artificial vagina of one ejaculate per week of every male included in this study. This study was performed during the breeding season from 1 10 2012 to 1 12 2012. In this study, two semen diluents were use first; Tris- fructose- egg yolk 2.5% and second Tris - fructose - 2.5% egg yolk with 1% of bovine serum albumin. Diluted semen samples were cooled gradually and stored at 5 ° C. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined every 24 h of storage to 144 h. These tests includes the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility using a computer-aided sperm analysis. These results showed that the addition of bovine serum albumin with egg yolk to semen of male goats led to improved qualities of semen significantly (P<0.05) including the proportion of live sperm and the percentage of secondary abnormalities of the sperm, the percentage of sperm acrosomal defects and percentage of progressive motility. It could be concluded from the results of the current study, the possibility of storing goat semen for more than six days with alive sperm of more than 50% and the percentage of the progressive motility of more than 40% when adding bovine albumin serum to dilute goat semen at 1% level and this result has not reached by any previous study.

Effect of effective microorganisms on some biochemical parameters in broiler chicks

S.K. Abd

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89463

This study was conducted to investigate the potential effect of effective microorganisms (EM) on some biochemical parameters which includes; glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels in addition to the levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum of broilers. 50 One day-old unsexed broiler chicks were randomly assigned in to two treatments (25 chick/pen); control group (T1) and treatment group (T2) which supplied with 1% EM (10 ml/litre) to the drinking water for 5 weeks of age. Results showed that inclusion of 1% EM significantly increase blood glucose (P<0.05) and lower cholesterol but the triglycerides decrease was insignificant in (T2) than those of (T1). On the other hand (AST) increased significantly (P<0.05) in (T2) as compared to the (T1). It can be concluded from this study that EM supplementation may have some beneficial effect by lowering cholesterol and triglycerides on the other hand it may cause some tissue damage as indicated by increasing levels of (AST), these results need to be studied using different types and doses of EM.

The pathology of aorta of quails experimentally infected with Enterococcus faecalis

M.G. Al-hamdany; E.R. Al-kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 5-10
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89464

Isolation and identification of Enterococcus faecalis from small intestine and cecum of quails were done by culturing on differential and selective media. The lesions of aorta in quails experimentally infected with isolated bacteria were examined. Quails were divided randomly into four groups, the first group considered as control, and the other groups inoculated itraperitoneally with 0.5 ml of bacterial suspension of 108 CFU (2nd group), 109 CFU (the 3rd group), and 1010 CFU (the 4th group). The pathological changes of thoracic and abdominal aorta were recorded at 3, 7, 14 and 21 post infection days which include hyperplasia of endothelial cells with intensive localization of fatty vacuoles (foam cells) in intimal and medial layers of aortas with the proliferation and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) accompanied by fragmentation of elastic fibers. These lesions were more severe at 14 and 21 post infection days. We concluded that E. faecalis possesses the ability to induce fatty degeneration in aorta indicating primary lesions of atherosclerosis in quails.

Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in aborted ewes by using different immunologic tests in Duhok governorate, Kurdistan region, Iraq

L.T.O. Al-Barwary; F.B. Mikail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 11-15
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89465

This study was conducted to investigate the anti-toxoplasma antibodies titer (IgG and IgM), in aborted ewes in different localities of Duhok Governorate. The study was carried out in the laboratory of post graduated study, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Duhok University from October 2010 to April 2011. Four hundred and ninety-six (496) serum samples of aborted ewes (98, 144, 152 and 102 were obtained from Aqra, Duhok center, Shikhan and Zakho, respectively). Latex Agglutination test (LAT), Modified agglutination test (MAT) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were used for the aforementioned purpose. The over all prevalence of toxoplasmosis was (83.3%), and the rate was different in different localities such as Aqra (86.7%), Duhok (89.6%), Shikhan (74.3%) and Zakho (84.3%) using LAT. Out of 413 sera, sample which were confirmed positively LAT (67.31%) were positive for Toxoplasma by MAT (have had IgG type of antibody) and 149 (36.08%) sera gave positive reaction by IgM ELISA test (have had IgM type of antibody). The result revealed that the rate in different age groups was statistically different and the rate was 90.38% in age group <4 year and 75.42% in age ≥ 4 years applying LAT.

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in Iraqi cat

M.S. Albadrany; A.M. Alhasan; L.M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 17-20
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89466

The aim of this study was to standardize laparoscopic nephrectomy and to study its effects on body status and survival possibility on 8 healthy domestic cats from both sexes. Their age were ranged between 1-2 years. The laparoscopic nephrectomy was easy and feasible by using laparoscopy thermocautery tool. The right kidney was removed in all animals. Time consuming, success of operation and post-operative complications were dependent to support this study. The obtained results of the current study showed short time consuming 30±1.6 min. Procedures were successfully done with mild complications. Laparoscopic thermocautery indicated as an efficient tool for cutting and controlling bleeding at the same time. In conclusion, the use of thermocautery for laparoscopic nephrectomy in cats was feasible and exhibited efficient tools for cutting and securing vessels of the kidney, but the tool had a drawback by producing smoke with in abdominal cavity that partially obscuring the laparoscopic vision.

Seroprevalence of antibodies to toxoplasmosis, brucellosis and chlamydiosis in abortive sheep in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

I.I. Al-Dabagh; B.M. Jasim; M.T. Jarjees

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89467

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify the antibodies of toxoplasmosis, brucellosis and chlamydiosis in Nineveh governorate-north of Iraq. Sera from 100 sample of sheep aborted from any reason were randomly collected. The results showed that 32.8%, 56% and 11.2% were positive for toxoplasmosis, brucellosis and chlamydiosis respectively. Percentage of identified and unidentified agents causing abortion were 63% and 37% respectively. First of occurrence of abortion was the most common in the unidentified pathogen (27 cases), however, the repeated occurrence of abortion was almost caused by toxoplasmosis which was 19 cases. Stillbirth was found to be the commonest in brucella infection as compared with other months of abortion or other pathogens causing abortion. Chlamydiosis were the first record in this region. The findings of the current work indicated that toxoplasmosis and brucellosis was widely prevailing and may be the cause of sheep abortion in northern Iraq.

Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

B. Al-Mufti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 27-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89468

The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females) of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

Pathological effects of anabolic steroid (Sustanon®) on liver of male rats

E.R. Al-Kennany; E.K. Al-Hamdany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89469

The present pathological study on the male rats aims to investigate the effects on liver tissue induced by repeated administration of three doses of sustanon for four periods. The experiment was done on the 100 adult male rats randomly divided into five groups 20 rats in each group. The first group is considered as a negative control treated with diet and water only. The second group is considered a positive control treated weekly for 60 days with sesame oil intramuscularly while groups III, IV and V treated with diluted sustanon in 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight intramuscularly weekly for 60 days respectively. Blood was collected in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for measurements liver function tests ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferas) enzymes. Then the animals were dissected to take samples in a period 15, 30 and 60 days after treatment for histopathological examination, then 5 rats were lefted in each group in the diet and water for 30 days after last treatment for examination the above mentioned parameters. The results revealed the presence of significantly increasing of liver enzyme activation represented by ALT and AST at level P<0.05 compared with control groups. The value of these levels were higher in group V in a day 60 after treatment and its continue to increase even after stopping treatment and remained on diet and water only for 30 days. Pathologically, all treated groups with sustanon revealed gross and histopathological changes in liver tissue, there were enlargement and congestion gross. Histopathologically, the liver sections elucidate cellular swelling, vacuolar degeneration in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in addition to fatty change and programmed cell death in all groups during a period 15, 30 and 60 days these changes continue even after stopping the treatment for 30 days but portal fibrosis has been observed.It has been concluded from this study that sustanon in concentration 5, 10, 20 mg /kg of body weight in aperiods 15, 30 and 60 have ability to induce hepatotoxic effect on liver of male rat and these effects irreversible and progressive for 30 days after stopping the drug administration.

Pathological study on the effect of vitamin D3 on sepsis experimentally induced in rats by cecal ligation and punctures

A.M. Al-Saidya; H.Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 41-47
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89470

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Vitamin D3 on the rats with sepsis that experimentally induced by cecal ligation and puncture. 100 Rats were divided into 5 groups, these include untreated control group, sham-operated group, CLP group and 2 treated groups pretreated daily a Subcutaneous injections of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 100 ng/kg for 3 days, then one of the pretreated groups subjected to sepsis accomplished by abdominal surgery comprising a cecal ligation and puncture. The following parameters were recorded: survival rate, hematological examinations and histopathological changes of the liver and heart were examined. It was found that vitamin D3 pretreated showed improvement in the survival rats and enhancement in the blood leukocyte count, also protect the rats from thrombocytopenia and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC), but vitamin D3 pretreated show slight improvement in the histopathological lesions in the liver and heart due to cecal ligation and puncture sepsis.

Proteolytic versus surgical removal: the therapeutic effect of fig tree latex (Ficus carica L) on cutaneous and diphtheric forms of avian pox in pigeons (Columba domestica)

T.A. Abid; Kh.A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 49-53
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89471

The therapeutic effect of topical applications of fig tree latex (Ficus carica) on avian pox lesions in pigeon (Columba domestica) in comparison with surgical dressing and topical application of tetracycline ointment 3% were evaluated. Fifteen infected pigeons with mixed infection of both cutaneous and diptheric forms of pox have typical lesions on head, eyelids, inside mouth, cere, base of beak, legs, and feet were used in this study. Birds were divided into three equal groups (5 birds) for each group. Group one (G¹) was treated twice daily (BID) with tetracycline ointment 3% applied directly on the lesions, after cleaning of the lesions and removal of the external scabs. Group two (G²) was treated once a day (during night only), for ten successive days with fig tree latex applied directly on lesions. Group three (G³) was left without treatment as a control group. The activity of the birds, consumption of feed, regression of nodules was monitored daily till the end of the experiment. In both G¹ and G³ groups, the pox lesions remained as they were (persisted as such and did not regressed). The activity of the birds fastly declined from unable to fly, to limited movement, depression, decrease feeding and death within 6 days from the beginning of treatment. The fig tree latex (G²) treated birds survived, the activity of the birds and consumption of the feed increased from the 4th day of treatment. The pox lesions regressed and atrophied and disappeared within 10 days of treatment and by this time all birds returned to the normal life. In conclusion, the fig tree latex has beneficial effect in treating the pox lesions with unclear mechanisms of action.

Pathological changes in turkeys liver associated with Histomoniasis in Duhok City,Kurdistan Region, Iraq

M.A. Abdullah; E.K. Zankana; V.J. Ameen

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2014, Volume 28, Issue 1, Pages 55-59
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2014.89472

Histomoniasis were detected and described among naturally affected of twenty three young Turkeys poult compared with the adults. Sample for study were collected from different areas of Duhok city in Kurdistan region/Iraq. Giemsa stain where used for identification of parasite from specimens of liver and cecum samples, then specimen, where fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for routine histopathological study. The affected birds showed clinical signs of lethargic, drooping of head and wings with progressive emaciation and a clear distinctive signs in live ones, and appearance of continuous yellowish diarrhea. Pathologically there is an enlargement and discoloration of the liver associated with appearance of white to yellow multifocal nodules in the surface of the liver. While the result of histolpathological changes showed severs inflammatory reaction around necrotic tissues with degenerative and necrotic changes of the liver cells.