Volume 24, Issue 1, Spring 2010, Page 1-63

Detection of anti brucella antibodies in lambs and goat kids using rose bengal test and indirect ELISA in Gugjeli - Ninavah province, Iraq

Kh. J. Hassain; S. D. Hassan; B. A. Mohmmed; S. A. Esmaeel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5566

The object of the study was to detection of anti-brucella antibodies in lambs and goat kids by using Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests. Sera samples were collected from four flocks, including 135 samples (95 from lambs and 40 from goat kids). The sera examined by rose Bengal test showed negative result in all of flocks, in percentage was zero %. While the percentage of anti-brucella antibodies using indirect ELISA test in female and male lambs was (29.34 %, 10 %) respectively, with total percentage 25.3% and in female and male kids was (55 %, 0.0 %) respectively, with total percentage 27. 5%. The results showed incompatibility between rose Bengal test and indirect ELISA test with kappa value. The study concluded that indirect ELISA test can be considerable as a screening and diagnostic test instead of rose Bengal test for detection of anti-brucella antibodies in lambs and kids.

Extensor and flexor digit synovial sheath, sac and synovial capsule in the distal part of the limbs in buffalos and camels and its relation of surgical interference

A. AL-Omari; G. Alosh; S. AL-sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 35-48
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5567

Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal) to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter) between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal) to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter) between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.

Reproductive efficiency of rats whose mothers treated with lead acetate during lactation: role of vitamin E

S. T. Abdullah; W. H. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 27-34
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5568

Reproductive efficiency of young male and female rats yielded from mothers treated with lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W) and vitamin E as an antioxidant (500 mg/kg) during lactation period was studied. 27 pregnant albino rats aged 4-5 months divided into 3 groups, the first group given 0.2 ml distilled water through oral intubations (control). The second group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W), while the 3rd group given lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W) with vitamin E (500 mg/kg B.Wt). Lead acetate treatment did not cause significant difference (P>0.05) in young male rats body, testes, epididymal (head, tail), prostate gland, seminal vesicle weights, number of epidiymal sperms count, percentage of live/dead sperms and sperms abnormalities accompanied with a significant increase (P<0.05) in seminiferous tubules diameter. On the other hand, lead acetate treatment caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the duration of vaginal opening with no significant changes (P>0.05) in ovary and uterus weights. Lead acetate with vit. E cause significant decrease (P<0.05) in body, testes, epididymal (head, body) weights, number of epididymal sperm count, percentage of live/dead and sperm abnormalities. Concerning young female rats treated with lead acetate and vit E showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in body, uterus weights with a significant increase (P<0.05) in the duration of vaginal opening. Histopathological study revealed changes in the testes such as desquemination in some epithelial lining of seminiferous tubules and sertoli cells. Undevelopment of localized area of some seminiferous tubules with blood vessels congestion in both testes and ovaries with hyperemia in ovarian stroma, increase in follicular cells, decrease in corpus luteum formation, degeneration of ovarian follicles and increase in ovarian adipose tissue. This study concluded that lead acetate can be transmitted through mother milk to their pups. The dose of lead acetate (10 mg/kg B.W) was enough to make bad effects on both male and female reproductive systems. Vitamin E (as an antioxidant) found to have no improving effect in treatment of lead acetate disturbances on reproductive systems of both sexes.

Effect of bone marrow and low power lasers on fracture healing with destruction of both periosteum and endosteum in rabbits

S. M. Ibrahim; M. G. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 5-9
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5569

Ten mature rabbits of local breed were used in this study; weighing between 1.5 to 1.75 kg and aged about 1–2 years. These animals were divided into two equal groups; in group A destruction of both periosteum and endosteum was done one centimeter from each side of mid-shaft femoral bone fracture, then sufficient amount of autogenously bone marrow was injected directly at the fracture site after immobilization by intramedullary pin. In group B a similar procedure was achieved as in group A, but in additional to that He-Ne infrared laser therapy was used for several sessions. The result of radiological findings indicated that, the fracture healing occurred within group B at fifteen weeks, whereas in group A the healing occurred at eighteen weeks after operation. The implantation of autologous bone marrow enhanced the fracture healing, whereas using of combinations of autologous bone marrow and He-Ne infrared laser therapy hastened the healing.

Diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Mosul city by indirect ELISA and conventional serological tests

O. KH. AL-Hankawe; K. A. AL-Saad; M. S. Rhaymah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5570

The study was conducted on 126 cattle (94 females and 32 males) of different ages (1->5 years) randomly selected from July 2007 to August 2008 in Mosul. Indirect ELISA test and other traditional tests (rose Bengal test, tube agglutination test and 2- mercapto-ethanol test) were used to determine the incidence of bovine brucellosis. The highest incidence of disease was recorded by Indirect ELISA, 23.01%, whereas it was 18.25%, 11.90% and 4.76% by rose Bengal, tube agglutination and 2- Mercapto-ethanol tests, respectively. The highest incidence was in females in all serological tests and the highest incidence was in females at the age between 1-3 years whereas in males more than 3 years of age it was 23.07%. The results of tube agglutination test revealed the titer 1/40 occurred mostly compared with other titers. Six chronic cases were determined by 2-mercapto-ethanol test. The degree of agreement of negative samples with rose Bengal test and indirect ELISA, tube agglutination, and 2- mercapto-ethanol tests was 94.17%, 100% and 100%, respectively, and by indirect ELISA with rose Bengal, tube agglutination and 2-mercapto-ethanol tests was 79.31%, 51.72% and 20.68%, respectively.

Clinical, haematological and biochemical studies of babesiosis in native goats in Mosul

Q. T. Al-Obaidi; S. H. Arslan; E. G. Sulaiman; E. Daham

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 31-35
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5571

The study included examination of 175 native goats, 27 were infected with Babesia ovis, B. motasi, B. foliata and B. taylori, (recorded in Mosul for the first time) and 25 were clinically normal and served as control. Results indicated that the percentage of the infection with Babesiosis was 15.42% and the percentage of parasitemia ranged between 3.5-10.4% with a mean 6.95%, infected goats showed signs of loss of appetite, weakness, pale mucous membranes, jaundice, fever, coughing, nasal discharge, recumbency, diarrhea and haemoglobinuria. A statistically significant decrease were recorded in total red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and platelets counts. Anemia was of microcytic hypochromic type. A statistically significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate and significant increase in total white blood cells was recorded due to significant increase in lymphocyte and neutrophile count. Results of the biochemical testes indicated an increase in activity of alanin amino transferase (AST), aspartate amino transferase (ALT), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen and icterus index, with a significant decrease in total serum protein, albumin and globulin levels. Results also indicated the presence of Rhipecephalus ticks which were: Rh. sanguineus and Rh. turanicus.

Prevalence of intestinal ciliate Buxtonella sulcata in cattle in Mosul

H. S. Al-Bakri; E. G. Suliman; T. M. Al-Saffar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 27-30
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5572

The current study was conducted to detect the presence of Buxtonella sulcata (an intestinal ciliate) in faecal samples of cattle suffering from diarrhea in Mosul city. One hundred and twenty faecal samples were examined, and collected from calves (44), beef cattle (34) and dairy cattle (42) these animals were divided into two groups those showed diarrhea (86) and (34) had no symptomatic diarrhea. Direct smear and formalin-ether sedimentation methods were used for detection of this parasite. The total percentage of infection with Buxtonella sulcata was 24.16%. There was no significant differences in the percentage of infection and intensity of infection between calves, beef and dairy cattle where as there were significant differences between diarrheic and non-diarrheic animals.

Clinical study of foot and mouth disease in feedlot calves in Mosul region

M. SH. Rhaymah; M. A. Abd- Alhameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5573

The affected calves showed clinical signs including presence of vesicles at the bucal cavity and hoof (90.7%), fever (36%), salivation (32.9%), depression (20.5%), Anorexia (19.6%), loss of body weight (7.94%), lamness (15.9%), lesions at the muzzle (15.3%), presence of the lesions at the feet (6.0%), prostration (4.7%), diarrhea (3.3%), presence of the lesion at the mouth cavity (3.0%), paralysis of hind quarters (2.2%) and sudden death (1.6%). There was significant increase in the rectal temperature, respiration rates, and heart rates in the infected animals compared with control group. Recovered animals appeared some diseases including theileriosis (40.4%), tympany (22.8%), pneumonia (19.9%), foot abscess (14.7%), and babesiosis (2.2 %). The mortality rate varied between 3.4% to 27.9% in different herds and the mean was 3.3 % in all herds. There was significant relationship between age of animals and the incidence of the disease.

The effect of substituting Nigella Sativa Meal as a source of protein in the rations of local rabbits on their productive performance and carcass traits

A. A. AL-Kuhla; N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 59-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5574

Fifteen local male rabbits (6-8 weeks old) were allocated into three nutritional groups. The first group fed standard ration, 5 and 10% of the Nigella Sativa Meal (NSM) were added to the concentrated rations of the 2nd and 3rd groups replacing 36 and 72% of the soybean meal (SBM) protein respectively. The feeding period lasted for eight weeks. Feed consumption and body weight gain were recorded weekly. At the end of feeding period, all rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were studied. No significant differences were found in total body weight gain and feed conversion rate (475, 502, 478 gm) and (4.8, 4.8, 4.9 kg ration/1 kg wt. gain). Feed cost per 1 kg body gain declined 16% in the 3rd group, which cost 2294 ID, compared with the 1st group (2717) and the 2nd group (2561 ID). No significant differences in all carcass traits were found. Substituting 72% of SBM protein by NSM protein in rabbit ration showed no negative effects on all productive parameters and carcass traits.

Concurrent aflatoxicosis and caecal coccidiosis in broilers

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 11-16
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5575

A farm of two broiler flocks fed from one day old to 56 days of age a diet naturally contaminated with high level of Aflatoxin (AF), were suffered from caecal coccidiosis at 35 days of age Aflatoxin levels in feed commodities and mixed feed were determined using ELISA test. Results of ELISA showed that the average level of corn, soybean and mixed feeds contamination with aflatoxin were 1915, ppb, 229 ppb and 860 ppb respectively. Diagnosis of caecal coccidiosis was confirmed by clinical signs, post-mortem findings, fecal oocyst excretion per gram, oocyt size, morphological characteristic of eggs, lesion score and schizonts size. The significance of AF as predisposing factor to coccidiosis infection was discussed.

Serodiagnosis of Johne's disease by indirect ELISA in ovine

I. M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 41-43
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5576

The study included collection of 92 serum samples from local Awasii breed in Mosul and Karakosh regions, some of them show clinical signs for John's disease, all samples were assayed using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). The results showed that 7/92 (7.6%) samples were positive for antibodies against (Map), and 7/89 (7.9%) were positive in female and 0/3 (0%) in male.

Detection of Brucella antigen in the aborted ovine fetal stomach contents using a modified ELISA test

Th. M. Al-Nima; B. A. Al- Badrani; M. I. Al-Farwachi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5577

This study was conducted on two flocks of sheep suffering from abortion in Mosul city, Iraq. The clinical findings in ewes were abortion during the 3-4 months of gestation period in the both flocks. The total percentage of abortion was 11.7 %, whereas stillbirth percentage was 4 %. Brucella spp. was isolated from four (33.3 %) of the 12 samples (stomach contents of the aborted fetuses). All culture – positive samples had also positive with direct smears. By a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Brucella antigens were detected in the fetal stomach contents of 5 samples. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified ELISA were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The test had a good negative predictive value but only a moderate positive predictive value. Therefore, the test would be useful for confirming the existence of suspect disease. Comparison of modified ELISA with bacterial isolation demonstrated a close agreement (Kappa value = 0.92). Of the 12 serum samples from aborted ewes, eight samples were positive with Rose Bengle test (66.7 %), more than 10 samples (83.3 %) were detected by indirect ELISA test.

Effect of immunization with protoscolices antigens of hydatid cysts on growth of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs

M. N. Al-Shahery; M. A. Aljawady

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 7-10
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5578

The study was designed to evaluate the immune response of puppies, injected by different protein fractions extracted from protoscolieces, obtained from ovine hydatid cyst. Indirect heamagglutination revealed a remarkable increase in the antibody titers for the immunized groups (A1.5, A3, B1.5, and B3) before and after challenge when compared with the control. Biological variations showed decline in numbers of adult Echinococcus granulosus in the immunized groups when compared with the control. Other variations proved dropping in numbers of the worms within the same immunized groups. Subsequent reductions of cestodes were reported which were 83.8%, 81.3%, 78.2% and 74.6% for the groups A3, A1.5, B3, and B1.5, respectively.

Effect of industrial product IMBO® on immunosuppressed broilers vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine

T. S. Qubih; O. G. Mohammadamin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 37-40
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5579

The effect of IMBO was investigated on humoral immune response to Newcastle disease vaccines in broiler chickens. Haemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to assess the immune response. Results showed that although IMBO significantly enhanced humoral immune response to live Newcastle disease vaccine, it did not decrease post virulent NDV challenge mortality.

Diagnosis of foot and mouth disease by indirect competitive ELISA test in feedlot calves - in Mosul province

M. Sh. Rhaymah; M. A. Abd-Alhameed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 49-52
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5580

Indirect competitive ELISA test used, for detection of non-structural protein (3ABC) in 460 serum samples of infected animals revealed that 421 samples were positive (91.5%) and 39 samples were negative (8.5%), with 91.5% sensitivity and 28.4% specifity. Blood picture revealed significant (P<0.05) increase in total leukocytic count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and the percentage of granulocytes, and significant decrease in the total erythrocytic count and packed cell volume.

Molds and mycotoxins in poultry feeds from farms of potential mycotoxicosis

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 17-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5581

Forty five finished poultry feed samples, collected from different broilers, broiler breeders and layers farms were divided into two parts, for mycological and mycotoxins examination. In counting of molds, dilute plate technique was used, whereas feed parts were used for mycotoxin estimation, they were subjected to four standard kits of Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, T-2 toxin and Fumonisins. Mold counts were around 105 cfu.g-1 sample. Fourteen mold genera were recovered. From the systematic point of view, 2 genera belonged to Zygomycetes (i.e. Mucor, Rhizopus,), 1 genus belong to Ascomycetes (i.e. Eurotium); the majority, within so-called mitotic fungi (formerly Deuteromycetes), encompassed 11 genera (i.e. Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Scopulariopsis,, Trichothecium, Ulocladium and Aerobasidium). The most frequent fungi were those from the genus Aspergillus. The concentrations of the four analyzed mycotoxins in the poultry finished feeds, and the percentages of the recovered mycotoxins, revealed that aflatoxins was recovered in 91.1% of the examined samples, with a mean value of 179.1µg/kg. The same percentage was found with Ochratoxins, but with lower mean concentration of 159.4µg/kg. In the third order were Fumonisins mycotoxins were in the third order, and they were recovered in 51.1% of the tested samples with a mean value of 127µg/kg. In the fourth order was T-2 toxin, with a percentage of 2.2% and a value of 50.0µg/kg.

Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative

A. Al-Saraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 53-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5582

The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

Biotyping of Clostridium Perfringens strains isolated from enterotoxemia cases in sheep using ELISA technique

A. Kalb Allouz; N. Habra; M. A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 17-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5583

The study was designed to determine the types of Clostridium perfringens and their toxins in sheep with suspected enterotoxemia in Hama province, Syria. For this purpose, 89 bacterial isolates were isolated from 132 samples collected from dead and some slaughtered sheep with suspected enterotoxemia and diagnosed with classical diagnostic tests and by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to determine the types and toxins of C. perfringens. These isolates appeared as G+ bulged rods with curved ends and were as positive to lecithinase, gelatin hydrolysis and sugar fermented, as where negative to catalase, oxidase, and indole. Based on the ELISA results all isolates were C. perfringens types A 84 isolate (94.38 %), D 3 (3.37 %), and C 2(2.25 %). Clostridium perfringens type A was the dominant type in cases of enterotoxemia in sheep in Hama province detected by ELISA test. The enterotoxaemia causes considerable economic loss to the sheep industry particularly in Hama province and generally in Syria. Therefore, it is recommended that a proper vaccination schedule against enterotoxemia should be implemented for sheep flocks in Hama province. These vaccines should provide adequate protective immunity against all C. perfringens types specially types A and D.

Effect of treating lactating rats with lead acetate and its interaction with vitamin E or C on neurobehavior, development and some biochemical parameters in their pups

H. M. Jassim; A. A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 45-52
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5584

The current study investigated the effect of administration of vitamin E (600mg/ kg diet) concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally) and vitamin C (100mg/kg, orally) concomitantly with lead acetate (10mg/kg, orally) to the female lactating rats on the neurobehavioral, landmarks development and some biochemical tests in their pups. Administration of lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in open field activity test including (the number of squares crossed and rearing test within 3 minutes), olfactory discrimination test, triglycerides and malondialdehyde brain tissue, with a significant decrease in glutathione brain tissue and high density lipoproteins in their pups. The present study demonstrated that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin C and lead acetate produced a significant decrease in righting reflex test in their pups. Administration of vitamin E concomitantly with lead acetate to the female lactating rats caused a significant increase in glutathione level accompanied with a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and triglycerides levels in their pups. The present study showed that treatment of female lactating rats with vitamin E or C with lead acetate produced a significant decrease in rearing test, whereas a significant increase in high density lipoproteins in their pups. It is concluded that administration vitamin E or C to the female lactating rats reverse the adverse effects produced by lead acetate on neurobehavioral. Vitamin E had positive effect on the levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde brain tissue, triglyceride and high density lipoproteins in their lactating pups.

Evaluation the suitable level of standard concentrated ration for fattening growing Sharabi calves

N. Y. Abou; A. K. Nasser; N. M. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2010, Volume 24, Issue 1, Pages 53-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2010.5585

Three groups of growing Sharabi calves were used in this study to evaluate the best suitable level of concentrate ration. Each group consisted of four calves between 8-12 months of age, with an average live body weight around 145 kg. They were fed for 90 days on concentrated standard ration according to NRC, 1984, at three different levels of 2, 3, 4 % of live body weight, respectively, consisted of 80:20 concentrate to roughage contained 14% crude protein, 72% TDN and 2.4 Mkcal/kg. ME. The total gain and amount of consumed ration were measured. At the end of the trial, samples of rumen fluid were collected from all calves in order to estimate the activity of bacteria and micro organism. Results showed that the average amount of the daily ration consumed by the three groups of calves were 3.68, 6.91 and 8.12 kg/calves, respectively. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in average daily gain among the three groups of calves (311, 869 and 1000 gm, for the three respective treatments). Also the feed conversion ratio was improved for the second and third groups compared with the first group and they were 7.96, 8.12 and 11.8 kg. ration/kg live body weight gain, respectively. Ration levels showed no effect on rumen fluid pH but increased the time of methylene blue reduction (more than 15 mints) and sedimentation activity test (more than 20 minuets) than their normal standard levels. The cost to produce one kg live body weight gain was about the same for the second and third groups and it was 50% less than first group and they were 3184, 3248 and 4746 I.D., respectively. It was concluded that the fattening regime for growing Sharabi calves on concentrated ration given at 4% of live body weight for three months had more economic profit.