Issue 1

Incidence of broiler caecal coccidiosis in ninevah governorate 1999-2004

A. F. M. AL-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 45-63
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5610

A descriptive epidemiological survey was made in Nineveh governorate 1999-2004 for determination of broiler clinical caecal coccidiosis incidence in broiler chickens. Out of total 3594 broiler patches reared in this period, 1918 (53.36%) were positive to caecal coccidiosis. The highest percentages (35.34%) of coccidial cases were recorded in the year 2000. There was a decreasing tendency in recording caecal coccidiosis from 24.29% in 1999 to 6.77% in 2004. There was a positive relationship between the patch size (number of birds) in each year and the incidence of caecal coccidiosis. Of the main 7 NINEVAH governmental localities, Kara kosh, practiced the highest incidence of caecal coccidiosis through 1999-2004, in which 1615(49.21%) broiler patches were reared out of the total 3594 broiler patches reared in all 7 localities. Seasonal effect on the incidence of caecal coccidiosis show that the highest were reported in Spring then Autumn, followed by Winter and Summer months. Most of the broiler patches experienced caecal coccidiosis between 3-6 weeks of age. From 1918 positive broiler patches to coccidiosis, 1344 patches were fed diets without anticoccidials, while 574 positive broiler patches were fed diets with anticoccidials. There was a decreasing tendency in caecal coccidiosis with increasing number of broiler patches fed diets amended with anticoccidials from 1999 till 2004. The hygienic significance in reducing clinical caecal coccidiosis was discussed.

Repair of large hernia by polymer graft in goats

F. M. Mohammed; L. M. Alkattan; M. J. Eesa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 125-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5612

Sixth bucks of local breed were used in this study. The animals were anesthetized with mixture of ketamine and xylazine hydrochloride. Ventral abdominal hernias were induced on the lateral ventral abdomen. One month post operation, the induced hernia was repaired with polymer grafts, which fixed by simple interrupted suture, using No. 1 silk suture material. After implantation, there was focal abscess at the operative site in two cases which resolved after evacuation and irrigation with antiseptic. The findings of the microscopic result at 30, 60 and 90 days of grafts implantation exhibited inflammatory reaction around the grafts and later at the 60 and 90 days of implantation there was fibrous tissue formation around implant graft, inflammatory reaction and fibroblast infiltration in the graft. The results indicated that biocompatibility of polymer graft with the host tissue was good with complete healing of the operative site.

Study of the pathological importance of Escherichia coli in respiratory infection of broiler chickens

M. Y. Al-Attar; S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 45-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5613

This study showed airsacculitis when 12 days broilers inoculated in the left thoracic air sacs with 0.1 ml suspension of type-1 E.coli that contained (1 x 108) cfu/ml and noticed after72 hours. The first clinical signs occur after 3 hours of inoculation as acute respiratory signs including dyspnea and respiratory rales. The pathological changes appear as sever air sacculitis with thin layer of fibrenous surrounding the heart after 24 hours of inoculation, then became more thick layer of fibrenous surrounding the heart, airsac and lungs, and spots of necrosis in the liver after 72 hours of inoculation. The first mortality of chicks occurs after 12 hours of inoculation. In concerted with bacterial count, blood and liver showed highest number of E.coli after 24 hours of inoculation and after 12 hours of inoculation in both lungs and airsacs.

A study on the effects of diazinon and carbaryl on cholinesterase activity by an electrometric method in rabbits

M. B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 29-35
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5614

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of diazinon and carbaryl, and validate the efficiency of a modified electrometric method in measuring cholinesterase activity (ChE) in rabbits. Oral administration of female rabbits with diazinon at 35 mg/Kg, and with carbaryl at 500 mg/Kg, induced signs of toxicosis characteristic of cholinergic over stimulation. The signs were associated with significant decreases of plasma, erythrocyte and brain ChE activities with diazinon, but with carbaryl there were only significant decreases of plasma and erythrocyte ChE activities in comparison with control values. The extent of ChE inhibition in the erythrocyte correlated well with that of the brain in diazinon treated rabbits. The results suggested that the described electrometric method is simple, accurate and efficient in measuring the ChE inhibition caused by diazinon and carbaryl insecticides in rabbits.

Interaction between metoclopramide and toxicity of diazinon in mice

M. H. I. Alzubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 23-37
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5615

The aim of the study was to examine the interaction and toxicity between metoclopramide and organophosphorus insecticide diazinon in mice using the up and down method. The median lethal dose (LD50) of metoclopramide was 293 mg/kg s.c, and that of diazinon was 64.1 mg/kg p.o.
The toxic interaction between metoclopramide and diazinon was examined using a ratio of 1:1 and the (LD50) value for both depending on isbolographic
analysis. Antagonistic interaction was found when metoclopromide was administered before and after 20 minutes of diazinon administration. While synergistic interaction was found when both of the drugs were administrated at the same time.
Metoclopramide at 20 mg/kg s.c significantly reduced the onset time of tremor by diazinon at 60 mg/kg p.o when administered with and after 10 minute and before 5, 15, 20 minutes from the administration of diazinon.
Diazinon at 70 mg/kg p.o significantly inhibited plasma, RBC, brain cholinesterases in mice by 74%, 46%, 12% respectively.
Metoclopramide at 20 mg/kg s.c, significantly inhibited RBC, brain cholinesterase by of 11%, 21% respectively, while plasma cholinesterase insignificantly inhibited by 5%.
The results suggest that metoclopramide. Reduced the percentage of inhibition of ChE in mice which was caused by diazinon and protected them from its toxicity.

Evaluation of mycofix to ameliorate the toxic effect of t-2 toxin on performance of broiler chickens

A. M. Shareef; Z. A. Jameel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 87-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5616

The possible protective effect of Mycofix against the toxic effect of T-2 toxin in growing broiler chickens was investigated in two age stages; the first and second ages, ranged from 1-21 and 22-42 days, respectively. The experiment was consisted of 4 dietary treatments: treatment 1: control; treatment 2: 2.5g Mycofix/kg feed; treatment 3: 8 ppm T-2 toxin alone; treatment 4: 8 ppm T-2 toxin plus Mycofix 2.5g Mycofix /kg feed. T-2 toxin alone significantly (p<0.05) decreased body weight gain, feed consumption and increased feed: gain ratio. Broiler chick performance was more sensitive to T-2 toxin during the first three weeks of age (initial stage of the experiment) than the other 3 weeks of age. When 2.5g Mycofix /kg were added to the diet, it protects broiler chicks against the adverse effect of T-2 toxin on BW gain, feed consumption, and feed: gain ratio. The oral lesion induced by T-2 toxin alone in the first three weeks and the more severe lesions in the following 4-6 weeks were counteracted by Mycofix at both stages of experiment. A significant ((p<0.05) increase in the relative weight of gizzard, pancreas in the initial experimental stage was noticed while a significant increase was reported in the relative weights of bursa, thymus, and spleen in the final stage of the experiment. Mycofix was found to be effective in ameliorating the negative effect of T-2 toxin on these organs. The results of the present trail indicate that Mycofix is capable of counteracting the adverse effects of T-2 toxin on performance, oral lesions, and relative weight of internal organs based on the enzymatic inactivation of the 12, 13-epoxide ring of T-2 toxin.

Immune response in Rattus rattus norvegicus rats against infection with giardiasis by the lipopolysaccharide extracted from Escherichia coli II. Blood picture

S. Y. Yousif; A. A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 15-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5617

The study investigated, for the first time, the effect of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) secreted by Escherichia coli, as an immunomodulator, against infection with giardiasis caused by Giardia lamblia in Rattus rattus norvegicus. The pathological changes occurred in the rats treated with LPS, were followed in comparison with the control groups, along the experiments period, depending on many criteria, included the changes in total and differentiated count of leukocytes. The results showed an elevation in the total count of leukocytes, expressed by elevation in neutrophils, variation in monocytes numbers accompanied with a decrease in lymphocytes numbers in treated rats in comparisons with the control groups. Results are provided that (LPS) modulates the immune defence of rats against infection with giardiasis.

Ineffectiveness of different adsorbents in alleviation of oral lesions induced by feeding t-2 toxin in broiler chickens

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 75-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5618

One hundred and forty one-day-old-male broiler chicks (Ross), were divided into 7 groups (20 chicks/group) and fed T-2 toxin alone or with five different types of adsorbents; Montmorillonite 0.5%, Vermiculite 0.5%, Pigacine 0.5%, Gezilgure 0.5%; and the resin Perlite 0.5%. Gross and microscopic examinations reveal that all adsorbents used were unable to alleviate the oral lesions induced by T-2 toxin in broiler chickens.

Pathological study of the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic field with low power densities on male albino rats

A. A. Azooz; K. H. Al-Mallah; S. O. Youkhana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 69-84
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5620

This study designed to detect pathological effects of exposure to 2.45 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field with low power densities on mature male albino rats. 36 rats at 3-4 months age were used in the study, randomly devided to 6 groups with 6 animals for each group. The groups from 1-5 were exposed to 2.45 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field with different power densities : ( 5 MW/cm2 , 1 MW/cm2 , 500 µW/cm2 , 50 µW/cm2 and 10 µW/cm2, respectively). The 6th group represented non exposed control group. The exposed groups received 6 hours of exposure daily for 21 days as an exposure period. Clinical signs were observed daily and body weight and rectal temperature were monitored weekly. At the end of exposure period 3 animals were killed from each group for gross and histopathological examination , the other 3 animals were left for another 21 days without exposure represented post exposure period to detect the ability of rats to recover from the induced pathological changes if existed. The results showed occurrence of clinical signs at all exposed groups and more severe at group 1 manifested by nervous excitation at 1st hour of exposure followed by depression and stagnation to the end of 6 hours of exposure. There was no significant difference between the groups in body weight averages at the 3 weeks of experiment. A significant decrease in post exposure rectal temperature comparing with pre exposure rectal temperature has been noticed at groups 1 and 2 in 1st week and at group 3 in 2nd week of experiment with no significant differences in other groups. Gross and histopathological examination at the end of exposure period revealed presence of some pathological changes at group 1 manifested by perineuronal edema, mild microglial proliferation and congestion in the brain, in lungs there was acute bronchopneumonia with pulmonary vascular arteriosclerosis, there was also mucinous degeneration in duodenal epithelium with congestion of small intestine, in kidneys there was acute cell swelling of renal tubular epithelium with congestion. These changes less severely occurred at the groups 2 and 3, the exposed groups 4 and 5 similar to control did not show any pathological changes. At the end of post exposure period, pathological changes were detected at the groups 1,2 and 3 represented by bronchopneumonia and mucinous degeneration of small intestine .These changes were lighter than those observed at the end of exposure period .

Comparative injectable anesthetic protocols in ducks

G. A-M. Faris; Z. T. Abd-Almaseeh; B. T. Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 105-115
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5621

This study was performed to compare the effect of five mixtures of anesthetic protocols in thirty adult domestic ducks of local breed. The birds were randomly divided into five groups; six ducks for each group. In group1; a combination of medetomidine and ketamine (M-K), (100 µg and 20 mg/kg) drugs were used. While in group 2; a combination of xylazine and ketamine (X-K), (5 mg and 20 mg/kg) were used. For group 3; a combination of acepromazine and ketamine (Acp-K), (2 mg and 20 mg/kg) were used, and in group 4 and 5, combinations of xylazine-ketamine-diazepam (X-K-D) (5 mg; 20 mg and 5 mg/kg), xylazine-ketamine and acepromazine (X-K-Acp), (5 mg; 20 mg and 2 mg/kg), respectively were used. All the used drugs combinations were given via intramuscular route at the pectoral muscle. The time onset of loss of righting reflex was (2.6±0.5 mins), (1.6±0.5 mins), (1.1±0.3 mins), (1.0±0.1 mins) and (1.8±0.3 mins), respectively for a mean duration of time (51.3±7.5 mins), (55.0±2.0 mins), (48.8±7.5 mins), (56.3±4.3 mins) and (53.8±3.8 mins), respectively. While, the sedative effect started within (1.5±0.3 mins), (1.3±0.3 mins), (0.6±0.2 mins), (0.8±0.1 mins) and (1.3±0.3 mins), respectively. All the anesthetic combinations varied in producing proper anesthesia in the experimental ducks. The palpebral reflex was not abolished, and the eyes remained opened throughout the course of anesthesia with almost all the anesthetic combinations. Additional disadvantages accompanied administration of all 5 combinations were; persistent pedal movement, during the whole course of anesthesia. Muscle relaxation in the anesthetized birds in all 5 groups was poor, as seen clinically by the twisted necks and the contracted pedaled legs. A statistical difference (p >0.05) was found in the onset of loss of righting reflex between group 1 (2.6±0.5), compared to group 3 (1.1±0.3) and group 4 (1.0±0.1). The combination of M-K (group 1), produced good analgesia that was found to be significantly better than with the other combinations. Variable differences at respiratory rate indices at the scheduled time were found between treatment groups. But, the respiratory rate of the birds in all anesthetic protocol groups was significantly decreased from the corresponding base line values (time 0), except in K-X-D combination (group 4), in which the decrease was only at 30 minutes after injection.In conclusion the domestic ducks (Anas platyhynchos) was considered as difficult patients for anesthesia by the investigated anesthetic combinations given by intramuscular route, because none of the anesthetic regimen was effective for production of adequate anesthesia and analgesia in this species of the domestic birds.

Effect of vitamin e on sexual efficiency in male rats treated with cadmium

S. A-K. Rasheed; A. A. Hassan; B. N. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5623

To examine the possible protective role of vitamin ‘E’ 500 mg/kg diet as antioxidant against cadmium induced oxidative stress, 20 male albino rats (3-4 months old) were exposed during 2 months to oral intake of cadmium 25 mg/L (as cadmium chloride) in drinking water, cadmium for 2 months associated with vitamin E (500 mg/kg diet) given at the second month, cadmium along with vitamin E for 2 months, or has been left as a control group. The results showed that cadmium produced no changes in body weight, testicular or prostatic weights. Epididymis and seminal vesicle weights with sperm count and the percentage of live sperms were decreased significantly, with an increased in the percentage of dead and morphologically abnormal sperms. Vitamin E, on the other hand, increased the percentage of live sperm and decreased the percentage of dead and morphologically abnormal sperm caused by cadmium. It is concluded that, vitamin E supplementation decreased the cadmium effect particularly when it is administered along with cadmium from the first day of experiment.

Comparative study between two methods of end-to-end oblique intestinal anastomosis in dogs

F.M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 133-146
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5624

The current study was conducted to compare between two methods of small intestinal anastomosis in dogs after obliquely resected and anastomosed by using simple interrupted and cross mattress sutures technique. The results revealed that the oblique technique of intestinal anastomosis was successful in all operative animals with few complications and without mortality rate postoperatively. The postmortem examination revealed that the cross mattress technique was associated with minimal adhesion as compare to simple interrupted technique which was associated with sever adhesion .The radiographic study revealed that no significant differences in mean degree of stenosis between two methods of this study. Also the radiographic pictures revealed that, the mean degree of stenosis which associated with cross mattress pattern was less than accompanied with simple interrupted pattern at thirty days after operation. The histopathological examination shown minute foci of tissue reaction with thick and mature fibrous tissue at the site of operation after 30 days in cross mattress anastomosis, whereas the anastomosis with the simple interrupted suture accompanied by sever inflammation and destruction of the serosal layer of intestine at 30 days after operation .We concluded that simple interrupted and cross mattress patterns can be used for anastomosis of oblique intestinal resection.

Evaluation of the percentage of live sperm in ram semen by using the mtt reduction assay

D. M. Aziz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 147-154
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5625

This study was conducted to evaluate the percentage of viable sperm in ram semen by using the MTT reduction assay. Twenty ejaculates from 5 rams were included in this study. Semen samples were diluted with skim milk-glucose diluent to obtain a concentration of 30x106 sperms/ml. The rates of MTT reduction were taken in microtiter plates after one hour of incubation at 37oC using a Microplate Reader (DNM-9602) at a wave length of 550 nm. Simultaneously, split samples of the same semen were tested using the microscope and eosin-nigrosin stain. The correlation between the results of these tests was calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficients and Regression analysis. Results of the present study indicate that the values of sperm viability which calculated on the basis of MTT reduction rates were significantly (P<0.001) correlated with the results that simultaneously determined by the microscope and eosin-nigrosin stain, yielding regression coefficients of r2= 0.979. In conclusion, the MTT reduction test proved applicable as diagnostic tool for the quality evaluation of ovine semen. It can be used successfully in routine analysis, where practical aspects as time, costs and practicability are important.

Short–term effect of chlorpromazine and diazepam on blood plasma acetylcholinesterase activity in chicks

L .K. Yacoub

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 11-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5626

The response of blood plasma acetylcholinestrase to acute administration of chlorpromazine and diazepam was examined in chick. Chlorpromazine in a dose–dependent manner at 25, 50, and 75 mg/Kg, subcutaneously inhibited the activity of Ache in the blood. Chlorpromazine (50, 75 mg /kg) significantly decreased the enzyme activity in the plasma by 14.7 % and 17.6 %, respectively for a period of 60 min, as well as, 14.5 % and 13.1 % for a period of 60 and 120 min, respectively in groups received chlorpromazine 50 mg/kg. Diazepam at 10, 20 and 30 mg/kg subcutaneously did not significantly affect the enzyme activity in comparison with the control group. The result suggests that chlorpromazine changes Ache activity in the blood and possibly in other tissues.

Detection of aflatoxin in compound feeds of broiler flocks suffered from field aflatoxicosis

A. M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 65-74
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5627

One hundred and fifty eight broiler compound feed samples were delivered from broiler flocks in Ninevah governorates. These flocks were clamed to be affected with field aflatoxicosis. All the examined samples had aflatoxin levels higher than of the permissible limit (20 ppb). The range of AF levels was 22-2263 ppb. The mean value of AF concentration was 592.7ppb. The percentage of AF concentrations from 0-500 ppb was 48.7%, and from 500-1000 ppb was 41.2%, while that from 1000-2500 was 10.2%.

Immunological and experimental study for cryptosporidiosis

M. H. Hassan; M. N. Al-Shahery

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 129-140
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5628

The present study included the use of IFAT to detect to Cryptosporidium Abs; the percentage of infection in calves with this parasite was 36.6%. Among these animals there were 31 positive cases (20.6%) , but we were unable to determine a significant diagnostic titer. The other part of our study showed that both immunodeficiency and malnutrition having an enhancing effect on Cryptosporidial infection in mice; since the prepatent, patent periods were longer, releasing of oocysts was higher and the Abs level were lower than normal.

Identify the biting lice attacking the chickens in Arbil governorat

R. A. Aliraqi; Kh. A. H. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5629

This study was conducted to identify the biting lice attacking the chickens in twenty locations within Arbil governorate. Results showed that the chickens were infested with six species of lice that are chicken body lice (Menacanthus stramineus), feather shaft lice (Menopon gallinae), chicken head lice(Cuclotogaster heterographus) ,fluff lice(Goniocotes galline ), large chicken lice(Goniodes gigas)and wing lice(Lipeurus caponis), but the chicken body lice is the dominant species in all locations with a percentage of 58.41% of the total infested chickens. The results revealed that the infestation by the lice on one chicken different between single, double, triple and multiple and the single infestation was the common in the most location and it was 66.25% while it was 28.75, 3.75 and 1.25% in double, tripleand multiple infections respectively.

Some bacterial isolation from pin-tailed sand grouse (Pterocles alchata

G. N. Shamoon; N. R. Abdul Rahman; A. A. Shamaun

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 141-145
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5631

Bacterial isolation was attempted from 20 pin-tailed sand grouse,of different ages, which were obtained from Al-Tamim Province in July 2005. The samples were taken from the liver, gall bladder, heart and intestine. The highest percentage of bacterial isolation consisted of Escherichia coli (61%) and the least one was Streptococcus faecalis (5%). The highest percentage of bacterial isolates was found in the intestine (54%) and non was obtained from the gall bladder. The highest E.coli isolates were from the intestine (77%) and liver (50%), whereas the highest Staphylococcus aureus isolates were from heart (43%). The bacterial isolates, which were recorded in pin-tailed sand grouse for the first time in Iraq, were E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Clostridium colinum and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Capability of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress and initiation of athromatus lesions and to study effect of some antioxidants represented by estradiol, vitamin e and fresh garlic in overictomized rats

A.Y. Al-Khafaf; E. R. Al-Kennany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 93-110
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5632

This study was conducted to determine the possibility of 0.5% if H2O2 on drinking water for the induction of oxidative stress status overictomized rats, moreover, this study deal with role of the stress in initiation & development
atheromatus lesions. In these animal for improvement the oxidation status, this status deal with some antioxidant agents mainly: Vitamin E, Oestradiol Benzoate and Fresh garlic. The result remarks the similar (but not identical) effect of these agents (Vit E as superior) via its lowering effect on lipid profile as well as lipid peroxidation index, and its ameliorating effects on HDL-c, tissue GSH level. Moreover, these agents show a reduction in fatty depositions in aorta of treated rats.

Anesthesia in xylazine premedicated donkeys with ketamine and ketamine-propofol mixture: A comparative study

A. KH. Al-Jobory; O. H. Al-Hyani; B.T. Abass

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 117-123
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5633

This study was conducted to evaluate the anesthetic quality produced by ketamine hydrochloride (K) (3 mg/kg, I.V.) and ketamine–propofol (K-P) mixture (2 mg/kg-1 mg/kg, I.V., respectively) in six donkeys premedicated with xylazine (X), (1 mg/kg, I.V.). Each donkey was anesthetized one time with each dose of (K) and (K-P), five minutes after (X) administration, in random order at (1) week intervals. The anesthetic parameters; induction and sleeping time, abolishment of the swallowing reflex, recumbencey period, cardiopulmonary responses, were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. The results revealed presence of significant difference (p< 0.05) in the induction and sleeping time between (K) and (K-P) protocols. Neither the swallowing reflex, nor recumbency period represented statistical difference between (K) and (K-P) protocols. But clinically, anesthesia with (K-P) produced shorter and smoother recovery to recumbency than with (K), and the swallowing reflex was abolished while persisted with (K) anesthesia. The excellent anesthesia produced with K-P was characterized by smooth, calm, gradual and free of excitement induction (23.75±1.75 sec), good narcosis (22.50±3.57 minutes) and muscle relaxation. The swallowing reflex was abolished for (15.75±5.61 minutes). The recumbency period was characteristically smooth and featured by its rapidness (10.50±2.62 minutes). While on the other hand, induction of anesthesia with (K) protocol was characterized by rough, slow and excitement (56.25±8.44 sec), muscle rigidity, and persistence of the swallowing reflex (not disappeared or slightly disappeared). The shorter sleeping time (10.5±0.95 minutes) and the longer recumbencey (14.75±2.28 minutes) periods that was associated with violent convulsion and excitement, were clinically an obvious associate with (K) anesthesia. The intubations with (K-P) anesthetic protocol was easily performed, but was difficult or failed during (K) anesthesia.In conclusion, anesthesia with (K-P) protocol produced an excellent anesthetic mixture for induction of general anesthesia in donkeys, and up to our knowledge this the first report on the use of this mixture for total intravenous anesthesia in donkeys.

Parasitological and histopathological studies of the natural infection with Leucocytozoon simondi in geese in ninevah governorate

M. H. Hasan; A. F. M. AL- Taee; A. A. Shamaun

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 37-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5634

This study is the first report in Mosul for detection of Leucocytozoon simondi in geese. Blood smears from ninety-six geese were collected in Nineveh governorate during July 2005 till February 2006 for detection of L. simondi. Liver histopathological sections wase also performed. The results showed that 32 geese were positive for L. simondi, with infection rate of 22.85% for young birds and 39.34% for adult geese.Males show higher percentage of infection 35.71% versus 30% in females. The infection rates according to the villages were ranged from 16% to 41.66%. Blood smears show the spindle and the spherical form of the haemoparasite. Liver histopathological sections of livers geese show coagulative degeneration and necrosis with spindle and the oval form of the parasite.

Diagnostic study to the presences of eimeria oocyst in the gall bladder fluid of the slaughtered goats in mosul abattoir

B. A. Muhemmd; E. G. Suliaman; M. S. Daoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 63-68
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5635

Out of 138 gall bladder collected from slaughtered goats in Mosul abattoir, 19 (13.76%) were found to be infected with Eimeria alijevi. Averge oocysts measurements were 16.76 × 14.11 microns. There was an increased in the viscosity of the bile fluid and changes in its color from brown to dark green and the wall of the affected gall bladder was thickened and lost of its transparency. The most observable clinical signs include general weakness, jaundice, pale mucous membrane and diarrhea and the percentage of infection with different types of Eimeria oocysts in feces 42.75% and diagnosed oocysts of E. alijevi in feces.

Isolation of infectious bronchitis virus from broiler

M. Y. AL-Attar; F. F. AL-Haseerchy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 53-61
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5636

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was isolated from broilers chicks. The virus isolation done by samples inoculation in chicken egg embryos via allontoic cavity route which showed sensitivity for virus isolation resulting in stunting and rounding of inoculated embryos, as well as thickening of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Cultivation of the isolated virus was carried out in the yolk sac and embryo vein .The virus was grown in chicken kidney cells (CKC) cultures resulting in cytopathic effect ( CPE ) after 24 h. post inoculation including swelling and accumulation of cells which increased in 2nd& 3rd day post inoculation. The diagnosis of isolated virus was carried out by Agar gel ………….
precipitation test (AGPT) using reference positive antiserum and Serum neutralization test (SNT) using CKC tissue culture.

Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus in chickens in ninevah province iraq

Attar; M. Y. AL

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5637

The study included collection of 200 serum samples from Broilers which showed clinical signs of Respiratory and Digestive lnfections as well as noticable mortality. Samples were collected through two stages, first at acute infection and the second two weeks post infection from the same Broilers flocks.
ELISA test was used for the detection of Avian Influenza antibodies showed positive reaction for 50% of first stage serum samples and 78% Positive reaction of second stage serum samples.

Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test also used for detection of antibodies using reference antigen to Avian Influenza virus subtype (H9N2). Results showed positive reaction of 42% of first stage serum samples with mean of titer at 24.19 and 52% positive reaction of second stage serum samples with mean of titer at 30.15. These results indicated the presence of antibodies against Avian Influenza virus subtype (H9N2). In broiler's flocks of Ninevah province and ELISA test was more sensitive than (HI) test in antibodies detection.

Estimation of fetal age in sheep by measurement of the embryonic vesicle diameter and umbilical cord diameter by using real-time ultrasonography

M.H. AL-Salman; H. M. AL-Rawi; S. N. Omran

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2007, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 159-167
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2007.5638

This experiment includes 72 local Awassi ewes aged between 2 to 5 years old. The aim of this study was to estimate the fetal age by the measurement of the embryonic vesicle and diameter of umbilical cord diameters during the different periods of gestation by using 5MHz real-time ultrasonography. Results of this study indicated that the embryonic vesicle could be seen at 14 days post breeding, and this can be the first sign of early pregnancy diagnosis. The embryo could be successfully seen at 20 days post breeding. The umbilical cord was first diagnosed at 23 days post breeding. Linear, quadratic and cubic equations were described, which adjust the relationship between the fetal age and diameter of embryonic vesicle and umbilical cord. In a conclusion, linear equation of the relationship between diameter of embryonic vesicle and fetal age was the best.
equation to estimate the fetal age, while the cubic equation was the best equation to estimate the relationship between fetal age, and diameter of the umbilical cord.