Main Subjects : Animal Nutrition


Baker’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and its application on poultry’s production and health: A review

Nguyen H. Qui

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 213-221
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132912.2146

The poultry population has substantially grown in recent years, and measures to ensure meat quality have also improved significantly. The exponential growth of the human population eventually resulted in increasing meat demand. In particular, poultry meat has been the more favorable and nutritive option. Research on feed additives has sparked an interest in many poultry specialists looking for ways to increase poultry performance. The use of baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as an antibiotic alternative by acting as prebiotics and probiotics has received significant attention. Baker’s yeast contains β-glucans and mannan-oligosaccharides as its main components. Recent studies have shown that baker’s yeast, as an alternative protein source, positively affects poultry growth performance, blood parameters, and immune response. Furthermore, the application of baker's yeast as a fermented feed additive showed promising results for poultry production. The use of baker’s yeast in the diet improves the morphological structure of the poultry gut, thus increasing growth performance. More informatively, it stimulates feed intake, increases body weight gain, and improves the feed conversion ratio. Baker’s yeast also improves the immune system of poultry animals by reducing various numbers of harmful microorganisms by combating poultry diseases more effectively and eventually increasing poultry health. This paper aims to synthesize all aspects of the effect of baker’s yeast on the poultry industry and the role and application of baker's yeast in poultry productivity.

Effect of adding nettle plant on some physiological and biochemical parameters of broiler chickens

Abdullah F. Abdul-Majeed; Ghadeer A. Rahawi; Amar M. AL-Chalabi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131844.2010

The objective of this study is to find out the impact of the nettle plant (Urtica dioica L.) on broiler, because of its wide spread in our regions, and insufficient information about its effects on the broiler, as most of the current researches refers its uses in folk medicine. So, this research had been conducted to evaluate the effects of adding 0.25 and 0.5% crushed nettle/kg diet on the blood picture and some biochemical indices of broiler. 180 broiler chicks (Ross 308), one-day-old were randomly distributed into 3 groups (60 birds/group) with 3 replicates/group (20 birds/replicate), and treated until 42 days age as follows: 1st group (Control): standard diets without additives, 2nd group: 0.25% nettle/kg diet, 3rd group: 0.50% nettle/kg diet. Results showed that crushed nettle plant led to an increase in the values of packed cell volume, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and it's shortened clotting time, as well as a significant increase (P≤0.05) in the number of basophils compared to the control group. In regard to the biochemical profile in the blood serum of broiler, most of biochemical indices values became better and significant when adding nettle (high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, risk index, total protein, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). In conclusion, nettle can be given to broiler in these proportions to improve the hematological and biochemical indices due to its properties and contents.

Evaluation of blood, biochemical and biological effects of microalgae Chlorella and germinated barley powder as a source of prebiotic on common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Havan Sleman; Nasreen M. Abdulrahman; Nazenine Hassan; Hevar HamaSalih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 271-277
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126788.1378

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chlorella and germinated barley powder on the hematological and biochemical parameters of (Cyprinus carpio L.). An experiment was designed with five treatments; Groups included T1: Diet without any supplement (Control), T2: adding 5 % Chlorella/ kg diet, T3: adding 10 % Chlorella / kg diet, T4: adding 10 % germinated barely / kg diet, T5: adding 20 % germinated barely/ kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the hematological and Immunological parameters were measured. The results revealed that supplementation of Chlorella and germinated barley in diets in which T4 were higher significantly in each of hemoglobin and red blood corpuscles. T1 was significantly higher in the control. A different significance observed in each of Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH). Significant variants observed in differential WBC count in T2 and T4 and Monocytes %, a significant difference seen among the treatments in each of Lymphocytes % and Granulocytes %. Significant differences occurred by adding the Chlorella and germinated barely in each Total protein, Alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), Albumin and Globulin among treatments. A significant difference observed in the Hepatosomatic index and Gillsomatic index, T5 with 20 % germinated barely was differ significantly in each of Spleensomatic and Kidneysomatic Index. Based on the results, supplementation of Chlorella and germinated barley in diet can play a role in effecting on some blood and biochemical parameters.





This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Chlorella and germinated barley powder on the hematological and biochemical parameters of (Cyprinus carpio L.). An experiment was designed with five treatments; Groups included T1: Diet without any supplement (Control), T2: adding 5 % Chlorella/ kg diet, T3: adding 10 % Chlorella / kg diet, T4: adding 10 % germinated barely / kg diet, T5: adding 20 % germinatedbarely/ kg diet. At the end of the experiment, the hematological and Immunological parameters were measured. The results revealed that supplementation of Chlorellaand germinated barley in diets in which T4 were higher significantly in each of hemoglobin and red blood corpuscles. T1 was significantly higher in the control. A different significance observed in each of Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH). Significant variants observed in differential WBC count in T2 and T4 and Monocytes %, a significant difference seen among the treatments in each of Lymphocytes % and Granulocytes %. Significant differences occurred by adding the Chlorella and germinated barely in each Total protein, Alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), Albumin and Globulin among treatments. A significant difference observed in the Hepatosomatic index and Gillsomatic index, T5 with 20 % germinatedbarely was differ significantly in each of Spleensomatic and Kidneysomatic Index. Based on the results, supplementation of Chlorellaand germinated barley in diet can play a role in effecting on some blood and biochemical parameters.





 

Using Schiff base method for protecting amino acids and modified in vitro method for measuring rumen protected amino acids

MITRA mazinani; Abbas A. ِNaserian; Brian Rude; Abdoulmansur Tahmasbi; Reza Valizadeh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 251-255
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126756.1371

The goal of this study was to modify three steps method for measuring protection rate of amino acids which has smaller size than nylon bag pores. To prepare the protected amino acids by the Schiff base method, each of the essential amino acids (methionine and lysine) in the aqueous solvent were brought to isoelectric pH and then reacted with the same molar ratio of aldehydes the reaction was refluxed for 30 minutes to 6 days (depending on the type of aldehyde used). The three-step in vitro method was used to estimate rumen insoluble protein in the rumen. In the manufacture of protected amino acid ligands, compounds with methionine amino acid had higher efficiency than lysine compounds and also glutaraldehyde ligands showed higher production efficiency compared to benzaldehydes. The glutaraldehyde lysine ligand showed the lowest release after 2 h of incubation in the rumen medium. At time 4 the methionine benzaldehyde ligand had the lowest release. Benzaldehyde had the lowest release at time 6 and 8. According to the results of this table, Lysine benzaldehyde had better resistance to different phases and methionine benzaldehyde had the lowest release rate compared to the other ligands. Based on this study, it can be concluded that the use of chemical methods to protect amino acids can be applied.

Effect of adding different levels of cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp) on growth and chemical composition criteria of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Mahmoud A. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126362.1308

This study was conducted to evaluate the addition of three levels of cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp), 96 common carp Cyprinus carpio L. at a mean weight of 5±0.15 g/fish on four experimental diets with three replicates per treatment 0% with three experimental diets containing 0.75%, 1%, and 1.5% of the total diet 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the parameters of the total weight increase, daily growth rate, relative growth rate, protein intake, feed conversion ratio and protein productive value between the control diet and the fish feeding on the fourth diet, meanwhile there were no a significant difference in final weight, food intake, protein efficiency ratio criteria. Chemical body analysis revered there were no a significant difference for dry weight, crude protein and ash, while cinnamon powder added have a significantly differences in body fat deposited. Based on the above results, 1.5% cinnamon can be added can improve the growth performance and nutritional value of common carp fish.

The effect of Propolis addition to broiler feeds on some blood biochemical parameters and intestinal flora

Muntaha G. Hassan; Tuqaa A. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 29-35
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125483.1015

The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of adding Propolis to broiler feeds and the effect on some biochemical and biological parameters represented by its effect on the total bacterial count of intestinal flora as well as the antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and lactobacillus. We used 150 broiler chicks type Ross at the first day of age divided randomly into three groups each of 17 chicks with three replications, the first one is control group and the second and third group fed on feeds containing two levels of propolis 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively. Results showed that using propolis at 400 mg/kg in the diet lead to a significant decrease in level of triglycerides which was 34.58 mg/ 100 ml accompanied by a mathematical reduction in total cholesterol and LDL levels, while there was an increase in glucose level. The highest propolis levels were effective in significant reduction in total bacterial count of intestinal flora, especially in the seventh week 4.9 log10, represented by a significant reduction in counts of staphylococcus aureus, lactobacillus and Escherichia coli 2.6, 3.6, 3.1 log10 respectively.

Analyses of mycotoxins in broiler’s local and imported feeds

N.M. Bibani; Z.K. Khidhir; A.S. Shaker; S.M. Kirkuki; S.M. Abdulateef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 267-271
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162994

In the present study 40 samples of broiler feeds that obtained from commercial feed manufacturing company (concerning 21 from Iraqi manufactures and 19 from the Iranian manufactures) were analyzed for the incidence of Aflatoxins, Ochratoxin, T-2, Fumonisins, and Zearalenone mycotoxins. The result has shown that AF was detected in 16 samples 76.19% of the Iraqi manufactures and 16 samples 84.21% from the Iranian manufactures, in concentrations ranging from 1.00-23.00 μg/ kg, and 1.00-2.00 μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of AF contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, the highest prevalence was observed in Iranian samples 84.21%, whereas it least in Iraqi samples 76.19%. OCHRA toxin was detected in 21 samples 100% of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples 100% from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from 3.00-4.00 μg/ kg, and (2.00 – 4.00) μg/ kg respectively. prevalence of OCHRA contamination revealed a non-significant (P>0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures. T2 toxin was detected in 21 samples (100%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (2.00 – 16.00) μg/ kg, and (2.00 – 23.00) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of T2 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures FUM3 toxin was detected in 21 samples (100%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (0.05 – 5.00) μg/ kg, and (0.10 – 2.50) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of FUM3 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, ZEAR3 toxin was detected in 15 samples (71.42%) of the Iraqi manufactures and 19 samples (100%) from the Iranian manufactures, in concentration ranging from (2.00 – 76.00) μg/ kg, and (1.00 – 41.00) μg/ kg respectively. Prevalence of ZEAR3 contamination revealed a significant association (P<0.05) between the Iraqi and Iranian manufactures, the highest prevalence was observed in Iranian samples (100%), whereas it least in Iraqi samples (71.42%).

The impact of melatonin administration on the fertility performance and several relating parameters during the breeding season in the Arabi ewes

W.Y. Kassim; K.A. Al-Rishdy; M.F. Al-Helou

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 461-468
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163244

A total of twenty-four healthy ewes aged between 2-3 years old and weighed about 35.09 kg of body weight were divided randomly into four groups (6 animals for each group). The first group included the non-treated control group, while the other three groups were subjected to various oral doses of melatonin 9 mg, 12 mg and 15 mg/head, respectively. All treatments were applied at 6 o'clock in the morning, to investigate the effect of treatment with melatonin during breeding season on reproductive performance and levels of some biochemical parameters in Arabi ewes from 1 May to 1 October 2017. Blood samples 7ml were collected after one hour of treatment and then monthly during the pregnancy months to determine the concentrations of biochemical parameters. After Postpartum, lambed ewes/lambs number, birth weight, placenta empty weight and cotyledon number were recorded. The results showed significant (P<0.05) improvement in reproductive performance (fertility percentage, twinning rate and the number of offspring) when ewes administrated melatonin at two doses (12 and 15 mg/ head). Also, melatonin administration caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in the concentrations of thyroxin, cortisol, and cholesterol. Conversely, there was a significant increase (P<0.05) in glucose concentration after 1 hour of treatment. The concentrations of thyroxin, cortisol, cholesterol, and vitamin C increased significantly (P<0.01) in early-gestation compared with mid and late-gestation, while the concentrations progesterone and glucose increased significantly (P<0.05) in mid-gestation compared with early and late-gestation. In conclusion, melatonin administration at doses 12 and 15 mg/ head improves ewe reproductive performance (fertility percentage, twinning rate and the number of born lambs). Additionally, the gestation stage has a negative effect on the concentrations of thyroxin, cholesterol and vitamin C.

Effect of protected methionine and lysine supplementation to Awassi ewes ration at flushing period on productive performance

H.W. Kassim; O.D. Almallah; saeb Abdulrahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 105-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163174

This study was conducted on 32 of local Awassi ewes, average body weight 36.06±0.74 kg (aged 2-3 years, ewes were divided into two treatments. The first treatment (T1) the control contained 8 ewes fed on ration consist of barley, wheat bran, urea and wheat straw without supplement and the second (T2) was contained 24 ewes and fed on the same ration of control supplemented with protected amino acids (methionine 2.5 g and lysine 2.5 g) per ewe daily, the ewes were fed with restricted quantity 1 kg / ewe divided twice daily through the flushing and mating period which lasted 60 days, also all ewes was grazed for 6hr daily. Results was referred that protected amino acid supplement in T2 led to a significant (p<0.01) improvement in conception percentage 91.6%, prolificacy percentage 87.5% and lambing percentage 100% compared to T1 62.5%, 62.5% and 75% respectively, where is the differences was not significant in other traits. Blood parameters was showed significant (p<0.05) increase in glucose 67.91±2.06 mg/dl as compared to T1 59.25±1.72mg/dL, triglyceride was decreased significantly (p<0.05) in T2 42.66±0.96 mg/dl compared to T1 47.37±1.38 mg/dl. Concentration of AST enzyme was decreased (p<0.05) in T2 110.66±7.58 IU/l, while increased (p<0.05) ALT enzyme concentration 38.08±2.48 IU/l as compared to T1 which were 162.12±4.79 and 21.87±0.71IU/l respectively. In conclusion, Awassi ewes supplementation with protected methionine and lysine through flushing period enhance reproductive performance out of reproduction season.

Measurements and evaluation of some electrolytes concentrations in spleens of imported sheep to Sulaimani province

Elham Husain; K.A. Muhammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 415-418
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163168

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between some biometrical measurements (length and width) and some electrolytic concentration (Na +, K+ and Cl-) in sheep spleen. This study was conducted on 19 spleens of male sheep, they were imported from Syria to Sulaimani province, aged between less than 1 year to 1.5 year. The results showed that the mean values of weight were 108 gm and mean values of length and width of the spleens were 13.72 cm and 9.05 cm, respectively. Also, the mean values of Cl-, Na+ and K+ concentration were 14.17 mmol/L, 6.58 mmol/L, 32.89 mmol/L, respectively. The correlation coefficient between weight and width was (r = 0.661, P=0.002) was a higher correlation with  R2 = 0.437. Also It was (r= 0.932, P≤0.0001) between Na+ and K+ which was a high correlation, with the higher value of R2 =0.869. The results showed the negative correlation between weight and Na+, weight and K+ with (r= -0.161, P=0.509) and (r= -0.214, P=0.379), respectively. However, it showed the positive correlation between other parameters; weight, length, width , Na+, K+ and Cl-, the correlation coefficient (r= 0.421, P= 0.072) between width and Cl- was the highest correlation, and the value R2 = 0.177. In conclusion, our study shows the positive correlation between some parameters (weight, length and width) and some electrolytes concentration (Na+, K+ and Cl-) and the highest correlation between width and Cl-, however there was a negative correlation between weight and Na+ and between weight and K+ in sheep spleen.

Effect of vitamin A and grazing in some physiological characters and milk production of Meriz does

S.Y. Abdul-Rahman; Khalid Sultan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 359-365
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163080

The current study was aimed to investigate the influence of Vitamin A- Palmitate injection and grazing on some physiological and biochemical characters, milk yield and its compositions. Twenty eight Meriz does (2 years aged) after parturition with average body weight 22.57 ± 0.47 Kg, and were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7 does/group) treated for 3 months as following: 1st group does were reared on standard ration and injected with 0.05 ml of physiological saline i.m weekly, 2nd and 4th groups, does were reared on standard ration and injected with vitamin A- Palmitate (50000 IU/doe weekly) as well as grazing for 6 hrs. daily for the does in 4th group, 3rd group does were reared on standard ration with 6hrs grazing /daily. Results showed a significant increase in Hb and PCV in 4th group at 1st, 2nd and 3rd month of treatment. ESR significantly increased in 4th group at 3rd month of treatment, also serum glucose level increased significantly in 2nd and 4th groups at all months of the study, while serum cholesterol level decreased significantly in 4th group at 2nd and 3rd months of treatment. Triglyceride increased at 3rd month in all treatments as compared with control, total protein and albumin increased significantly in 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups at 2nd and 3rd months of treatment. A significant increase in milk yield and fat% were recorded in 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatments in most kidding weeks. Conclusion, results showed that vitamin A and grazing improved some of physiological, biochemical, body weight and milk yield in Meriz goats.