Main Subjects : Milk Hygiene

Impact of parity, stage of lactation, and subclinical mastitis on the concentration of vitamin c in Shami camel milk

Razan Semsmia; Tarek Abed AL-Rahim; ِ Moatasem Bellah Al-Daker

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 847-851
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132279.2078

A study was conducted at Deir Al-Hajar Research Station for Shami Camels, Administration of Livestock Research, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR) during 2019 and 2020 to find the relation between vitamin c concentrations in milk, and either stage of lactation, parity (lactation number) or the presence of mastitis. For this purpose, thirty lactating Shami camels from different parties were used.Milk samples were collected monthly over one entire lactation season lasting 11 months. The concentration of vitamin c was 35.01±9.81 mg/l milk during considered parities without significant differences in its concentration. However, vitamin c concentration was affected by lactation month P<0.0.5, and the values ranged between 18.99 and 53.03 mg/l milkduring lactation. An evident decline in vitamin c concentration in camel milk appeared with positive interactions for the California test. The average concentration of vitamin c in milk produced from healthy and infected udders was 35.01±9.81 mg/l and 22.99±1.30 mg/l, respectively. It has been concluded that vitamin c in milk is crucial indicator of udder health status

Molecular detection of mecA gene in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from dairy mastitis in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Omar H. Sheet

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 939-943
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132643.2115

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is universally the leading aetiologic cause of dairy mastitis. Additionally, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major pathogenic bacterium in veterinary medicine and public health. Sixty-six cattleʼs milk samples were collected randomly from different areas of the Nineveh Province from November 2018 to February 2020. In this study, the classical and molecular biology methods had used to identify the MRSA and detect the target genes. The results revealed that S. aureus was isolated and identified based on classical methods such as catalase, clumping factors, and coagulase test. In addition, the nuc gene was detected in all the positive S. aureus isolates 23 (34.8%), while the mecA gene was detected in 12 (52.2%) MRSA isolates by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The present work emerged that the results of classical methods and the PCR technique were similar. MRSA is regarded as a significant causative agent of various types of bovine mastitis in Iraq, and it can to resist all types of beta-lactams. MRSA isolated from different regions in Mosul city. PCR assay is a powerful method for detecting the different genes based on the target sequence of the specific gene.

Psychrotrophic count influence on oxidative stability and aflatoxins in milk and cooking butter

Tawfik El-Bassiony; Gamela abdel-Malek; Marwa Khalifa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 775-780
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.131958.2029

Milk and butter are among the precious foods susceptible to spoilage and rancidity due to psychrotrophic microorganisms' activities, which grow in abundance due to the richness of milk and butter in the nutrients and their ability to resist the cold environment milk and butter are stored. In this study, the total psychrotrophic bacterial and fungal counts were recorded. The rancidity represented by the Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value and aflatoxins B1 and M1 levels were also measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results reflected a strong correlation between the total number of psychrotrophic bacteria, the rate of rancidity and the total number of molds, and the levels of the aflatoxins in the milk and butter. In conclusion, the psychrotrophic bacterial and mold counts in the milk and butter must be monitored carefully and be added as a routine examination to the list of the butter examinations. 

Diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats raw milk by fast and reliable techniques

Dhary A. Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 663-668
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127697.1523

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goats’ raw milk samples by detecting anti-Brucella antibodies and Brucella species at Erbil governorate. A total of 320 raw milk samples (150 sheep milk and 170 goats milk) were irregularly collected from dairy females. The overall occurrence of Brucella antibodies in samples of sheep and goats raw milk was 11.6% and 9.7% according to MRT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Isolation of Brucella (B.) species from samples of raw milk was 7.8%. The isolated species of Brucella were B. melitensis and B. abortus. A noticeable increase in frequency during September to November was observed. In conclusion, brucellosis is still a considerable public health threat in the Erbil. Based on the tests performance, the study recommends MRT in standard observing of brucellosis in milk aggregate farms, centers, and dairy manufactories. Customers are also recommended to adequately pasteurize the milk in order to damage this milk-borne pathogen before ingestion or saleable handling.

Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus in camel milk in the Nineveh governorate by using the PCR technique

Omar H. Sheet; Dhyaa M. Jwher; Raad A. Al-Sanjary; Ahmed Dh. Alajami

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 669-672
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127725.1524

Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is the main facultative organism of contagious intramammary infections from lactating animals. It is considered a major foodborne organism that can cause food poisoning conditions around the world. Camels are very important to the lifestyle of many countries because they can produce milk that contains the major components such as proteins, energy, vitamins, and minerals. The present study used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method on a base of the nuc gene as a target gene, which is a specific gene that recognizes the S. aureus amongst other microorganisms. Fifty milk samples have been collected from camels from different areas of the Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. According to the phenotypic characteristics, isolation and identification of S. aureus have been accomplished by characterizing the shape of the colonies, painting the suspected isolates by gram stain, using the biochemical tests such as coagulase and catalase. In this study, S. aureus was isolated from 70% (35/50) camel milk samples. The classical method of identifying the S. aureus isolated from camel milk was consistent with the PCR method. The PCR technique indicated that all positive S. aureus possessed the nuc gene. The increased percentage of S. aureus isolated from the camel milk has a relationship with the type of farm management, poor nutrition, and/or environmental conditions, rather than treatment of the infected camel. The PCR method is considered one of the best-used techniques to identify the S. aureus isolated from camel milk by detection of nuc gene, the specific gene of S. aureus.

Impact of heat treatment on the antimicrobial residues in raw goat's milk

Dhary A. Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 549-553
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127137.1469

Although antibiotics are valuable drugs for treatment of bacterial and some parasitic infections, their presence in animal products have a potential public health hazard. This study investigated antibiotic residues in goat raw milk and thermal effect on residues. Samples were collected randomly from different farms and retail outlets in Erbil city from January 1st to June 30th 2019. The residues were detected by disc diffusion assay against Bacillus subtilis bacteria on Muller Hinton agar. The occurrence rates among milk samples was 14.9%, also these residues in the samples was 13.5% and 16.4% in farm samples and retail store samples, respectively. No significant differences were found between sampling sites (farms vs sale points). Regarding the seasonal variations, spring was found to be associated with gradual decrease in antibiotic residues frequency in milk. Boiling for 5 minutes was the most effective treatment (among pasteurization and microwave heating) that inactivated antibiotic residues in 57.7% of positive samples. Such occurrence rate of residues is alarming and require authorities to observe and validate the quality of raw milk introduced to markets for consumers. Further evaluation of antibiotic stability period in raw milk is highly recommended.

Detection of the hbl complex genes in Bacillus cereus isolated from cow raw milk in northwest of Iran

R. Alipour Banaei; Saman Mahdavi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 459-463
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126120.1238

Bacillus(B) cereus is regarded as a major foodborne pathogen which is widely distributed in the nature. In addition, it plays an important role in the contamination of ready-to-eat and dairy products. B. cereus causes the two different types of food poisoning in human: the diarrheal and the emetic type. The aim of this study is detection of hbl complex genes in B. cereus isolated from cow raw milk in Northwest of Iran. In the present study, the number of the samples collected from cow raw milk were 120. All the isolates already had been identified phenotypically, and they were assessed for molecular confirmation by using the PCR method. B. cereus isolates were determined by detecting the hbl genes complex in the isolates. The result of this study showed that B. cereus were found in the raw milk samples 117 (97.5%) from the 120 samples. The frequency of the hblA, hblC, and hblD genes found in B. cereus isolates were 105 (89.7%), 102 (87.1%), and 102 (87.1%) , respectively. 99 isolates (84.6%) harboured 3 tested genes simultaneously. 12 B. cereus isolates (10.3%) lacked these genes. The results of current study showed that B. cereus isolated from raw milk have high potential in causing food poisoning and therefore the use of the procedures to reduce the bacterial contamination during the processing of dairy product is required.

Study of the relationship between the production of milk and some of its components with the growth of lambs in two breeds of Iraqi sheep

S.F. Al-Dabbagh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 87-95
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163172

A total of 1116 records Awassi ewes and 432 of Hamdania ewes were collected and which belong animals resource department, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry at the University of Mosul for the years 2008, 2009 and 2010 to study the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors in milk production and some of its components from birth until weaning. The results showed significant effects (p≤0.05) for the breed and highly significant effects (p≤ 0.001) for the year, mother's age, sex, and type of birth in the daily milk production. There was a highly significant effect of year in milk fat, protein, and lactose. same there was a significant effect for age at weaning on birth weight, and highly significant effects for the breed, year, age of dam, sex, type of birth, and age at weaning on birth, weaning and weight gain from birth to weaning. The highest value for repeatability was 0.398, 0.309 in Awassi ewes for weight gain and in Hamdani ewes for daily milk yield respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlation between protein and lactose in Awassi ewes 0.507 and 0.410, and in Hamdani ewes 0.641 and 0.157 respectively were highly significant.

Impacts of processing heat treatments on deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk and raw milk from different animals

S.A. Abd Al-Zahra; A.J. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153790

A total of 163 milk samples (200 ml) human breast milk and (500 ml each) of cows, ewes, goats, buffaloes and camels were collected randomly at weekly intervals (10 samples/week) from Baghdad governorate. Among the total milk samples (138) milk samples were examined during two climatic periods from the beginning of September 2016 to the end of the February 2017 were tested for the occurrence of DMT residues by using the HPLC technique. Besides that, some of the selected positive samples were subjected to one of the commercial heat treatments such as 63°C/30 min, 80°C/5 min and 100°C/5 min to evaluate the efficiency of heat exposure on the degradation of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in milk. The results pointed out that milk samples containing the higher fat percentage exhibited significantly (P<0.05) the highest concentration of deltamethrin and bifenthrin in summer highest than in winter, increased the fat percentages of milk was being associated with an increased level of deltamethrin residues due to the lipophilic nature of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin pesticide. The current results revealed that milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes and cows recorded the highest deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season where their mean levels that exceeded the accepted MRLs of 0.05 ppm to milk samples of goats, camels and breast milk the lowest mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues. There was a seasonal variation of the deltamethrin and bifenthrin concentrations in milk samples for each animal species where all the milk samples that were collected from buffaloes, ewes, cows, goats, camels and breast milk had higher mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in summer season than in winter season. Data illustrated revealed that there was a seasonal variation in the mean levels of deltamethrin and bifenthrin residues in human breast milk samples for each district village where all the milk samples that were collected from AL-Sader and AL-Karada districts had highest mean levels values in summer than in winter season.

Isolation, identification and detection of some virulence factors in yeasts from local cheese in Mosul city

I.I. Khalil; S.Y.A. Aldabbagh; A.M. Shareef

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 81-85
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153802

Fifty samples of local cheese were purchased from Mosul city markets during the period from April 2012 to November 2013 to identify and characterize yeast species in these samples. Fifty-eight yeast isolates were identified and confirmed biochemically. They were Candida albicans (13.8%), Candida krusei (9.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsiloosis (25.8%), Geotrichum candidum (20.6%), Rodotorella spp. (10.3%) and mixed yeasts (12.9%). Virulence factors (Hemolytic, Phospholipase, Aspartylprotinase and Estrase activities) of Candida isolates were determined. All isolates show one or more of these activities except Candida krusei. The presence of Candida isolates in this type of cheese refer to the importance of this genus to the health of consumers was discussed.

Microbiological quality of white local sheep cheese in Mosul city markets

M.H.A. AL-Hamdany; A.A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126712

The soft white cheese is considered one of the most popular locally manufactured cheese in Iraq, a kind of traditional cheese that is mainly produced from sheep milk. It usually becomes available in the markets of Mosul between the months of February and July. To investigate the microbiological quality, 25 samples of white, soft, un-salted fresh locally produced sheep cheese were collected from the market in Mosul. These cheese samples were examined by the quantity method to determine the total viable bacterial counts (TVC) and the total counts of coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria. The minimum, maximum and average results of the aforementioned bacterial counts were 1.0x106, 1.4x103, 1.4x102 CFU g-; 2.9x108, 6.0x107, 12.6x105 CFU g- and 18.0x107, 5.8x106, 3.1x105 CFU g-1, respectively. Corresponding to the ‘International Microbiological Reference Criteria’ for cheese, it could be clear from these results that the samples were highly contaminated. Hence, it can be concluded that the sanitary conditions were inadequate either during the milk production and cheese manufacturing process or throughout their distribution in the local market. Therefore, it is recommended to comply with the public health and sanitary measures during the process of local cheese production. In consequence, it is essential to follow the annual screening of local cheese in terms of bacterial counts to determine the degree of contamination and in order to develop a national standard microbiological criteria and quality control for local cheese.

Using ELISA technique for the detection of aflatoxin M1 in thick cream

S.D. AL-Sawaf; O.A. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166882

This study involved a disclosure of Aflatoxin M1 in 50 samples of thick cream (Gaymer), 30 were manufactured from raw buffalo milk and 20 were collected from local markets of different regions in Mosul city, by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The results revealed that 90% of the manufactured thick cream were positive to residual AFM1, with a mean value of 16.164 ng/Kg. Only 3.3% of the manufactured thick cream samples had a concentration values above the permissible limits. Within the same subject, local thick cream samples showed a higher AFM1 level than the manufactured samples with a mean of 29.158 ng/Kg and 15% of local thick cream samples had higher AFM1 than the permissible limits according to European Commission. (i.e 50 ng /Kg).

Effect of mastitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus on milk constituents of Awassi ewes

A.K. Al-Hubaety; I.K. Al-–Radhwany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 247-255
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168733

The aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in milk constituents of Awassi sheep due to experimentally infection with Staphylococcus aureus which was isolated from milk sample of clinically infected ewe with mastitis. A total of 240 samples of normal and infected milk from both left and right halves of udder of 6 Awassi sheep before and after induced infection were collected from tested healthy ewes. Milk samples were collected through 10 days before and after infection with Staph. aureus. Experimental inoculums with Staph. aureus was done with effective dose 150 Colony Forming Unit. Milk constituents were evaluated with Ultrasonic Milk Analyzer (Ekomilk) before and after induction of mastitis to all milk samples to determine Fat, Proteins, Solids Non-Fat, Density, Lactose and pH. The results also showed that there was a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the percentages of Fat, Proteins, Solids Non-Fat and Lactose, but there is a significant increase (P<0.05) in pH. The right half of the udder after experimental infection of bacteria also showed the same significant results such as those in the left mastitic half due to transmission of the infection between the two halves, after inoculation of the left half.