Main Subjects : Animal Pharmacology


Effects of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac in chicks

Rafal Luqman Abdulah; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133592.2260

The aim was designed to determine the impact of oxidative stress (OS), induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on the ketorolac plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics in the chicks. A significant decrease was observed in the total antioxidant status (TAS) measured on day 7th, 10th, and 14th of chicks age by 39, 29, and 41%, respectively in comparison to the control (H2O) group. By measuring the analgesic median effective dose (ED50), Ketorolac’s analgesia has been amplified 16% in the stressed (H2O2) group. Ketorolac concentration in plasma was investigated at multiple measured times of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours after the administration (14 mg/kg, IM) to 110.38, 181.46, 66.24, 13.08, 10.11, and 4.12 µg/ml at the H2O group and significantly elevated in all times measured except 0.25 and 24 h after ketorolac administration by 24, 38, 54, 199, 93, and 59 % to be 136.45, 250.88, 102.03, 39.13, 19.55, and 6.55 µg/ml in the H2O2 group, respectively. The values of AUC0-∞, AUMC0-∞, Cmax, and Kel in the stressed chickens that were administered ketorolac were elevated by 59, 19, 38, and 43%, respectively, whereas other parameters like MRT, t1/2β, Vss, and Cl were reduced by 25, 30, 56, and 37% respectively compared to H2O group. The results showed the H2O2-induced OS amplified the analgesic action of ketorolac in a chick model; besides its modification of the plasma concentration and pharmacokinetics of ketorolac.

The protective impacts of lipoic acid on diclofenac-induced hepatorenal toxicity in broiler chicks

Marwa R. Abdul-Ghani; Ahmed S. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1023-1027
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132915.2148

Alpha-lipoic acid is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound that shows free radical scavenging actions and potent antioxidant properties on the metabolites of other cellular oxidants. The investigation of the defensive activity of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) counter to diclofenac triggered liver and kidney damage in broiler chicks was the goal of this research. Chicks (7 days old) were distributed into four groups of six chicks each. The first group was the control received propylene glycol, the second group was injected intraperitoneally with Alpha-lipoic acid 80 mg/kg, the third group was injected intraperitoneally with diclofenac sodium at a dose of 2 mg/kg, and the fourth group was treated with ALA at 80 mg/kg and diclofenac at 2 mg/kg together. The trial continued for seven days. One day after the latest treatment, all the chicks were sacrificed by cutting jugular veins; blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis. Diclofenac causes a significant increase in ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea, while the coadministration of ALA with Diclofenac caused a significant decrease in ALT, AST, Creatinine, and Uric acid. Alpha-lipoic acid may benefit from counteracting diclofenac-induced hepatorenal toxicity due to antioxidant effects.

Expression of Ki67 in submandibular salivary glands of rabbits after BTX injection: Histological and immunohistochemical study

Abdullah A. Ahmed; Jawnaa K. Mammdoh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 611-620
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131101.1919

This study aimed to examine the possible histological effects of local injections of BTX in rabbits submandibular SGs and to find the dose-dependent and time relationship between injections and study immunohistochemistry expression of Ki67. Thirty male rabbits randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits for Each) 1st group: control (without treatment), 2nd group treated with 5U of BTX and 3rd group treated with 10U of BTX, five animals of each group were sacrificed in 1st week of treatment and another five animals sacrificed in 4th week of treatment. The rabbit was anesthetized then injected with the BTX in the gland. The histopathological changes in Group 5, 10 Unit BTX (1st week) were vacuolar degeneration of mucous acini cells, degeneration of serous acini cells, while the lesions showed hyperplasia and necrosis of epithelial cells lining striated ducts, necrosis of serous acini epithelium. The Diameter of mucous acini were found to be significantly increased in 10 Unit BTX groups. During the 1st and 4th weeks, the surface area of the striated ducts in the 5- and 10-unit BTX groups increased significantly, and the number of striated ducts in the 10 Unit BTX group decreased significantly when compared to the 1st week period of the same group. BTX groups revealed moderate to weak positive cytoplasmic reactivity for Ki67 protein in the parenchymal tissue of the glands. We conclude that BTX causes histological changes in the salivary gland as well as affecting Ki67. This data could be used in a future study to investigate the usage of BTX in cancer treatment.

In vitro study of curcumin calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (Curcumin-NPs) impacts on the meriz goat’s coccidian oocysts

Mohamed R. Ali; Saad M. Bayati; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Ammar A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 809-814
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132196.2067

Nanoparticles biosynthesis has an essential and increased role in delivering medical compounds. Calcium carbonate phosphate nanoparticles (CaCO3-NPs) were prepared as a stabilized amorphous and incorporated with herbal curcumin extract as an anticoccidial agent in vitro. CaCO3 - NPs were tested against local meriz goat coccidian oocysts. Concentrations were used 2, 4, 8, 16, 30 and 50 mg/ml shows oocysticidal effects and sporocystidal effects at concentration of 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 µg. Sporulation inhibition assay was used for 24 and 48 hours. Results of significant oocysticidal effect were seen to inhibit in the concentration of 30 - 50 mg/ml and able to inhibit the sporulation of meriz coccidian parasite oocysts at a rate of 92.54±3.51%. The sporocysticidal effect was also significant with a curcumin nanoparticles concentration of 400-1000 µg/ml with a rate of 98.1±2.11%. The stability of prepared curcumin nanoparticles was examined against various pH levels 4.01, 7, and 9.21 at multiple temperatures 4, 25, 60, and 100°C. Investigation after 1, 6, 12, and 24 hours of treatment occurs according to various treatments. Stability was assessed by spectrophotometric indicated significant reductions for pH 4 and 9 after one hour of treatment and at the temperature of 60°C and 100°C after 12-24 hours of treatment. These results reflect promising hopes of exploiting CaCO3 curcumin nanoparticles to eradicate coccidiosis as they are composed of and prepared from natural substances.

Assessment of the analgesic effect of Alpha-lipoic acid by three acute pain models

Marwa R. Rehab; Ahmed S. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 803-807
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132184.2062

Alpha-lipoic acids are Known as a good analgesic in neuropathic pain, especially in diabetic patients. This research aimed to assess the analgesic activity of ALA by three acute pain models using broiler chicks. We used electrical stimulation, hot water test, and formalin test to elicit acute pain. The up and down method was used to calculate the median effect of the analgesic dose. The ED50 of ALA was 45.18 and 74.56 mg/kg intraperitoneally by electrical stimulation and hot water test, respectively. We demonstrated that the peak of analgesic effect was after one hour by using different doses and different times. ALA at 0, 75, 150, 300 mg/kg intraperitoneally produces a dose-dependent analgesic effect by formalin test. In conclusion: ALA induced analgesic activity, probably by closing voltage-gated calcium and or voltage-gated sodium channels. These outcomes show that therapeutic doses of ALA can affect pain and may mask or reduce nociception induced by acute pain models.

Antidiabetic of Hylocereus polyrhizus peel ethanolic extract on alloxan induced diabetic mice

Tridiganita Solikhah; Cinta Atsa Mahesa Rani; Mela Septiani; Yan Arengga Syah Putra; Qonita Rachmah; Gahastanira Permata Solikhah; Bodhi Agustono; Maya Nurwartanti Yunita; Muhammad Thohawi Elziyad Purnama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 797-802
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132178.2061

Diabetes is a disease characterized by high blood glucose due to the abnormal response of the cells in the body on produced insulin or insulin resistance. Indeed, the treatment for diabetes mellitus lasts for a lifetime and causes various side effects, such as headache, hypoglycemia, vomiting, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Interestingly, Dragon fruit has potent antidiabetic activity and without side effects. Thirty Wistar mice were included in the study. Alloxan with a dose of 150 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally to all groups except the standard control group. Mice with blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and employed throughout the study. Mice were divided into five groups: standard control group without alloxan, diabetic control group with alloxan, treatment group of 100 mg/kg and 300mg/kg H. polyrhizus peel extract, and positive control group with 600 µg/kg glibenclamide. All treatments were given orally. Blood glucose level was checked on day 1, 7, and 14 on all groups using Accu-check instant glucometer. This study revealed that administration of alloxan to the diabetic control group significantly increased blood glucose level compared to the normal control group on day-1, 7, and 14 (P < 0.05). In addition, administration of H. polyrhizus peel extract and glibenclamide effectively decreases blood glucose levels, especially on day-7 and 14 compared to the control group (P<0.05).

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the broiler chicks model

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 327-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130163.1746

No former studies are dealing with the pharmacological (pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics) interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the chicks' model. The median effective doses (ED50s) for nefopam and tramadol produces analgesia has been estimated each alone as 9.24 and 0.83 mg/kg, IP, respectively. The interaction concerning nefopam and tramadol combination was estimated by isobolographic analysis to be 2.91 and 0.25 mg/kg, IP. The kind of interaction between nefopam and tramadol was synergistic as indicated by the interaction index 0.61. The analgesic efficacy of the combination was significantly different from nefopam and tramadol administered alone. Nefopam plasma concentration 18.48 mg/kg, IP for different measured times 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours 33.25, 27.10, 15.05, 13.61, and 2.45 µg/ml while the concentration was increased once coadministered with tramadol 1.66 mg/kg, IP by 22, 26, 43, 45, and 81% been 40.72, 34.27, 21.53, 19.76, and 4.43 µg/ml, respectively. Nefopam pharmacokinetic profile comprised of area-under-curve (AUC), area-under-moment-curve (AUMC), mean-residence-time (MRT), half-life (t1/2β), maximal concentration (Cmax) amplified after tramadol is coadministered with nefopam by 52, 260, 23, 15, and 22%. The elimination constant (Kel), distribution volume (VD), clearance (Cl) were diminished 13, 25, and 29%, similarly. The sum results suggested a synergistic interaction between nefopam and tramadol along with a modification in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which improve the therapeutic efficacy of nefopam in the chickens besides, advocate using these two drugs as preanesthetics in veterinary medicine.

Hepato-renal and hematological effects of flunixin and silymarin coadministration in rats

Imtithal A. Mohammed; Khalid A. Shaban; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 367-373
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130323.1800

The study aimed to explore the ameliorative effects of silymarin when administered with flunixin on the liver, kidney, and blood components in rats. The animals were divided into four groups; each one consists of five rats. The first group was served as a control. The second and third groups were treated with silymarin 200 mg/kg b.wt, p.o and flunixin 2.5 mg/kg b.wt, i.p respectively. The fourth group was treated with silymarin and flunixin concurrently. The involved rats were treated for seven consecutive days by a single daily dose. Following the treatment, the biochemical analysis ALT, AST, ALP, Urea, and Creatinine, blood analysis parameters RBC, HGB, HCT, WBC, and PLT, and a histopathological examination liver and kidney were studied for the involved animals. The results showed that flunixin increased the levels of ALT and AST and the concentrations of Urea and Creatinine, and the total number of WBC. Also silymarin caused a remarkable decrease in the flunixin adverse effects on the liver and kidneys. This was reflected from the histological features observed from the diverse tested groups. Based on these findings, the authors concluded that silymarin has the ability to reduce the harmful effects of flunixin on both the liver and the kidneys.

Nefopam and ketorolac: Isobolographic analysis of analgesic effect and pharmacokinetic profile in chicks

Omar Y. Jassim; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 145-150
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129540.1660

There are no prior studies on the pharmacological interaction between nefopam and ketorolac and on their pharmacokinetics in the chickens. The median analgesic effective doses (ED50s) of nefopam and ketorolac were estimated individually as 8.39 mg/kg, i.m. for each drug. Thereafter, their values were determined together in combination as 2.63 and 2.63 mg/kg, i.m. after administration at the ratio of 1:1 of their ED50s. The pharmacodynamic interaction between nefopam and ketorolac was designated as synergistic through the interaction index 0.62. Plasma concentrations of nefopam alone 16 mg/kg, i.m. in different measured times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours were 34.07, 31.34, 22.53, 19.03, 14.81, and 10.37 µg/ml, whereas the plasma concentrations increased to become 44.67, 43.52, 45.71, 32.83, 20.96, and 22.54 µg/ml when administered with ketorolac 16 mg/kg, i.m. by 31, 39, 103, 73, 42, and 117 %, respectively. The changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of nefopam included increases in area under curve (AUC0-∞) 130%, area under moment curve (AUMC0-∞) 210%, mean residence time (MRT) 35%, half-life (t1/2β) 27%, time maximum (Tmax) 300% and concentration maximum (Cmax) 34%, whereas other values were reduced which included elimination rate constant (Kel) 21%, volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) 45% and clearance (Cl) 3%. The net results indicated a synergistic interaction between nefopam and ketorolac in addition to an alteration in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which may enhance nefopam therapeutic efficacy in chicks.

Effect of diclofenac on the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in quail

Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 777-781
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128440.1576

This study investigated the Pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin alone or with diclofenac sodium in adult Japanese quails. The quails divided into two groups, the first group was dosed intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin, the second group was injected by 50 mg/kg of ciprofloxacin intraperitoneally then directly injected intraperitoneally by diclofenac sodium at a dosage of 5 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin were determined by the spectrophotometer at wavelength 290 nm. Co-admiration of ciprofloxacin with diclofenac lead to appearing ciprofloxacin in plasma at 12.02, 6.4, 5.3, 3.30, 1.36, 0.60 μg/ml in the periods of 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4 and 8 hours post-injection. A significantly increased in the concentration of ciprofloxacin at times of 0.25, 0.50, 1, and 2 hours post-injection and appeared at a concentration of 6.96, 3.09, 2.2, and 0.72 μg/ml. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin when given with diclofenac sodium was represented by 91% decrease in elimination constant rate, 53% decrease in elimination half-life t1/2, 64% decrease in volume of distribution to steady-state, 22% decrease in clearance, 28% increase area under curve, 41% decrease in area under moment curve, 53% decrease in mean residence time and 37% increase in maximum plasma concentration. Our study concludes that co-administration of ciprofloxacin with diclofenac sodium lead to alteration in some pharmacokinetic data of ciprofloxacin like effect on the plasma concentration and volume of distribution and clearance. This effect must be considered when therapy by ciprofloxacin with diclofenac, the co-administration of diclofenac with ciprofloxacin decrease the elimination of ciprofloxacin 

Age-related anesthetic effect of ketamine in the chickens

Yaareb J. Mousa; Muna H. Alzubaidy; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 501-506
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127100.1458

Little works of literature studied the anesthetic effect of ketamine in different ages of broiler chickens, hence this study intended to examine these alterations in chickens at different ages. The doses of ketamine that causes hypnosis in 50% of the chickens (hypnotic ED50) were 7.90, 7.90 and 6.80 mg/kg, intramuscular (IM) at 10, 20 and 40-day-old chickens, respectively, whereas the doses that resulted in analgesia in 50% of the chickens (analgesic ED50) were 12.92, 12.92 and 6.50 mg/kg, IM. The onset, duration and recovery from ketamine hypnosis were in an age-dependent manner and significantly longer at 40-day-old, although the depth and sensitivity of chickens to ketamine hypnosis rises as the age advancing forward. Ketamine analgesia is more effective at 40-day-old. There are neurobehavioral deficits, according to the age of chickens when injecting ketamine in a subtle dose of 1 mg/kg, IM. The concentrations related to alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), tested in the serum, reveal that the 40-day-old chicken group differs significantly from 10 and 20-day-old chicken’s groups which all treated with single ketamine dose (25 mg/kg, IM). In conclusion, the present work discovered that ketamine’s efficacy, including hypnosis, analgesia and neurobehavioral activity will be increased as the age is progressing, suggesting that the veterinarians need to take it into account when preparing the dose regimen of ketamine anesthesia for different ages of animals.

Effect of plasma isolated Orexin-A on the regulation of metabolites in male rats

Rana F. Jasim; Thikra A. Allwsh

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 451-457
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127001.1429

This research includes the isolation and purification of Orexin-A from the plasma of healthy human via various biochemical techniques, it was proposed the therapeutic role of orexin on hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation and it has been suggested to study the effect of isolated orexin A on the metabolism of lipids and glucose in normal and hyperlipidemic rats, a high level of orexin-A had been found only in second peak (B) isolated by gel filtration chromatography (using Sephadex G-50) and showed (34.5) fold of purification, also, the effect of isolated orexin-A on some clinical parameters had been studied in normal and hyperlipidemic male rats. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with orexin-A at a dose of 1μmol/kg of body weight/day for one month. The results, obtained before treatment and after two and four weeks of treatment, had been showing a significant decrease in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, malondialdehyde and hyperinsulinemia, while there was a significant increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in normal and hyperlipidemic rats. It was concluded that orexin-A had an important role in regulating the metabolism of glucose and lipids, treatment of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, and decreasing lipid peroxidation in normal and hyperlipidemic rats.

Comparative antinociceptive effect of aspirin and aspirin nano particles in semisolid formulae in mice

Labeeb H. Al- Alsadoon; Maha T. AL-Saffar; Ghada A. Taqa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 535-539
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127138.1467

Aspirin are commonly used analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic drug in medicine, oral route is the most common one for drug administration as a result it will produce different adverse effects like peptic ulcer, nephropathy, and thrombocytopenia even with low and continuous therapeutic dose, so the alternative topical route is preferable with minimal adverse effects and effective concentration.Therefore, in the present study was to investigate whether the antinociceptive property of aspirin would enhance if used aspirin as nanoparticles after preparing it in several forms (gel, cream and ointment). Thirty-two healthy male mice weighing 30-35 gm. were used in the present study. The animals were divided as a randomized design. Each mouse was treated topically. All drug concentration of aspirin was prepared using gel, cream and ointment as vehicle and topically application on fore and hind paw of experimental animals. Pain was induced by application of hot plate for assessment of latency of pain stimulus. Time from placement to jumping or hind paw licking was recorded as latency of response. The result showed that the median effective concentration (EC50) for analgesic effect of aspirin (gel, cream, and ointment) were 0.848, 0.958 and 1.00% respectively while these EC50s were decrease when used nanoparticles aspirin (gel, cream and ointment) to 0.72, 0.657, and 0.701% respectively. In conclusion, topical applied of aspirin will produce effective therapeutic antinociceptive effects in mice although gel preparation produce a better response followed by cream, then ointment due to pharmacokinetic properties. Also nanoparticle preparation will produce superior response in all forms, whether Nano aspirin is prepared in gel form, cream or ointment.

Effect of levofloxacin on some body tissues in mice

Rand A. Abdullah; Faten D. Taee; Imad A. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 109-111
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126416.1316

Levofloxacin is a third generation of fluoroquinolones family. It is commonly used in the treatment of a several bacterial infections. However, misusing antibiotics impose damage to hepatocytes and myocytes. The present study was conducted to access the effect of levofloxacin on tissue histology in mice taking in consideration dose and duration of exposure. 24 matured male Albino mice were divided into 3 groups, Group G1: was considered as a control group. They received normal saline intraperitoneally / day. Group G2: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 10 days. Group G3: They received 10.7 mg/kg/day of levofloxacin intraperitoneally for 3 weeks. Microscopic examination of liver sections of group G2 revealed severe congestion of blood vessels in the portal area and central veins with inflammatory cells infiltration. While in group G3, Apoptosis, Degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes with giant cell transformation were noticed. In addition to kupffer’s cell activation. Heart sections showed moderate congestion of blood vessels with edema in between the myocytes and inflammatory cells infiltration. Group G3 Necrosis with pyknosis of cardiac muscle nuclei was noticed. We concluded that levofloxacin induces toxic effects on liver and heart according to the dose of administration and duration of treatment.

Are promising mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine abolish COVID-19 activity? A review study

Yaareb J Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood; Fanar A. Isihaq; Ammar A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 345-349
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127049.1449

To explore the benefits of Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), (which is an antimalarial agent that has shown effective pharmacological properties in different malarial conditions and immunological disorders, particularity in chloroquine-sensitive malaria), in the treatment and prevention of Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because HCQ was recently advocated to minimize the pathogenicity of COVID-19. The aim of this review is to shed the light on a possible mechanism by which HCQ can defeat the COVID-19, a disease characterized by the WHO as a pandemic. Literatures from Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were cast-off to search the literature data. The keywords used are antimalarial agent, COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine, SARS-CoV-2 and Zinc sulfate.The review summarizes the benefits of using HCQ against COVID-19 through exploiting the ability of this antimalarial agent in ameliorating the body immunity, inhibiting and/or delaying the viral glycosylation by increasing the pH inside the host cell and also via suppressing the viral transcription and replication through the formation of a complex structure after binding with zinc. We concluded thatthese interfering properties of HCQ support human immunity to fight against the progression of COVID-19. We hypothesize that the therapeutic efficiency of HCQ against the COVID-19 can be enhanced by the concurrent administration of zinc sulfate.

Comparative pharmacokinetic study of theaflavin in healthy and experimentally induced liver damage rabbits

Sarhan Rashid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 235-242
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162962

This current work aimed to study the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin in healthy and hepatotoxic rabbits for comparison. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly raised (P<0.05) after administration of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (BW) Carbone tetrachloride (CCL4) subcutaneously. Pharmacokinetic parameters calculated following administration of theaflavin intravenously and orally at 30 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively to both healthy animals and those with damaged liver. Theaflavin concentration in blood measured by HLPC at various time intervals. Pharmacokinetic results showed that theaflavin concentration when given orally reached its maximum concentration after 5 hours in healthy rabbits. While in hepatotoxic group, theaflavin concentration achieved the highest level in blood after three hours. Theaflavin bioavailability in hepatotoxic animals was significantly high and almost double its bioavailability in healthy animals. Results revealed that the area under curve (AUC) value in rabbits with damaged liver was significantly greater than in healthy group (P<0.05). t ½ of theaflavin after intravenous administration was 6.3±0.82 hour in damaged liver group which is significantly higher than that in healthy group (P<0.05). Theaflavin mean concentration in hepatotoxic group required more than 3 hours to decline to 352±19.4 ng/ml when compared to its concentration in healthy group which is required only 45 minutes to decrease to 310± 9.5 ng/ml. In conclusion liver has critical impact on the pharmacokinetics of theaflavin especially bioavailability and biotransformation and this research recorded reasonably large differences between healthy and liver damaged groups regarding theaflavin pharmacokinetic parameters which may result in negative influences on its biological efficacy when used in the treatment of various diseases.

Protective effect of Silymarin against kidney injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in male rats

Measer Abdullah Ahmed; Hussien Mohammad Tayawi; Mohammed Khalil Ibrahim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 127-130
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125529.1051

The herbal drugs have a protective effect for kidney function against chemical toxicity. 24 male rats divided into 4 groups and treated as following, control group administrated orally with 1ml/kg. B.W physiological solution (0.9%), One dose Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) 3 ml/kg. B.W, Silymarin 150 mg/kg. B.W and Silymarin150 mg/kg. B.W with CCl4 3 ml/kg. B.W for 30 days. Oxidative stress resulted by CCl4 caused increasing in Creatinine, Urea, total protein, Albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreasing in Glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in serum and congestion, degeneration and desquamation in kidney tissue. We concluded that Silymarin showed protective effect via increasing GSH, decreasing creatinine, Urea, total protein and MDA levels in serum and protect kidney tissue in rats.

Effect of bee venom on rat glucocorticoid receptor beta: a therapeutically model of rheumatoid arthritis

A. Al-Hassnawi; R. Mahdi; H. AL-Rubaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 127-133
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153838

This study aim to use bee venom as alternative medicine for treatment of rats induced with rheumatoid arthritis. Forty rats used for this purpose which divided into four groups, three groups induced with rheumatoid arthritis and one group considered as control group that subdivided into control negative and control positive (rheumatoid group). All the groups induced with rheumatoid arthritis injected with bee venom with different doses (high 40 μg/kg and low dose 10 μg/kg) and different times (after 5 days and after two weeks from CFA injection and along with CFA injection). Glucocorticoid receptor beta used as a biomarker which suggested function as negative regulator determine glucocorticoid sensitivity in target tissues and as an endogenous inhibitor for glucocorticoid action. The high and low dose showed significantly decrease in GCRβ as compared with control group and non-significant between rheumatoid and both along CFA and after 5 days of CFA injection. The pretreatment high and low dose revealed significant decrease in GCRβ compared with Rheumatoid group and non- significant as compared with control group in low dose bee venom treatment. Also, depending on hand paw edema assessment, a weak evidence about anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom has shown. From our data we concluded that bee venom prevents GCRβ elevation especially in pre-treatment group this may result assess to anti-inflammatory effect but the safety of this toxin still needed for another study. Clinically no evidence about the treated effect of bee venom on rheumatoid arthritis in rat.

Survey study: The antibacterial drugs used for treatment of the animals in the teaching veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province

Y.J. Mousa; E.R. Mohammad; S.S. Ramadhan; M.M. Hadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.126718

The aim of this survey is to collect data relating to antibacterial drugs used to treat different animals in the veterinary teaching hospital in the province of Kirkuk, which is taking place for the first time at the province level for the purpose of knowing the types of drugs most commonly used and the outcome whether these drugs used are optimal. Data were collected from the veterinary teaching hospital in Kirkuk province for 6 consecutive months and for the period between 1/7/2016 and until 1/1/2017 period included both the summer and autumn and winter seasons. The results show that the most commonly used drugs were Oxytetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline-Colistin compound by 26, 57 and 36% in cattle, sheep-goats and Poultry, respectively. While the least commonly used drugs were Tylosin, Gentamicin and Gentamicin-Tylosin compound by 10, 5 and 4% in cattle, sheep-goats and poultry, respectively. Based on the results obtained from this survey, we recommend the use of Penicillin-Streptomycin compound because it has a synergistic effect against most of the resistant bacteria and not to increase usage of Oxytetracycline because of its side effects and lack of effectiveness in recent times due to the abundance of resistant germs. Also, using antibacterial drugs, we would like to note the need for optimal scientific use of these drugs and to give attention to the period in which it takes the medicine to withdraw from the animal body before milking animals or slaughtering it, so that the bacterial resistance does not develop against these drugs in the future.

Sequential changes of serum and liver subcellular oxidants and antioxidant concentrations in silymarin treated male rats

J.A.A. Al-Sa'aidi; H.J. Shoabith

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.116862

The present study aimed to investigate the role of silymarin as an antioxidant and/or it activity in induction of the endogenous antioxidants in intact adult male rats. Seventy males were randomly devided into control and  silymarin treated groups (35 each), and were drenched with drinking water and silymarin suspension (200 mg/ kg b.w) daily for 40 days. Each group was allocated to 5 equal subgroups; sacrificed before treatment (0 day), and after 10, 20, 30, and 40 days of treatment. At the end of each period, males were anaesthesized, dissected and blood samples were obtained for assessment of MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. liver samples (1 g) have been removed and homogenized for assessment of liver subcellular MDA, SOD, CAT and GSH concentrations. At the end of each periods, serum and liver subcellular MAD concentrations showed no significant changes between groups, whereas SOD, CAT, and GSH concentrations significantly increased at 10, 20, 30, and 40 day periods in silymarin treated males compared with control. It can be concluded that silymarin antioxidant activity is of pharmacological value not only as an antioxidant by itself but also as an inducer of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants even in normal intact male.