Main Subjects : Laboratory Animal Histology

The histologic effects of high doses of botulinum toxin a on the rabbit's salivary gland

Luma I. Khalel; Jawnaa Khalid Mammdoh; Abdullah A. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1111-1117
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133149.2184

The exact mechanism of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) on submandibular salivary gland (SMG) regarding its function and histology remains unclear. The goal of this work is to clarify the histological effects of BTX-A (at high doses) in SMG in rabbits after one week. Thirty adult male rabbits were used in this study and they arranged as group 1 includes rabbits which received any treatment and kept for one week duration. Group 2 includes rabbits which received 8 units of BTX-A. Group 3 includes rabbits which received 16 units of BTX-A. Animals were euthanized with ether after one week. Specimens of SMG from all rabbits were taken to perform a routine histological preparation and examination. Sections of rabbits of group 2 and group 3 showed evidence of edema that is surrounding striated ducts, congested blood vessels, and even necrosis of both serous and mucous acini. Some sections exhibited features of degeneration of mucous acini. Hemorrhage was noticed in some sections. Injection of either 8 or 16 units of BTX-A induces several alterations in the submandibular glands’ histology.

The histological effect of the injection of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on sciatic nerve of rats

Mustafa M. Altaee; Ahmed H. Qassim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 699-707
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131529.1961

The ongoing work aims to compare the effect of extraneural and intraneural injection of therapeutic doses of meloxicam and diclofenac sodium on the sciatic nerve of rats. Six groups of adult albino rats were used with five animals per group. Control group (A), group (B), and group (C) received a single extraneural injection of normal saline (NS) 0.25 ml/kg/rat, meloxicam (M) 0.11 mg/kg/0.25ml/rat and diclofenac sodium (V) 1.1 mg/kg/0.25ml/rat respectively. In contrast, control group (D), group (E), and group (F) received a single intraneural injection of the same doses of normal saline, meloxicam, and diclofenac sodium, respectively. Histological evaluation reveals an increased thickening of epineurium, dilatation, congestion of epineurial blood vessels, intrafascicular edema, axonal degeneration, myelin degeneration, and vacuolization in group (C) which was higher than those in the group (B). These changes were also greater in group (F) compared to groups (D) and (E). The histopathological changes of the sciatic nerve were greatest in the case of intraneural injection of saline, meloxicam, and diclofenac sodium, which means that the damaging effect of intraneural injection of the drug was greater than the extraneural injection of the same drug. It is concluded that extraneural and intraneural injections of therapeutic doses of meloxicam cause less damage to the sciatic nerve compared to diclofenac sodium. Thus it is considered to be more secure than diclofenac sodium after intramuscular injection. Sciatic nerve injury can occur following intramuscular injection into the gluteal region, particularly if the needle hits the nerve.

Histological effects of the interaction of some food additives on the kidney of pregnant rats

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha; Raghad A. A. Najjar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 633-640
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131181.1926

Many studies are still the subject of food additives to know their positive and negative effects, primarily as they are widely used globally. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the histological effects of sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate on the histological structure of the kidney in pregnant rats. Twenty-four pregnant rats were used to achieve the aim of the study. The rats were classified into four groups, the first being the control group, the second treated with monosodium glutamate at 10 g/kg, the third injected with sodium nitrite at 115 mg/kg, and the fourth for interaction between the two substances and for the same concentrations. The results showed the occurrence of many lesions in the kidneys of experimental groups rats. The second group included interstitial tissue hyperplasia and necrosis of the glomeruli, infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, hydropic degeneration of some tubules, and necrosis of some of them. The third group included congestion, hemorrhage in the pulp area, degeneration of some urinary tubules, necrosis, and deformation of the glomerulus. However, degeneration of some tubules and necrosis were seen in the fourth group, such as glomerulus hyperplasia, reduction of Bowman's space, an increase in acidity of the cytoplasm of epithelial cells tubules, hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, and the desquamation of some tubules. The study concluded that these substances have harmful effects on the kidneys in pregnant rats, especially when they are overlapped, so they must be avoided during pregnancy to maintain kidney health.

Histopathological changes on the pregnant rat's lung induced by sodium nitrite and monosodium glutamate

Sanabel A. AlThanoon; Ameer M. Taha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 419-424
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130464.1824

Food additives and preservatives are widely used globally, which, despite their many benefits, have great harm if they are used without health restrictions or control, as they cause many health problems and tissue lesions. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the histopathological effects on the lung of pregnant rats of two types of these substances: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) and Sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Twenty-four pregnant rats used for this study, and they were divided into four groups equally. The control group was dosed with distilled water from the sixth day to the fifteenth day of pregnancy. The second was dosed with MSG at a 12g /kg concentration for the same period in the first group. The third injected with a concentration of 120 mg/kg of NaNO2 for the same period. The fourth was dosed with MSG and NaNO2 together, with the same concentrations and the above period. The results showed that the second group''s lungs showed many histopathological changes, including strong infiltration of inflammatory cells, congestion of blood vessels, necrosis of bronchioles and alveolar septa, and emphysema of some alveoli. In the third group, changes included hyperplasia of the fibroblasts, hemorrhage in the alveoli, desquamation and necrosis in bronchioles, peri-bronchial fibrosis, blood vessel congestion. The fourth group showed infiltration of inflammatory cells, necrosis in multiple lung areas, emphysema, fibrosis in some alveoli, and hypoplasia of the muscle fibers around the blood vessels. The study concluded that MSG and NaNO2 caused much tissue damage in the lungs of pregnant rats.

Histopathological changes in kidney and pancreas induced by energy drinks in adult male rats

Ahmed H. Qassim; Maha A. Alsammak; Ashraf A. Ayoob

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 111-116
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129435.1647

The study aims to assess the impact of various doses of red bull on kidney and pancreas of male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were assigned to three groups (10 animals/ group). Control group (1) received standard diet and water, group 2 and group 3 received daily oral doses of 10 ml/kg/rat and 20 ml/kg/rat of the energy drink (red bull) respectively for 30 days. Under light microscope no tissue changes were seen in kidney and pancreas of control group. In group 2 red bull causes vacuolar degeneration as well as coagulative necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, vascular congestion in the glomeruli and in the interstitial space of the kidney, in addition to atrophy of the glomeruli, as regard to pancreas it causes vascular congestion of the islets of Langerhans, increase in the size of the islets, besides, necrosis of Langerhans cells. In group 3 red bull leads to more atrophic glomeruli, massive coagulative necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, marked vascular dilatation and congestion in the interstitial space and degenerative changes of the renal tubular epithelium, whereas the pancreatic tissue revealed reduction in the size of the islets of Langerhans, vacuolation and degeneration of their cells, necrosis of other islets with mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and degenerative changes of pancreatic acini. It is concluded that administration of red bull to rats for 30 days will affect the histological structure of kidney as well as pancreas and this effect is a dose dependent.

Histological changes of CA and DG regions of hippocampus of rats’ brain after exposure to Acetaminophen in postnatal period

Saif M. Albo Hussin; Luma I. Khalel

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 151-158
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129569.1664

Authors reported that exposure to acetaminophen postnatally may be linked to increasing the risk of ASD. However, the reports on its effects on the brain are scanty, and the knowledge concerning their safety is little as there is a traditional left out of the clinical trials by users. The present work tried to elucidate the histological effects of acetaminophen on the hippocampus of neonate male rats after early postnatal exposure. The pups were categorized into2 groups, the control group, and the acetaminophen treated group. The acetaminophen treated animals were injected subcutaneously with acetaminophen of 60 mg/Kg/day from postnatal day (PND) 7 to PND 14, while the control group treated with normal saline with a similar approach. The histopathologic assessment revealed a diminishing in the pyramidal cells layer thickness of Cornue Ammonis. Some areas are devoid of cells with the appearance of Ghost like cells indicating features of neural cell death, degenerated neurons in the pyramidal layer are noticed. Features of nuclear clumping of pyramidal cell layer were shown. Moreover, several changes including vacuolations in the granular layer of DG with disorganization in DG. Neuronal processes presented with clumping. Apoptosis in the granular cells layer and hilus of a section of DG with the appearance of many astrocytes and microglial cells. Exposures to clinically relevant doses of acetaminophen in the postnatal period were shown to affect the histology of rat hippocampal regions, and a balanced risk assessment based on the best professional judgment must be prioritized.

Effect of mobile frequencies exposure on histology of retina and cornea in pregnant albino mice

Rawah N. Alshammary; Zeena D. Mohammed Zaki; Ammar G. Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 245-249
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129839.1701

In the current study, the potential effects of the Nokia mobile device were studied with frequency 900-1800 Mhz on the eyes of pregnant and non-pregnant female Swiss mice. The mice were divided into three groups: The first group is a control group consisting of five mice, the second group consists of 10 mice and the third group consists of 10 pregnant mice. Female mice of the second and third groups were exposed for a 3 hour / day and for a 30 days to a mobile device. After the end of 30 days, mice were euthanized and tissue samples were taken from the eyes of pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Microscopic examination showed, that there are significant effects on the cornea and retina of the eye, especially in pregnant females, which supports the current studies conducted on the effect of mobile phones on the eyes represented by vascularization where some sections showed newly formed blood vessels in stroma layer just beneath bowman's membrane and retina degeneration. This study concluded that the exposure to the mobile radiation led to serious histological changes in the tissues of eye which may lead to blindness.

Comparative study on the effect of cadmium and hydrocortisone treatment on the brain of rats experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

Karam H. Al-Mallah; Sura S. Aghwan; Qaes T. Alsarhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 771-775
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128436.1575

This study was dedicated to detecting the effects of cadmium chloride and of cortisone on experimental infection with Toxoplasma gondii in rats through studying brain tissue. Twenty-four adult albino male rats were used, divided into four groups, comprising: untreated control as group 1, group 2: infected with intraperitoneal injection of Toxoplasma gondii 80 tissue cysts per animal, group 3: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intraperitoneal injection of cadmium chloride 1.5mg/kg once a week, group 4: infected with Toxoplasma gondii and treated with intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone in a dose 0.5 mg/kg once a week. After 30 days of treatment for all groups, the animals were sacrificed, and the gross and histopathological examinations were performed on the brains of the rats. The results revealed the presence of changes in the infected groups including appearance of toxoplasma tissue cysts in the grey matter, with mild to moderate perineuronal and periaxonal edema. There were further changes observed in infected groups which treated with cadmium chloride including perineuronal satelletosis, perineuronal edema and demyelination in neuronal axons, otherwise the infected groups treated with cortisone did not show any noticeable difference from the group of infection only. It is concluded that cadmium increase the intensity of occurrence of lesions induced by Toxoplasma gondii in the brain tissue of the rats, considering that all noticeable lesions ranged from mild to moderate in severity, and the differences between groups may be related to the nature of the pathogen used. 

Histopathological assessment of nano n-acetyl cysteine effect on postoperative adhesion in rats

shadman shahzamani; Alireza Jahandideh; Gholamreza Abedi; Abolfazl Akbarzadeh; saeeid hesaraki; pouya parsaei

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 589-597
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126857.1400

Abdominal adhesion is one of the main and important post-surgical problems and, according to available literature, the probability of their occurrence after surgery is higher than 50%. The present study intended to estimate the effect of Nano n-acetylcysteine on macroscopic and microscopic features post-surgical adhesions in an animal model. Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats, 200-220 gr, were randomly divided into five equal groups and underwent intramuscular anesthesia by injection of ketamine 10% at 50 mg/kg and injection of xylazine 2% at 5 mg/ kg. The treatments included three Nano-NAC groups at different dosages 50, 75 and 150 mg/kg, an NAC group, and a control group. On days 14 and 28 post-surgery, the abdomens of all rats were re-opened for macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of adhesions. Based on the results of macroscopic evaluation, the group receiving Nano-NAC 50 mg/kg had the lowest and the control group the highest mean adhesion scores on days14 and 28 post-operations. Histopathological evaluation also revealed that the group treated with Nano-NAC 50 mg/kg had the lowest level of inflammation and fibrosis score among the five groups on days 14 and 28 post-operation. Considering the results obtained in our experimental model and the increasing use of nanotechnology in the manufacture of biomedical drugs, it seems that use of Nano-NAC at low doses 50 and 75mg/kg after laparotomy can significantly reduce adhesions.

Does Baclofen induce changes in testicular histology and seminal fluid analysis in rat?

Luma I. Al-Allaf; Omar N. Sultan; Basma S. Saad-Allah; Wahda M. Al-Nuaimy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 387-396
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126894.1411

Baclofen has a central acting effect, so clinicians have been utilized it chiefly for treating the spasticity of spinal origin. Nowadays, off-labeling use of baclofen with high doses is frequently increased. Despite of the extensive research studies on the effectiveness of baclofen, the reports on its histological effects on testes and on sperm parameters we insufficient. This work aims to assess the histological influences of baclofen on rats' testes and on several sperm characteristics after administration for 8 weeks. Twenty-two male rats at age of peripuberty (8weks) that were categorized into two groups. Group I (control group) includes 10 rats which were gavaged with 1 ml/day of distilled water daily. Group II (baclofen's group) includes 12 rats which were received baclofen 14.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks via gavage. At the end of the designed work, euthenization was done and the testes were excised from each rat, the epididymis samples were obtained and prepared for examination under light microscope. This study revealed that rats that were administered with 14.5mg/kg/day of baclofen for 8 weeks showed changes in the sperms parameters with several testicular histological alterations in their sections in comparison with those of controls. The percentage of the live sperms of rats (baclofen's group was lower than that of control group). Features of sloughing inside seminiferous tubules' lumen are frequently seen among these sections with mild decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules. Evidence of decreased Johnsen's scores (spermatogenic index -SI) was noticed in some sections, and decreasing of the frequency of seminiferous tubules that possess spermatozoa was obviously noticed. Moreover, disorganization of seminiferous tubules is shown in these sections. In addition, sections of rats of baclofen group revealed features of necrosis of seminiferous tubules, presence of degenerated spermatogenic layer, features of apoptosis, and presence of gaps in the seminiferous epithelium of degenerated tubules. Different alterations of sertoli cells as vacuolation, and detachment sertoli cells are noticed in sections of rats that were administered with baclofen. The chronic administration of rats with 14.5 mg/kg with baclofen induced effects on sperm parameters and testicular histology. however, the testicular histological alterations were more obvious. Further works are needed to clarify mechanism that stands behind these effects.

The effect of CO-Q10 on the testicular histological changes in rats induced by imatinib

Luma K. Al-Allaf; Hafidh A. Al-Ashoo

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 189-196
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126587.1347

The safety zone of imatinib, and specifically its relevancy to organ toxicity, has been discussed dialectically in current years. Oxidative stress may be one of the causes of imatinib -mediated toxicity. This study aimed to examine the possible role of co-enzyme Q10 in ameliorating the adverse effect of imatinib on the testicular histology of male albino rats -if it is present. Twenty-eight male Albino rats were used randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups: Group 1 includes 40-45 days aged rats (n=8) which were gavage a dose of 200 mg/kg/day/30 days of imatinib mesylate. Group 2 includes age matched control rats which were administered with distilled water(n=4). Group 3 includes eight rats were received Q10, 50mg/kg, alone, Q10-sorb capsule of 50 mg given with the same schedule. Group 4. Includes eight rats were co administrated orally with 50 mg/kg of Q10+200 mg/kg of imatinib (once/day/30days). Euthanizing of animals with ether 24 hours after the final dose was done. Testes of rats from each experimental group were obtained. The tissues processed and stained by routine histological method. Histological sections of testes's rats treated with 200mg/Kg of imatinib revealed different testicular lesions compared to those of control group (P<0.05). Six 6(75%) of these sections revealed degenerated tubules, detached Sertoli cells, and apoptosis. These histological sections also showed thick tunica albuginea, seminiferous tubules with thick basement membrane. sometimes only a few of Sertoli cells were appeared in histological sections of imatinib treated rats. Mean Johnsen’s scores in these sections was 5.1±0.1 (P˂0.001). Features of retained spermatid were also noticed in some sections. There was significant reduction in both seminiferous tubular diameter and the epithelial height of histological sections of group 2(P˂0.001) with mean of 140.2±3.2µm and 14.8±1.1 µm respectively. Moreover, the number of Sertoli cells/ seminiferous tubule were significantly increased (P˂0.001), with mean of 27.4±0.2 and Leydig cell number is also significantly raised with mean of 7.5±0.5. In conclusion, treatment of peripubertal rats with imatinib induced several testicular alterations (including Sertoli cells) in comparison to control rats indicated that this drug is a gonadotoxic agent as it affects the quality and quantity of spermatogenesis. An Ameliorating effect of co-enzyme Q10 co-administration on imatinib-induced testicular toxicity was concluded.