Main Subjects : Veterinary Parasitology

Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in stray cats in Al-Qadisiyah governorate, Iraq

Nujood A. Alali; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133893.2317

Cryptosporidiosis is an opportunistic zoonotic disease considered a global public health concern. Cats are a potential host for transmitting zoonotic diseases to humans as Cryptosporidium spp. infection. The present study aimed to determine the Cryptosporidium spp in stray cats using molecular methods in Al-Qadisiyah governorate, Iraq, from September 2021 to February 2022. A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from different geographical areas. All the samples were investigated using Nested-PCR and sequencing methods to identify and characterize Cryptosporidium spp. in stray cats. The results of the molecular examination showed that 35% of the fecal samples were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Two species have been identified, C. parvum and C. canis. In conclusion, the results showed that cats are a reservoir host for Cryptosporidium spp for human infection. For the prevention and control of Cryptosporidium spp. Cat infection should get more attention from health officials, especially when the prevalence rate is high.

Molecular study and DNA sequence analysis of Theileria annulata in cattle in Al-Hilla, Iraq

Ayat Q. Jawad; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135154.2450

The current work was conducted to unveil the current situation for the infection by Theileria annulata in cattle in Al-Hilla City, Iraq. A total of 225 blood samples (200 from suspected infected animals and 25 from clinically healthy animals as a control group) were collected. These samples were subjected to a direct slide-smearing for detection using a microscope and DNA sequencing, targeting the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene of 10 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products. The thin smear findings of the 200 suspected cases revealed that 63 (31.5%) were infected with Theileria spp., while 115 (57.5%) cases had no Theileria but other blood parasites; however, only 22 (11%) suspected cases showed no presence of any parasites. Unsurprisingly, the 25 blood samples from the control group demonstrated no presence of any blood parasite. Moreover, the DNA sequencing demonstrated that the Theileria spp. belonged to T. annulata species, and these sequences were nucleotide-based similar to Gene-Bank isolates from Tunisia (ON035604, ON035605, ON035606, ON035607, ON035608, ON035609, ON035610, ON035611, ON035612, and ON035613). The present study outcomes indicate that theileriosis is the dominant parasitic infection in cattle in Al-Hilla City and is highly caused by Theileria annulata.

Molecular detection of cestoda in black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) of Babylon Province, Iraq

Ameer I. Alanad; Afaq T. Farhood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134858.2412

Cestodes or tapeworms (Class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes) are widespread parasites of birds, as they cause various damages, which may lead to the death of their hosts, especially when the infection is severe. The Black Francolin belongs to the Phasianidae family of pheasants and, in the order Galliformes, the gallinaceous birds, and it is called Francolinus francolinus. Considering it as a local bird in Asia, it was referred to as the black partridge. The current study was conducted from January to October 2019 to determine the Cestoda infections within F. francolinus. Thirty-five birds from F. francolinus were examined for the presence of cestoda, of which 17 birds (48.57%) were infected with cestoda parasites. Molecular diagnosis based on sequences of cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) gene regions was performed to confirm the diagnosis of this cestoda. This revealed a close identification of up to 93.44-100% for COI gene regions with other cestoda species obtained from GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis supported the placement of this species within three families, Davaineidae, Taeniidae, and Hymenolepididae, with close relationships to the previously described species of Raillietina sp., R. mahnerti, R. hymenolepidoides, Ophryocotyloides dasi, Rodentolepis nana and Hydatigera parva based on the COI gene regions. This is the first study in Iraq to diagnose Cestoda in birds by molecular methods, where five species of cestoda parasitic on F. francolinus were recorded for the first time in Iraq. 

Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in calf feces using microscopical, serological, and molecular methods

Wael IM Felefel; Ahmed Abdel-Rady; Ibrahim Abd El-Rahim; Mohamed Morsi Elkamshishi; Walaa Mostafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134661.2390

Cryptosporidiosis is a critical gastrointestinal disease in calves. This study examined 150 fecal samples of diarrheic calves collected from the eastern region of Saudi Arabia for detection of Cryptosporidium parvumusing the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) method, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and conventional Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The performance of these methods was assessed using diagnostic accuracy tests. The present study identified C. parvum oocysts in fecal samples by modified Ziehl-Neelsen 40/150; 26.66%, ELIZA 60/150; 40%, and PCR 78/150; 52% methods, respectively. The microscopic method revealed higher specificity 65.27% than the ELIZA 51.38%, while the ELIZA showed higher sensitivity 32.05% than MZN method 19.23%. However, MZN and ELIZA methods were unsatisfactory diagnostic tools compared with the PCR as the area under the curve values in Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis were less than 0.6. Furthermore, using the kappa analysis test revealed no agreement between MZN and ELISA methods compared with PCR at P<0.05.

A review on Trichomonas species infection in humans and animals in Iraq

Mohammad H. Al-Hasnawy; Ali H. Rabee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133966.2324

Trichomonas is a common protozoan that causes a sexually transmitted disease in humans called Trichomonosis and venereal and intestinal Trichomonosis in cattle and cats, respectively. This parasite also causes avian Trichomonosis, or canker, in birds' gastrointestinal tract. Three main pathogenic species (T. vaginalis, T. fetus, and T. gallina) belonging to this genus are identified and recorded in different parts of the world. However, their presence and epidemiology are still incompletely known in other parts, particularly in T. fetus in Iraq. This review aims to update information on this disease based on an electronic search of databases to document the presence and prevalence of Trichomonas spp. in humans and some animals in Iraqi cities. The findings show that the infection by T. vaginalis and T. tenax in humans and T. gallinae in birds are identified in Iraq, recording different percentage rates. However, venereal and intestinal Trichomonosis caused by T. fetus tends to be slight or absent in cattle and cats. Venereal Trichomonosis is only found in Basra and Nineveh provinces cattle, while intestinal Trichomonosis is not recorded in Iraq yet. T. hominis is recorded in central and northern areas of Iraq. In conclusion, less or absence of the infection in cattle or cats may be ascribed to animal breed, climate, less of studies, and/or other unknown factors. Thus, epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to investigate the presence and prevalence of this disease, particularly in cattle and cats of Iraq.

Molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. from ruminants in Duhok province using the ITS1 ribosomal DNA marker

Adnan M. Rekani; Wijdan M. Mero

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134290.2358

This study aimed to characterize and identify the genotypes of Fasciola spp. isolated from sheep, goats, and cattle in Duhok province based on the ITS1 region of rDNA. About 54 adult Fasciola flukes were individually isolated from the livers of naturally infected ruminants. After morphological identification, the genomic DNA of 54 isolated Fasciola spp. was successfully extracted, and the ITS1segment (518 bp) of rDNA was amplified. The amplicons were confirmed by gel electrophoresis and yielded mono cleared bands. Five amplicons from these samples (2 sheep, 2 cattle, and 1 goat) were selected for sequencing and then compared with NCBI-GenBank sequences for genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing analysis and the BLAST results revealed that 3/5 of the resultant sequences were F. hepatica and 2/5 were F. gigantica. The ITS1 sequences were submitted to NCBI-GenBank with accession numbers: OM920533, OM920534, OM948733, OM948683, and OM918714. Alignment analysis of the current study and GenBank ITS1 sequences showed the presence of nucleotide variations between F. hepatica and F. gigantica species (interspecific), which were enough to separate them. At the same time, they were not observed within the same species of Fasciola (intraspecific). The pairwise identity percentage of intraspecific and interspecific Fasciola isolates was 100% and 99.2-99.6%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1 sequences demonstrated that the Fasciola isolates of this study were clustered into two clades (hepatica and gigantica clades). The present study concluded that both Fasciola spp. (F. hepatica and F. gigantica) existed among the infected ruminants in Duhok province and are closely related to intraspecific Fasciola isolates from different countries in the Middle East, Asia, Europe, and Africa.

Cryptosporidium parvum oocytic antigen induces dendrtic cell maturation that suppresses Th2 cytokines when co-cultured with CD4+ cells

Kim Connick; Richard Lalor; Anna Murphy; Sandra Oneill; Rabab Zalat; Eman D. El Shanawany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133847.2313

Cryptosporidium parvum is an opportunistic intracellular parasite that causes disease in animal populations such as calves and goats. It is also a significant zoonotic disease globally, causing mild to severe human diarrhea. In immunocompromised animals, calves and lambs, and immunocompromised humans such as AIDS patients, an infection can be life-threatening as no effective treatments are currently available to control infection. The effects of Cryptosporidium parvum antigen (CPA) on dendritic cells (DCs) were investigated. This study examined cytokine secretion and cell surface marker expression on DCs exposed to CPA. Cytokine production in CD4+ cells co-cultured with CPA primed DCs in the presence of anti-CD3 was also measured. CPA induced a significant increase in the production of interleukin (IL)-12p40, IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α by DCs and enhanced the expression of the cell surface markers TLR4, CD80, CD86, and MHC11. CPA primed DC co-cultured in the presence of anti-CD3 with CD4+ T-cells inhibited the secretion of Th2-associated cytokines, notably IL-5 and IL-13, with no effects on the secretions of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and IL-10. These findings support studies in the literature that CPA can induce the full maturation of DCs that subsequently initiate Th1 immune responses critical to the resolution of C. parvum infection.

Prevalence of chewing lice species on migratory birds in Razzaza lake

Muna I. Jassem; Firas A. Alali; Haider N. Al-Ashbal; Marwa H. Jawad; Asaad Sh. Alhesnawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134464.2434

Chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera and Amblycera) are permanent, obligate, and host-specific ectoparasites commonly found in birds. This study detects the types of chewing lice on living migratory birds. 436 birds were detected in Razzaza Lake that included lice and were captured during migration from October 2021 to February 2022 like Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, and Anas clypeata. The lice were soaked in 70% of ethyl alcohol and three species were found on 48 (10.98%) of four different bird species; Columbicola columbae, Campanulotes bidentatus, and Menacanthus camelinus. A new species is the M. camelinus that was found among new types of birds; A. platyrhynchos and A. clypeata, recording 1(2.04%). The prevalence sex of the infested birds and the lice species was A. strepera; 13(27.08%), 13(26.53%), A. crecca; 3(0.80%), 3(6.12%), A. platyrhynchos; 31(8.27%), 31(63.27%), A. clypeata; 1(0.27%), 2(4.08%), respectively. The Natural History Research Center and Museum at Baghdad University confirmed the parasite and type of birds. Migratory birds are one of the infectious resources for local and domestic birds that should be treated continuously to prevent pathogen transmission and preservation of bird flocks. The insecticide should be used on all bird flocks to prevent the completion concerning the stages of the cycle of life.

The prevalence of parasitic infections among slaughtered animals in mechanical abattoir

Wael Felefel; Abd-EL-Hamed Shabian; Safaa M. Eassa; Naguiba Loutfy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135489.2482

Gastrointestinal parasites, such as helminths and protozoa, are abundant parasitic agents of livestock, particularly ruminants. The current study aims to determine the prevalence rate of parasitic infections in large ruminate animals slaughtered in the mechanical abattoir in Alexandria governorate, Egypt. The prevalence was identified through the records of parasitic infections detected in the fecal matter of large ruminate animals in addition to the recorded postmortem examination findings. Three hundred sixty-four slaughtered large ruminant animals were selected, labeled, and subjected to fecal sampling and postmortem examination. Each fecal sample was tested by three different techniques; the formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen hot-stained, and saturated saline flotation to diagnose all parasite types. One hundred thirty positive cases (35.71%) were determined during the fecal sample examination, and 76 cases (20.87%) were found in postmortem examination. Formalin-ether processing of fecal samples yielded the highest number of pathogens; Entamoeba species were detected in 98 fecal samples (26.69%), and Fasciola species eggs were detected in 14 samples (3.84%). The postmortem examination revealed Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in 13 animals (3.57%), mixed lung and liver hydatid cysts in 32 animals (8.79%), whereas liver hydatid cysts only were identified in 15 animals (4.12%). Finally, Sarcocystosis infection was detected in 3.57%. In conclusion, the parasitic infections of large ruminant animals are a leading cause of pathogenicity in large animals, leading to economic losses. Prevention and control measures must be implemented by mechanical abattoirs according to the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system.

Molecular and Serological detection of Toxoplasma gondii in three species of wild birds of Babylon province, middle Iraq

Ameer I. Alanad; Basim H. Abdullah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133394.2219

Birds are intermediate hosts and important reservoirs that play a significant role in Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae) epidemiology and infection transfer to humans by eating their raw or undercooked meat. The aim of this study is to diagnose the Toxoplasma gondii infection in three species of wild birds (Columba livia, Streptopelia senegalensis and Passer domesticus) in the province of Babylon from May 2021 to August 2021, using a latex agglutination test and molecular diagnosis with nested PCR for SAG1 gene identification. Results showed that antibodies were detected in 56/144 (38.88%) samples. Furthermore, results of the nested PCR technique for detection of SAG1 gene revealed that 41 (73.21%) of the samples positive for the latex agglutination test were only found in three species of birds. These three species of birds were found infected with T. gondii with possible transmission to human beings. For the first time, a S. senegalensis, was infected with the T. gondii in Iraq.

Molecular evaluation of E198A SNP in the iso-type 1 β – tubulin gene of Haemonchus contortus isolated from sheep in Al-Diwanyiah, Iraq

Akram M. Amana; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 89-94
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133596.2261

This study investigated the benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus parasitic nematodes from sheep from October 2021 to December 2022 in Al-Diwanyiah city/Iraq, and samples were processed at the laboratory of Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine College of Al-Qadissyiah University through the detection of E198A mutation and SNP polymorphism of the β-tubulin gene at this codon position. Ninety adult H. contortus samples were collected from the abomasum of sheep (n = 400) and then tested by qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Of these, three different genotypes have been found for E198A SNP: heterozygous (RS), homozygous (SS), and homozygous resistant genotype (RR). The frequencies for these genotypes were 31.11% heterozygous, 57.77% homozygous, and 11.11% homozygous resistant. The current study indicated the spread of benzimidazole resistance for H. contortus of sheep in Iraq, Al-Diwnayiah by utilizing qPCR and tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for the first time. It is speculated that the BZ-resistance is due to excessive and irregular H. contortus drug abuse and inter-species transfer between ruminants at the commonly grazing pastures and from imported sheep. 

Histochemical study of the hepatic metacestodes in sheep infected with hydatidosis

Buthaina H. Al-Sabawi; Hanan S. Sadoon; Mohammed G. Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 45-51
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133402.2222

This study aimed at detecting the liver histopathological changes of hydatid cysts sheep infestation. Seventeen sheep liver's samples, infested with hydatid cysts, were collected from the local butchers. The specimens sectioned, processed, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and some special stains such as Gomori's aldehyde fuschin, Van Gieson, Toluidine blue, Alcian blue, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Mansso's trichrome. The results of haematoxylin and eosin stain of infected groups revealed the presence of the laminated membrane of hydatid cyst in different spots of hepatic tissue encircled by infiltration of inflammatory cells, an increase in fibrous tissue and severe necrotic hepatic tissue. The special stains as in Gomori's aldehyde fuschin revealed the protoscolex in green colour and elastic fibres of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst with its laminated membrane in purple colour. Van Gieson stain showed dark brown-purple colour of the elastic fibres reduplication of connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst, while Toluidine blue stain sections revealed the dark blue stain of acidic components of hydatid cyst laminated membrane and necrotic hepatocytes. Alcian blue stain revealed the blue colour reactivity of the proteoglycans of the connective tissue surrounding hydatid cyst. PAS reaction stain revealed the magenta colour reaction of the intact hepatocytes in the control group comparing with depletion of magenta colour in necrotic hepatocytes surrounding hydatid cyst. Masson's trichrome stain revealed increased collagen fibres of the connective tissue. At the conclusion, it’s evident that infection with hydatid cysts causes a variety of histopathological alterations that appeared through several tissue stains.

In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins extracted from the seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) against Haemonchus contortus infection

Omnia Kandil; Hatem A. Shalaby; Seham H. Hendawy; Mohamed S. Abdelfattah; Doaa Sedky; Noha M. Hassan; Amira H. El Namaky; Heba M. Ashry; Nadia M. Abu EL Ezz; Mona S. Mahmoud; Abdulla A. Mahmoud

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 229-237
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133537.2247

This study was designed to examine in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic efficacy of condensed tannins (CT) extracted from seeds of Medicago sativa on Haemonchus contortus in sheep. CT's in vitro anthelmintic effect was assessed at a 300 μg/ml concentration compared with albendazole (reference drug) at 10 μg/ml. The results showed that CT had a nematocidal effect on H. contortus, and the cuticle of the adult worm appeared to be its initial target. For the in vivo experiment, nine 3-month-old helminths-free lambs were distributed into three groups. Group 1 (n=3) was challenged only as infected untreated controls; Group 2 (n=3) was treated with condensed tannin, and Group 3 (n=3) was treated with albendazole. Fecal and blood samples were collected every 3 days until the end of the experiment; for fecal egg count (FEC) and anti- H. contortus IgG titers determination, respectively. The lambs treated with the CT in G2 exhibited a pronounced decrease of mean FEC with great FECR% detected from the first-week post-treatment (PT) until the end of the experiment compared with G1 animals. The antibody levels gradually increased in G2 following the 2nd dose of CT treatment compared to other groups. A brilliant consistent relation between the elevation of IgG response and reduction of FEC was observed following the second booster dosing of the CT in G2. In conclusion, the CT evoked strongly in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity against H. contortus and could be used as a natural alternative treatment of high potency against haemonchosis in sheep.

Microscopic and molecular detection of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in female camel from Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Ghaidaa A. Jasim; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Zainab H. Chaid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 61-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133428.2226

This study identified the etiological pathogens responsible or protozoal-like disease conditions in female camels from Al-Diwaniyah Province, Iraq. For this reason, 125 female camels (one blood sample per animal) that showed signs of weakness and pale mucus membranes were considered for the study. The samples of stained blood smears were explored microscopically and via a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that the targeted glutamine-dependent carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSII) gene for identifying Babesia bovis and 18S rRNA gene for detecting B. bigemina. The results of the microscopic technique uncovered the occurrence of Babesia spp. in 76 (60.8%) of the examined samples, which encourage the use of PCR to identify the protozoal species. The PCR findings demonstrated that B. bovis and B. bigemina were detected in 8 (8.9%) and 11 (12.22%), respectively, of the positive microscopic samples. The study findings reveal that weakness and paleness of mucus membranes in camel females can be attributed to the presence of infections by blood protozoa, mainly Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina.

Molecular study of Oestrus ovis larvae infesting in sheep in Baghdad city, Iraq

Rawaa I. Alfalahy; Amer M. Al-Amery; Azhar A. Faraj

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 41-45
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135053.2438

The aim of this study is to detect the 28S (rRNA) gene sequences of Oestrus ovis larvae by conventional polymerase chain reaction and to compare their genetic relatedness utilizing phylogenetic analysis. Fifty larvae were collected from sheep for DNA extraction after slaughtering during the period from the beginning of February until the end of April 2019 in Baghdad city. PCR product appeared as the band size 950 bp. Ten of the product PCR were selected for sequence analysis to obtain the partial nucleotides 28S (rRNA) gene. After that the sequence were recorded in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) with ID NO. (MT875427, MT875428, MT875429, MT875430, MT875431, MT875432, MT875433, MT875434, MT875435, MT875436) for O. ovis larvae. Then, compared these accession number with another global registered in NCBI by using phylogenetic tree examination which show NCBI-BLAST homology sequence identity between them, and these results were confirmed 99% identity with Spain and Brazil isolates and 98% with Italy.

Effect of selenium nanoparticles against protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro and hydatid cysts in mice

Sarah A. Mohammed; Asmaa A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 195-202
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135838.2535

This study determined the influence of selenium nanoparticles on the vitality of the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro; seven concentrations were used: 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 350, and 500 µg/ml for different exposure times: ten, twenty, thirty, and sixty minutes, respectively. Albino mice Mus musculus were injected with protoscoleces exposed to nanoparticles at 100, 150, and 200 µg/ml concentrations for 60 minutes. In contrast, control groups were injected with non-exposed protoscoleces. Mice were dissected three, four-, and five-months post infestation. Many criteria were relied on: numbers, weights, diameters of growing hydatid cysts, and their reduction proportion. The outcomes uncovered an apparent influence of selenium nanoparticles on the viability of protoscoleces of Echinococcus granlosus by the increase in exposure time in vitro, as well as diminish in the numbers of the larvae in processed mice versus the unprocessed collection; no cysts evolved inside processed mice at the concentration 200 µg/ml, three- and four-months post-infection. In contrast, the reduction rate was 90% in mice injected with exposed protoscoleces at the concentration of 150 µg/ml next 4 and 5 months of infection. 

Coprological detection of Toxocariosis in domicile and stray dogs and cats in Sulaimani province, Iraq

Zana M. Rashid; Sadat A. Aziz; Othman J. Ali; Nawroz K. Kakarash; Hardi F. Fattah Marif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1047-1051
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132976.2157

Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are ascarid nematodes, belong to the Toxocaridae family and genus Toxocara, causing toxocariosis in dogs and cats. The disease is mainly transmitted between animals and humans through ingestion of contaminated food with the embryonated eggs of the parasite. In addition, vertical transmission of the Toxocara larvae from pregnant bitches to their offspring through placenta and milk has been reported. Nowadays, stray dogs and cats, which are unvaccinated or not treated against the parasites, play a significant role in introducing the disease and seem to be a common public health concern. The study aimed to identify the rate of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati infection among the domiciliary and stray dogs and cats that presented to the veterinary clinics, using direct fecal smear and fecal floatation techniques. The results showed that stray cats were highly infected 47.62% in comparison to domiciled cats 5.56%. In contrast, the T. canis infection among domiciled and stray dogs was about 11.11% and 11.76%, respectively. Adult cats and dogs were found to have a higher infectious rate cat; 30%, dogs; 14.81% than younger age groups cats; 27.58%, dogs; 8%. There was a moderate and highly significant positive correlation between the lifestyle and infectious rate in cats. In conclusion, stray cats and dogs are the leading risk factor for transmitting the disease. 

Clinical and molecular detection of Sarcoptes scabiei in the Iraqi camels

Mohammad H. Al-Hasnawy; Hamed A. Al-Jabory; Lina S. Waheed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 923-930
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132573.2106

Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the most frequent zoonotic species of mites causing mange in camels worldwide. The prevalence of camel’s mange in Iraq is still little studied. Thus, this research is conducted to detect S. scabieiin camels in the four provinces of the Middle-Euphrates area: Al-Muthanna, Al-Diwaniyah, Najaf, and Babil, from January 2020 to December 2020. The Molecular technique depending on the conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) is performed for the direct detection of S. scabiei based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene from skin scrape lesion samples. The results reveal that 125 out of 425 samples (29.41%) of the examined camels are infested with S. scabiei. According to the sex of the infested animals, the infestation rate was higher in females than in males, 85 (30.91 %) and 40 (26.67%) respectively. In addition, the 1.5 year age shows the highest number of infestation (83 out of 85) with a percentage of 97.65%, but the percentages are 21 out of 60 (35%) and four out 68 (5.88%) in 2 and 7 years old animals, respectively. The results also record that infested animals found in Najaf and Al-Diwaniyah have the highest number of infestations, with of 36% and 35%, respectively. The findings also demonstrate that the highest infestation percentage is during the winter months (January and February), with of 92.31% and 80%, respectively. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis shows that the local isolates of the Iraqi camels are consistent with the isolates recorded in China.

Molecular analysis of Cryptosporidium species in domestic goat in central Iraq

Akeel M. Al-Musawi; Abdul Hussein H. Awad; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1041-1045
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132974.2155

Cryptosporidium spp. is a significant parasitic disease that results in diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans and animals worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular diversity of Cryptosporidium species in domestic goats. A total of a hundred feces samples were collected from four locations in Babylon city in central Iraq. All the samples were investigated phenotypically using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain method and genotypically using conventional and nested PCR methods based on a partial sequence of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes, and finally, phylogenetic analysis method. The molecular results showed five species of Cryptosporidium, including C. parvum, C. hominis, C. ryana, C. xiaoi, and C. bovis. The phylogenetic results of partial sequence of gp60 gene for C. parvum and C. hominis isolate two subtypes were established IIdA21G1 and IIdA19G1 belong to C. parvum. For C. hominis, three subtypes were detected: IbA21G2, IbA13G3, and IbA19G2. This study showed that Cryptosporidium parvum (zoonotic) is more prevalent than other Cryptosporidium species in goats from this area. This suggests that zoonotic transmission is the primary mode of transmission of Cryptosporidium infection in Babylon province.

Rapid diagnosis of leishmania spp. in blood samples using gold nanoparticles.

Musafer H. Al-Ardi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 587-590
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130985.1906

There are many methods to diagnose Leishmania spp. a microscopic, serological or molecular methods. However, finding a fast and accurate diagnostic assay is a necessary and urgent requirement nowadays. here, we improved nano detection method to diagnose Leishmania spp. In blood samples. In this study, we used a probe of oligonucleotide sequences associated with AuNPs (20 nm) to diagnose different Leishmania spp. in blood samples of dogs. For this purpose, three series replicates of 10 μl of 23 ng / μl of Leishmania spp. DNA are used. A change in the solution colour to red is an indicator of a positive result, while the change to purple is a negative result. Then we compared these results with the molecular assay of (IST1) gene. The overall relative sensitivity of the result is (90%). The result shows that 10 out of 10 samples of visceral Leishmania are positive with relative sensitivity and specificity (100%). Eight out of 10 samples of cutaneous leishmania are positive with relative sensitivity and specificity (80%). The present method is a fast and accurate method for detecting small amounts of DNA, and it is easy to distinguish by visual inspection.

Indicative parameters for liver fascioliasis at pre-clinical and clinical phases in cows from Al-Diwaniyah city, Iraq

Nawras K. Kadhum; Salah M. Karim; Khalefa A. Mansour; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 653-657
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132266.2076

The current work emphasized understanding the liver functions while having pre-clinical or clinical fascioliasis accurately detect the disease phase from cows in Al-Diwaniyah City, Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq. The experimental design included the use of 30 cows in Al-Diwaniayh province divided into ten clinically healthy cows (control group), ten acutely infected cows with no apparent clinical signs (pre-clinical group), and ten chronically infected cows with observed clinical signs (clinical group), such as yellowish discoloration of the mucus membranes. Blood samples were collected from each cow for performing the following tests: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), serum levels of pyruvate, lactate, and Cholesterol. The results showed that all the enzymes from the pre-clinical group were significantly (P<0.05) higher in their serum levels compared with those from the control group to elevate to significantly (P<0.05) higher levels in the clinical group in comparisons with those from the control and pre-clinical groups, excluding the ALT that revealed no significant (P>0.05) difference between the pre-and clinical groups. A significant (P<0.05) increase was seen in the pre-clinical group compared to those from the control group, with no significant (P>0.05) difference between the pre-and clinical groups. No significant (P>0.05) differences were recorded between all study groups at serum pyruvate and lactate levels. The present study reveals that the fascioliasis, dependent on the infestation phase, can progressively change the serum levels of the parameters mentioned above and may feasibly be used together as indicators for the accurate detection of the disease stage.

Morphometric and molecular characterization of Moniezia species in sheep in Mosul city, Iraq

Eman G. Suleiman; Nadia S. Alhayali; Ahlam F. AL-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 833-837
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132278.2077

The current study examined 100 small intestines collected randomly from sheep slaughtered in the abattoir and butcher’s shops from different Mosul city / Iraq areas of both sexes (55 females, 45 males) and different ages. Moniezia expansa was diagnosed in 9 samples of intestines by studying the morphometric characteristics of these tapeworms, especially the mature segments, in which both the ovaries and vitelline glands appeared in the ring shape on either side of the body segments and the rosette-like shape of the interproglotidial glands. No significant difference was noticed between males and females of sheep in our study, and the infection rate was 10% in sheep less than a year old and older than two years, with no significant difference between the age groups. The results of the molecular analysis by using conventional polymerase chain reaction technique confirmed the diagnosis of these worms, which belong to the genus Moniezia, with a product reaction of 700 base pairs. The sequencing result shows two strains of Moniezia expanza, which isolated from Iraq (Moniezia expansa-Iraqi one and Moniezia expansa-Iraqi 2) were similar to each other had a significant distance to other strains. The study also showed that Moniezia expansa is different from the same species in other countries.

Molecular detection of Trypanosoma species in sheep and goats in Mosul city

Marwa S. Mahmood; Wasan A. Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 445-449
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130488.1835

In this study, we examined blood samples of 385 sheep and goats of different ages, sexes, and sources under routine microscopic examination of the blood smear (wet, thin, thick, buffy coat layer smears) to detect Trypanosoma. Results show that 81 samples were positive. These samples are succumbed to the molecular detection of Trypanosoma and other species by the extraction of parasitic DNA this parasitic DNA is detected in samples using KIN1, KIN2, and AITSF, AITSR primers. After that, conventional polymerase chain reaction was applied, and the results showed that 81 samples had a positive reaction in using KIN1 and KIN2 primers, while the positive samples were 76 when using AITSF, AITSR primers. Moreover, results showed a high rate of infection in sheep as compared with goats using both pairs of primers and two species of Trypanosoma in sheep and goats. Molecular was recorded, which include T. conglense and T. vivax. Animals more than 1-2 years old group showed a high rate of infection as compared with other ages group, and females have recorded a high rate of infection as compared with males. According to the source of animals, imported animals showed a high infective rate compared to native ones. This study is the first recorded Trypanosoma species in small ruminants in Mosul city.

Traditional and molecular diagnosis of Haemonchus contortus in sheep in Babylon province, Iraq

Balkes F. Hade; Suha T. Al-Biatee; Haider M. Al-Rubaie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 479-481
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130533.1842

Haemonchus contortus one of gastrointestinal helminthes characterized by miner intraspecific variation and a major variation among species which exploited to determine species simultaneously depend on PCR techniques, by amplification of DNA from parasites so goal of study was traditional and molecular detection of this parasite in sheep. Experiment was conducted using adult worms collected from abomasum of sheep obtained from abattoir in Babylon province. All worms divided into two groups, first group for morphological study and second group stored in 70% ethanol for DNA extraction, ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene were amplified using PCR technique sequenced and analysis with a phylogenic tree.According to the available data this study recordedHaemonchus contortus in sheep depend on ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene sequences for the first time in Iraq with accession no. LC552170 and LC552171 using molecular data.The phylogeny analysis depended on ITS-2 spacer and 28S gene partial sequences were closely related and high identity 94% with Germany H. similis sequence MN708992.1 and 93% identity with New-Zealand and Austria H. contortus sequence KC998713.1 and KJ724288.1 respectively, with a low genetic variation among all comparison sequenced isolates.

Protoscolex metabolites of Coenurus cerebralis as antigenic-produced humoral immune response in sheep

Sura S. Alkhuzaie

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 297-301
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130043.1727

The purpose of the current experiment was to test the immunization against Coenurus cerebralis in sheep. Sixteen animals (6 months old, from 1 October 2020 to 30 March 2021 in Najaf city) were recruited to perform the experiment, in which eight of them were injected twice at 21-day interval using the cellular metabolic antigen of C. cerebralis protoscolex cultivated and then emulsified by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The shots were injected intramuscularly at a dose of 1 ml (15 mg of antigenic protein determined in a separate experiment). The second group of eight sheep served as controls (injected intramuscularly with 1 ml sterile saline only at the days of injections). Blood samples were collected from all animals at day-0 (before injection) and at day 10, 18, and 24 after the first injection, and at day10, 16, 26, 40, 48, 53, 61, 80, 85, and 89 after the second injection. Serum activity was studied by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The findings, by iELISA, revealed that the cellular antigen of C. cerebralis protoscolices is an active stimulator of antibody response. Day-10 (after the first injection) showed significantly (P<0.05) 3.4 to 9.9 time-higher antibody levels compared to those from day-0. This elevation in the titer of antibodies was increased after receiving the second dose showing 6.3 to 12 time-higher antibody presence even at the final days of blood collection compared to those from day-0. No changes were noticed in the sera of the control animals. The obtained data allow us to conclude that metabolites synthesized by cultivation are active immunogenic components that activate the humoral part of the immune system manifested by the increases in the antibody titers. This gives a solid ground for future work regarding alternative methods of discovering immunization techniques against cestodes.

Sero-prevalence of hypodermosis in cattle in Mosul city, Iraq

Duaa G. Alhamdany; Nadia S. alhayali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 407-412
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130397.1816

Bovine hypodermosis has been known as a veterinary disease that mainly caused by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum. This study aimed to determine sero-prevalence of cattle grubs in Mosul, Iraq utilizing indirect ELISA as well as effect of some risk factors on prevalence of hypodermosis. A total of two hundred blood specimens were collected from healthy and infested cattle through direct palpation. All samples were collected from cattle at Teaching Veterinary Hospital, Mosul abattoir, Kokjali and Bazwaya region during October 2020 to March 2021. Outcomes of iELISA showed 40.5% as an infestation rate of hypodermosis. Notably, infestation intensity has distributed as light, moderate and sever 11, 18.5 and 70.3% respectively. Interestingly, highest seroprevalence of hypodermosis was recorded in October 67.7%, and the lowest was recorded in February and March 22.2%, 25% respectively. Observations of current study also recorded the infection rate in age was 54.7% in animals less than 3 years old, and the lowest was 16% in animals more than 3 years old. Moreover, breed showed a significant risk factor 53.8% for imported cattle and 14.7% for local breed. Importantly, risk factor concerning area recorded the highest rate in Kokjali 52.2%. In contrast, the lowest rate recorded in Teaching Veterinary Hospital 14.8%. The present study is the first investigation to identify cattle hypodermosis by iELISA in Mosul, Iraq. iELISA has been approved as the best diagnostic tool for early detection of hypodermosis during the migrating phase. Interestingly, age, breed and months of study were significant risk factors. 

Morphological and phylogenetic characterization of Oestrus ovis larvae in sheep: Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq

Nadia S. Alhayali; Mohenned A. Alsaadawi; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 133-137
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129529.1656

The fly larvae infect the nasal cavities and sinuses (frontal and maxillary) of sheep, goats, and a range of wild ruminants, forming a disease called oestrosis (Nasal myiasis or nasal bot). The disease is one of the significantly diseases for the Iraqi small ruminant industry that causes detrimental economic losses. The current work was carried out to morphologically- and molecularly-characterize O. ovis larvae collected from sheep in a slaughterhouse in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq. The study depended on collecting 20 larvae (at different stages) from 20 sheep from 15 October till 17 December 2020. The morphological examination was done using a stereomicroscope and relying on larval characteristic features, including the posterior end, spiracles, and cephalopharyngeal skeleton. The molecular characterization was performed utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and partial gene sequencing (PGS) methods of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene at 700-bp and 300-bp regions. Morphologically, the first-stage larvae (L1) showed characteristic mouth hooks, while the second-stage larvae (L2) revealed clear terminal stigmas. For the third-stage larvae (L3), the color of body segments and their spines' were the most important features for this larval stage. The PCR showed amplification at both regions 700bp and 300bp, in 8 and 7 isolates, respectively. The PGS revealed 15 different local isolates in genetic level aligned with isolates from Kyrgyzstan, Italy, Spain, and Turkey. This study shows the important strain differences of O. ovis that infect the local sheep in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq.

Clinical management of a severe traumatic cutaneous myiasis at the base of the antler in a fallow deer, Dama dama: A case report

Wan-Nor Fitri; Muhammad Azrolharith; Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse; Eric Lim; Mohd Lila Mohd-Azmi; Annas Salleh; Zulfakarudin Zamri; Azrul Hisham; Aznida Che Ali; Wahid Haron; Falah Baiee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 187-190
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129663.1674

Cutaneous myiasis is the infestation of larvae of flies in the vertebrate. The condition causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry indicating the importance of a systematic approach to clinical management. The incidents of two episodes of severe cutaneous myiasis wound at the base of the antler in a 5-year-old semi-intensively managed male Dama dama deer was described. Physical examination revealed a foul-smelling necrotic wound around the left cornual region measuring 5cm×4cm in radius and 3cm in depth and fly eggs were seen on the surface of the wound. The clinical findings suggest the diagnosis of a severe cutaneous myiasis. The case was managed by wound debridement and flushing with hydrogen peroxide 3% and diluted hibiscrub 0.05%, followed with povidone iodine 2.5%. Topical ointment, Dermapred® and insecticide, Negasunt® were applied topically. Parenteral administration of flunixin meglumine 2.2 mg/kg for 3 days and Oxytetracycline 1 ml/10 k every 72 hours, given twice both through intramuscular route. Supplement injections, Vitavet® and Catosal™ were given to improve the wound healing process. The outcome of the wound improved post-14 days of treatment. Administration of timely combination of antimicrobials, pain management and flies control are leading factors to a good healing process.

Morphological and Molecular diagnosis of Hypoderma spp. in Mosul city, Iraq

Duaa G. Alhamdany; Nadia S. alhayali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 255-259
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129942.1704

Hypodermosis is a distinctive ectoparasitic disease infesting cattle; Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum are the most common causes of this myasis. In this study 78 larvae were collected from infected cattle by extraction in the Educational Veterinary Hospital, from Kokjali and Bazwaya flocks and from the skin of slaughtered in Mosul abattoirs for the period from October 2020 to March 2021. Morphological identification by using stereomicroscope depending on patterns of spinulation of the 10th abdominal segment and peritremes structure of L3 classified as H. bovis and H. lineatum. Molecular technique by traditional PCR applied on 16 L3 of the genus Hypoderma revealed that the reaction product was 500 bp by amplification of mt CO1 gene while the results of PCR-RFLP using restriction TaqI enzyme for differentiation between the two species indicated reaction products 300bp for H. bovis and 200bp for H. lineatum respectively. The results of molecular analysis by PCR and PCR-RFLP proved the existence of these two species of Hypoderma in Mosul. 

Survey and diagnostic study of Eimeria truncata in geese and ducks

Ahlam F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 21-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128585.1591

This trial was aimed to determine the prevalence of renal coccidiosis in domestic geese and ducks in Nineveh governorate, Iraq. One hundred and thirty birds of both sexes and different ages were randomly purchased from many localities of Nineveh governorate during the period between 2017and 2018. According to geese and ducks' age, the overall infection was 70.00% and 51.66%, respectively, 74.35% for geese and 53.19% for ducks Eimeria truncata in geese showed that 49 (70 %) were positive, while 31(51.66%) were positive for ducks. Cloacal fecal samples for Eimeria truncata oocytes' were tested by flotation technique revealed that 22.85% were positive for geese and 16.66% for ducks. The dimensions of Eimeria truncata development stages (schizonts, macrogametes, microgametes, and oocytes) were measured. The histological sections of the infected geese and ducks' kidneys showed the different developmental stages of the Eimeria truncata parasite with various pathological changes. 

An epidemiological and therapeutic study of Sarcoptes scabiei parasite in cows of Anbar province, Iraq

Suad Sh. Shahatha; Inaam M. Ayyed; Mohammed O. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 103-109
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129420.1646

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in cows in Anbar province, Iraq. The parasite was diagnosed in the laboratory via examining skin scrapings taken from the suspected cows. The results indicated that the infection rate in cows with S. scabiei reached 37.5%, the animals of 3 months - Hammada articulate had a great effect on the parasite, however, the concentration 10 mg/ml leads to the complete disappearance of all parasites and the cure of the infected cows on the 14th day of treatment, which is equal to the drug Abamectin in its effect on the parasites. The current study concluded that cows in the study areas were infected with scabies mites at a high rate, and this calls for finding safe treatment methods by using medicinal herbs and plants because they contain many active compounds that affect the parasite and lead to its mortality, and they are safe strategic alternatives to harmful chemical drugs. This necessitates the establishment of an integrated control approach through treatment with effective plant extracts and to maintain the cleanliness of the animal environment.

Detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in cats in Mosul city

Wasan A. Alobaidii; Zeena D. Mohammed Zaki; Manal H. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 57-60
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128997.1616

This study is the 1st trial to detect of Dirofeleria imitis in cats in Mosul city, Iraq, Dirofilariasis is the most dangerous nematodes which infect cats, through this study blood samples was collected from 200 cats (different ages, source and rearing management) to investigate from the mature female worms of D. immitis by using direct ELISA, results showed total percentage of infection was 7% (14/200 animals), the relationship between the infection with age of cats was proportional to the age of cats, as the percentage increases with the age of cats, the high prevalence of infection was recorded in cats more than 2 years old 4%, the kittens less than 1 year old showed low prevalence of infection 0.5%, statistically there is a significant differences (P<0.05) between the oldest animals with other ages, significant differences (P<0.05) between Outdoor cats which recorded high prevalence of infection 4%, while Indoor animals recorded low prevalence of infection 3% with D. imitis, 10 of imported cat was infected with D. imitis with high prevalence of infection (5%) when compare with native cats 2%, without significant differences (P<0.05) between two groups, this study was conducted that the prevalence of D. imitis is high in adult cats, with high prevalence in outdoor rearing and the cats with imported origin. 

Perturbation of liver function markers and serum electrolytes associated with Echinococcus granulosus infection in sheep

Ibrahim F. Ali; Tamara W. Jihad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 65-69
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128926.1624

Histopathological alterations in the liver of intermediated hosts infected with Echinococcus granulosus parasite can be occurred by necrotic expansion as a result of an increase in growth of the parasite larva stage (metacestode), which may cause perturbation in production of liver function markers. Thus, this study aims to determinate the liver biochemical profile and some serum electrolytes of E. granulosus-infected sheep at different hydatid cyst infection ratios (IRs). fifty livers from naturally E. granulosus-infected sheep with five livers from uninfected-sheep as a control group were enrolled in this study. Cardiac blood samples under sterilized conditions were gently collected and isolated sera were biochemically assayed for determination of liver function markers including; Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Albumin (ALB) and total protein (TP), as well as the level of some serum electrolytes including Ca, K, Na and Cl using fully automatic biochemical analyzer, FUJI-Film. The current data indicated a progressive increase in the level of AST, ALT, ALP, Ca and K. The level of ALB and TP were gradually declined with a rise of liver infection ratio with hydatid cysts. In conclusion, the current findings indicated perturbation of liver function markers and the level of some serum electrolytes, mainly Ca and K in E. granulosus-infected sheep based on the infection ratio of liver. Additionally, acute and chronic infection of E. granulosus parasites in sheep can be determined based on the level of liver function markers in serum.

COX1 gene and ITS-2 region: A comparative study of molecular diagnosis of Parabronema skrjabini in camels (Camelus dromedaries), Al-Najaf Province, Iraq

Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Haider H. A-Fatlawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 77-84
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129228.1634

The current study was contributed to the analysis of the nucleotide sequence pattern of the nucleotide sequence of the tissue DNA isolates based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS2rDNA) gene and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial DNA (COX1 mtDNA) using the traditional polymerase chain reaction (150 samples of abomasum collected directly from camel carcasses after working in Al-Najaf slaughterhouse from 1/10/2019 to 1/2/2020). ITS2rDNA were well suited for the prepared primer with size783 bp and identical ratio ranged 81.17-99.73% of the same species, as indicated a high similarity of the isolates taken from two-humped camels in China or less related to Parabronema skrjabini in sheep and goat. In addition, the study identified the number of the mutations within the four COX1 gene and ITS-2 region, which were the most conservative region of the host's species, supporting the concept of host specificity with Parabronema skrjabini. The COX1 gene and ITS-2 region applied to confirm the diagnosis using a universal primer, as it included eight isolates with a size of 689 bp, identical values were ranged from 84.99-98.02% depending on the multiple sequence alignment and showed an increase in the substitution level among isolates at an upper taxonomic level. Studying of the COX1 gene and ITS-2 region in Parabronema skrjabini demonstrated a significant relation in the cluster and an early common ancestor with isolates of the two-humped camel (China). As for the COX1 gene and ITS-2 region, the phylogenetic relationship supported the ribosomal gene results, especially with Habronema muscae or related species such as Habronema majus, Dirofilaria repens, Dipetalonema evansi, Setaria tundra, Cercopithifilaria sp towards the root node. Therefore, considering COX1 gene and ITS-2 region as an ideal tool in determining the phylogenetic history of the sequence maps, but less conservative mode than the ITS2 ribosome gene based to a taxonomic species level.

Comparison the efficiency of different techniques for the diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered ewes

Sura S. Aghwan; Haitham S. Al-Bakri; Sadam M. Albaqqal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 19-23
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127058.1452

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasitic infections of human and other warm-blooded animals causes toxoplasmosis. In the present study a total of 50 uterus samples collected from slaughtered ewes were investigated for detection of T. gondii. Several techniques have been used to diagnose the infection with this parasite. Firstly, the impression smears staining methods used for the all samples using giemsa stain. Secondly, uses of direct fluorescence technique by acridine orange method for staining the impression smears of the uteri. As well as the histological section technique was used to determine the developmental growth stages of the parasite of all uterus samples and finally the serological method by latex agglutination test was used for the detection of antibodies of parasite. The results showed that detection of T. gondii using these four methods was 100, 80, 80 and 50%, respectively. It was concluded that the impression smears of the uterus staining with Giemsa stain was more readily, effectively and efficiently, followed by the direct immunofluorescence technique and histological section stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain technique, and finally the serological method.

Effect of ultrasound on protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus in vitro and in vivo

Asmaa A. Ali; Baraa B. Ramadhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.126906.1410

The current study was designed to investigate the effect of ultrasound on the protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus by enforcing steady numeral of frequencies during a certain interval (20000 pulse/s) (1.8 w/cm2), using exposure time 30,20,15,12,10 and 5s, individually and respectively. Consequently, six albino mice groups were immunized against cystic echinococcosis, which injected with exposed protoscoleces, to acquire specific cell-mediated immunity, called delayed type-hypersensitivity (DTH) which assessment by measurement the foot pad density. The results displayed significant excess (P≤ 0.001) of DTH by increase of foot pad thickness in injected groups. The results showed maximum thickness of 1.54 mm, 1.4mm, 0.9 mm. after 3h, 24h, and 48h post - injection, respectively, that compared with the thickness of control group 1.072, 0.638, 0.328 mm, respectively, during five months of experiment. The present research exhibited the action of ultrasonication technique on the viability of Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in vitro. Conclusion, Ultrasound frequencies used in the present study could be have consequential impact on the cellular immunity in albino mice.

Phynotypic and genotypic identification of Eimeria species in backyard chicken in Nineveh governorate, Iraq

Adnan M. Ahmed; Haitham S. AlBakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 41-46
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130487.1834

Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by a parasite of the genus Eimeria. This parasite mainly affects poultry species and causes great economic losses in the poultry industry. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of coccidiosis in the local breed of domestic chicken in Nineveh Governorate, Iraq. 450 faecal swabs and intestinal samples (intestinal scraping) were collected from different local breeds of home-bred chickens from October 2020 to the end of March 2021. All fecal samples were examined using the flotation method by using sugar solution, and Eimeria was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction method. Fecal examination results showed that 32.6% of the total samples were positive for Eimeria oocysts, classified into six species including E. brunetti, E. mitis.E. maxima E. acervulina E. necatrix, E. tenella with infection rates are 57.5, 44.2, 42.1, 26.5, 20.4, 16.3%, respectively. The phenotypic results were genetically confirmed by the result of the reaction of 455 base pairs. The prevalence of coccidiosis was highest in chickens less than three months of age 49.2% and lowest in chickens older than 6 months 23.9%

Pathological and molecular study of ovine diaphragms naturally infected by Sarcosystis spp.

Enas S. Mostafa; Nadia S. Alhayali; Eman G. Suleiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 749-755
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128327.1570

 Sarcosystis spp., has a close relationship with muscles due to its unique localization within skeletal muscle in humans and the animals it infects, as the chronic condition of the disease causes significant economic losses, especially in terms of meat production as a result of the formation of cysts, whether macroscopic or microscopic, in their muscle fibers. Sarcosystis tenella and Sarcosystis arieticanis are the most important pathogenic cysts forming in sheep. In this study, 50 samples of diaphragm muscles of sheep slaughtered in the butchers' shops and the Mosul abattoir were examined grossly, histologically, and using PCR technique as a diagnostic tool to identify or diagnose the causative and responsible species of these changes. The diaphragm samples appeared white and pale on the macroscopic examination, while the tissue lesions were characterized by the presence of Sarcosystis in different numbers and sizes among the muscle fibers, which led to the occurrence of zinker necrosis and intense infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophil, monocyte, macrophage and giant cells, and also oedema and proliferation of fibroblast. With the formation of fibrous tissue whose intensity was inferred (mild, medium and intense) by using the masson’s trichrome stain. The results of the molecular analysis using the nested PCR technique indicated that these diagnosed microscopic cysts belong to Sarcosystis tenella with a reaction product of 800bp and 500bp.

Genotypic analysis of ticks species infesting cattle in Al-Diwaniyah abattoir

Mansoor J. Ali; Wisam R. Raheem Atiyah; Monyer A. Abdulameir Al-Fatlawi; Saba F. Khlaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 673-677
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127772.1525

Different vectors are considered critical for disease transmission between animals; however, ticks play a significant role in the dissemination of various infectious illnesses of animals and human importance. The current work was carried out to categorize ticks genetically of those isolated from cattle that entered Al-Diwaniyah abattoir. In the present study, 50 tick samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination and genetic-based methods of polymerase chain reaction and partial gene sequencing, both utilized the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1) gene as a genotyping element. The findings of the microscopic examination showed that the ticks were from Hyalomma spp. Further analysis, the polymerase chain reaction revealed the genus of Hyalomma of the ticks, but when the PGS was performed, one sample of H. detritum, three samples of H. excavatum, and two samples of H. marginatum were identified. When the phylogenetic analyses were conducted, H. detritum showed close genetic similarity to an isolate from Spain EU827695.1. H. excavatum revealed similarity with isolates from India MK863382.1 and Turkey MT230050.1. In contrast, H. marginatum displayed close identity to an isolate from Iran (MG557555.1). In conclusion, these findings may indicate evolutionary links of the locally identified isolates to different world isolates, probably due to the trade-moving of animals.

A study of the incidence of Lucilia sericata fly in ovine in Mosul city

Nadia S. Alhayali; Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 739-743
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128276.1566

The objective of the current study is to examine the incidence of Lucilia sericata larvae in the sheep in Mosul city, Iraq. From a total of 670 sheep examined, 92 sheep of them 13.7% were infested with Lucilia sericata larvae. For the 516 larvae found in the sheep, 146 (28.3%) was detected to be of the first instars larva, 120 (23.3%) was second in stars larva and 250 (48.4) as third instars larva. As the average number of larvae in the infested animals was 5.6. The infestation percentage in males was higher 26.3% compared to the females 4.2%, where there is no significant difference reported concerning with the age. The prevalence of Lucilia sericata larvae was 8.4% in spring, 38.9 % in summer, 2.4% in autumn and 1.5% in winter. The difference in terms of seasons were statistically significant. Sheep in the rural areas had higher infestation rate in comparison to the sheep in urban area. Most lesions occurred in the breech region, flank, leg and inter digital space of a foot. The percentage of adult flies that merged was 73.3% and the pupariation period was 12 to 20 hours, while the incubation and moulting periods were 7 to 10 days. All flies were similar in the external appearance and belonging to Lucilia sericata causing strike disease in sheep.

Aloe vera and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) accelerate healing process in domestic cat (Felis domesticus) suffering from scabies

Tridiganita Solikhah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 699-704
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127884.1539

The objective of this study is to know the formula in making Aloe vera gel cream with VCO to create a scabies medicine and know which treatment gives the fastest healing effect of scabies in domestic cats in Mojokerto. The first step is to extract Aloe vera by infundation method, phytochemical identification test, making Aloe vera cream, testing the washing power of the cream, and testing the effect of Aloe vera gel cream on 32 cats suffering from scabies in Mojokerto, then the skin of cats suffering from scabies scraped and observed under a microscope to observe the ectoparasites that cause scabies in cats. Cats were divided into 4 treatments namely A, B, C, and D. The results of this study indicated skin scrapping on 32 cats scabies in Mojokerto, exist 26 cats that were positive for Notoedres cati, 2 cats positive for Sarcoptes scabieiand 4 cats are negative. Formulas used for the manufacture of creams included stearic acid, triethanolamine, adeps lanae, paraffin liquid, VCO, nipagin, nipasol, aquades, and Aloe vera. The results of the three groups of cream formulas B, C, D caused a significant cure in cats suffering from scabies compared to control group A.

Therapeutic trial on clinical cases of impactive and spasmodic colic in donkeys in Gondar, northwest Ethiopia

Fentaye K. Gashe; Kindiye Amenu; Birhanu Ayele

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 795-802
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127394.1501

The therapeutic trial was conducted from December 2018 to May 2019 to compare the therapeutic efficacy of different drug regimens in the treatment of impactive and spasmodic colic in donkeys in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. Twenty-five purposively selected donkeys were used in this study. Ten of them were showing suspected clinical signs of impactive colic and the remaining ten were with spasmodic colic. The rest five donkeys were kept as control group. For this trial, each disease category was again grouped into two subgroups. The first sub-group in group A with suspected spasmodic colic was treated with ivermectin and, the second sub-group was treated with fenbendazole. Similarly, the first subgroup in group B with suspected impactive colic was treated with meloxicam and the remaining sub-group was treated with hyoscine butyl bromide. Most vital parameters were recorded before and after treatment of colicky donkeys. Feces and blood samples were collected and examined pre and post-treatment from each donkey. Donkeys treated with ivermectin subcutaneously have 97.3% fecal egg count reduction percentage, whereas donkeys treated with fenbendazole orally have fecal egg count reduction percentage of 79.85%. Donkeys treated with meloxicam, most of the clinical signs disappear within 24 hours of time after treatment. Subcutaneous administration of ivermectin was effective for the treatment of spasmodic colic due to Strongyle infestation in donkeys. Therefore, field veterinarians should practice subcutaneous administration of ivermectin and intramuscular administration of meloxicam for effective treatment of spasmodic and impactive colic in donkeys, respectively.

Ectoparasite inventorisation of nilem fish (Osteochilus hasselti) fingerlings cultured on ponds in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia

D. Fira; Putu Angga Wiradana; Arif Ansori; Raden Joko Kuncoroningrat Susilo; Emy Sabdoningrum

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 605-609
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127031.1440

Nilem fish (Osteochilus hasseltii) is a type of freshwater fish native to Indonesia that is included in the Cyprinid family and has the potential to be developed as a superior product of aquaculture in Indonesia. This study aims to inventorisation the level of ectoparasite in nilem fishfingerlingscultured on the ponds in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia. Ectoparasites examination was carried out by taking mucus from the skin surface and gill of nilem fish. Sample preparations that have been made are observed using a stereomicroscope. Prevalence and intensity levels were analyzed by descriptive analysis. The observation of the sample showed the presence of ectoparasites such as Trichodina sp. (P: 86.67%; MI: 7.69 ind/fish) and Dactylogyrus sp. (P: 6.67%; MI: 1 ind/fish). In summary, the level of prevalence and intensity produced are included in the medium category infestation and the two parasites found cannot pose a zoonotic risk.

Morphological and molecular identification of Parabronema skrjabini of camels (Camelus dromedary) in Najaf province

Haider H. A-Fatlawy; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 507-512
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127101.1459

The current study was conducted during the period from September 2019 to December 2019, the number of examined samples 150 abomasums isolated from males 127 and females 23 to identify the species of Parabronema skrjabini that infected one-humped camel slaughtered in Al-Ashraf Najaf slaughterhouse. The microscopic examination of the worms was properties compared to other worms of the digestive system, and then confirmed using genetic markers with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the use of sequencing and phylogenetic analysis technologies relative to those that are predominant in world regions registered in the Gene bank. The results of the microscopic examination showed that Parabronema skrjabini distinguished by a red color, females are curved dorsally and longer than males with a vertically curved and head features that resemble a horseshoe for both sexes. The number of infected samples is 53 (35.33%) and the non-infected samples 97 (64.64%). The highest rate of infection during December month 63.41%. On the other hand, the prevalence rate has been reported 65.21% females and 29.92% males with significant differences. In this research, PCR technique was used the molecular examination with the selection of the highest DNA samples, which were 10 samples to determine the alignment range according to the ITS2 gene, all samples were well suited to primer in length 783 bp and confirmed the diagnosis of these nematodes.

Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infections in cattle in Kirkuk province

Mohammed Y. Nooraldin; Shaheen A. Jaafar; Abdulmuniem I. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 331-334
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126832.1394

Neospora caninum was identified as a coccidian parasite as in 1988, before that date it was misclassified as Toxoplasma gondii based on structural similarities. The aim of this study was to determine theseroprevalence of N. caninum in cattle in Kirkuk Province. A total of 185 cattle serum samples were collected randomly. Data about ages, gender and abortion history of females were recorded. Serum samples were examined by using ELISA as a screening test for the detection of anti- N. caninum IgG antibodies of past infection. Results showed that 53 (28.6%) cattle were seropositive infected, with significantly higher seropositive infection of age group >2 years in comparison to other age groups 94.3%. The distribution of N. caninum of total infected cattle showed that the seropositive infection in females were 47(88.7%), which was more than males 6 (11.3%) with a highly significant difference. There were 22(48.8%) aborted cattle out of 47 infected cattle with N. caninum with no significant difference in comparison with the healthy group.

A survey of chewing lice of some raptors in southern Iraq, with remarks on prevalence and occurrence

Alaa Hatem; Mufid Abou Turab; H.K. Abdul-Zahra; Muhammad Muhammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 239-244
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126717.1365

This study was conducted to isolate and identify the chewing lice from some raptors in Basrah, Thi-Qar, and Missan provinces located in south of Iraq. Samples of birds were collected from January to December 2018. The survey was accomplished with a total of 87 raptors belonging to five species, sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, lesser kestrel Falco naumani, kestrel Falco tinnuculus, and black kite Milvus migrans. Totally 58 of 87 birds were infested with chewing lice, the overall prevalence was 66.67%. Five chewing lice species were identified: Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Degeeriella fusca, Degeeriella rufa, and Laemobothrion maximum. All these specieswere identified in Iraq for the first time. D. rufa was recorded the highest prevalence in all raptors with 28.74%, whereas C. platystomus was the lowest 10.34%. As for the prevalence of bird’s species, the highest percentage was recorded in kestrels and black kite with 71.43%, while sparrow hawk was the lowest 53.85%. Some notes about ecology and occurrence of the chewing lice were reported.

Detection of Trichomoniasis in cattle in Nineveh province

Wasan A. Alobaidii; Qaes T. Alobaidii; Sadam D. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 287-290
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126790.1380

The current study was conducted on the detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in vaginal mucus of infected cows using conventional polymerase chain reaction technique (cPCR) in Nineveh province, Iraq. A total of 87 vaginal mucus samples were collected randomly from the vagina of Heifer cows of different ages (2-4, >4-6, >6 years old) and stages of pregnancy with different clinical status (early embryonic death, pyometra, abortion and healthy animals once) by washing cow’s vagina using artificial insemination pipette, DNA extraction of T. foetus was done from vaginal mucus samples, cPCR was attempt using TFR3 and TFR4 primers, Results indicated that 11 cows (12.6 %) were positive for T. foetus. The clinical status of cows demonstrated statistically significant (P<0.05) a higher percentage of Early Embryonic Death at (6.9%) compared to pyometra, abortion, and healthy cows. Furthermore, the percentage of T. foetusinfection was significantly (P<0.05) elevated among cows (>2-4 years old) at (8%) compared to (>4-6 years old) and (>6 years old) cows. This study concluded that T. foetusinfection was an elevated percentage of infection in cows with early embryonic death and in cows (>2-4) years old. This study is the first detected T. foetus in cattle in Nineveh province.

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies in meat juice of beef

Raafat Shaapan; Nagwa I. Toaleb; Eman H. Abdel-Rahman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 319-324
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126829.1390

Toxoplasmosis is an important worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. Infected cattle meats is considered a serous cause of human toxoplasmosis. Here, this study assesses the infection with Toxoplasma gonddi (T. gondii) in cattle using meat juice samples from diaphragmatic muscles collected at the slaughter. An in house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and commercial latex agglutination test (LAT) followed by immunoblotting were developed on the meat juice (fluids) using tachyzoites of locally isolated T. gondii strain. The comparative analysis of the results of the tested juice samples showed an excellent agreement between the in-house indirect ELISA and LAT test in the positive and negative of meat juice. Relative sensitivity was higher for ELISA on diaphragms fluids random samples 80.39%, for the LAT test was 68.6%. Immune-reactive bands of T. gondii local strain Ag with naturally infected meat juice were 116, 83, 65, 30 and 23 KDa. The obtained results concluded that the development of an effective ELISA test to be used in for detection of toxoplasmosis infection of slaughtered cattle in large-scale would be exactly valuable, since the important role that beef plays in epidemiology of T. gondii, in particular the hazard of transmission to human and food safety.

Molecular identification of new circulating Hyalomma asiaticum asiaticum from sheep and goats in Duhok governorate, Iraq

Shameeran Ismael; Lokman Tayib Omer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 79-83
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126330.1298

Because there was no such study done on identification of tick species by PCR technique in in Duhok Governorate, therefore present study was done to identify tick species by using molecular study by using of 16S rRNA and DNA sequencing. About 1000 ticks were collected from both sheep and goat, form Duhok Governorate including: Barwaria, Zakho, Sumeil, Mangeshik, Sersing, Shekhan and Akre, between May and June 2016, between April and June 2017. The result found during this study were six species under two genera of the hard ticks were identified by molecular study and sequencing including: three species were under the genus Hyalomma and three species were under the genus Rhipiciphalus that infect small ruminants in Duhok governorate from these species a new species under the Hylomma genra (Hyalomma asiatium asiaticum) with accession number (MN594484), was first time reported in Duhok governorate. Also phylogenetic tree was constructed depend on the 16S rRNA.

Molecular differentiation of Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species based on 18s rRNA gene in small ruminants

Monyer A. Alfatlawi; Yahia Kh. Ismail; Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Israa N. Ibadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 105-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126407.1313

This study was conducted to investigate Anoplocephalidia Cestoda in sheep and goat and evaluate the 18s rRNA to genetically differentiate the genera of this family. Sixty sample tapeworms were collected from small intestines of 30 sheep and 30 goats from different slaughterhouses in Al-Najaf and Al-Qadisiyah provinces, during September, 2016 to February, 2017. Based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 18s rRNA gene partial sequencing (18sGPS) methods used, tapeworm infection of sheep and goat’s intestines was 32.9% and 31.4%, respectively. The partial gene sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene showed two closely related isolates of M. benedeni which are aligned distinctly to an NCBI isolate of the same species from China. For T. giardia, the outcomes of the phylogenetic analysis unveiled three distinct local isolates which were similar to an NCBI database isolate from China. The current data ensure the importance of the molecular techniques in differentiating between Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species that were identified for their presence in the small intestines of sheep and goats.

Clinical and molecular identification of ruling Theileria annulata strains in cattle calves in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Monyer A. Alfatlawi; Asaad A. Jasim; Noor E. Jarad; Saba F. Khlaif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 115-119
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126429.1319

This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary status of T. annulata in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. In this study, the clinical examination of 50 infected animals was performed with blood sample collection (2.5ml per animal), and drug targets cytochrome b, a vital component of the electron transfer chain in the mitochondria of the protozoan, cytb gene was targeted using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure. Also, 18S rRNA gene as a molecular target for the PCR and a partial gene sequencing (PGS) were included. The PCR that involved using the 18S rRNA and cytb genes as genetic targets revealed amplification of the targeted pieces at 620bp and 1092bp, respectively, in all tested samples. The18S rRNA gene sequence of local T. annulata isolates were aligned with global reference strains for T. annulata recorded in the GenBank. The local strains were close, 100%, in their identity to isolates from Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan; however, they were 99% similar to a nucleotide sequences from India and Bangladesh. Diseased calves showed clinical signs such as high fever (40.3-41.5°C), decreased appetite or in appetence, asymmetrical enlargement of superficial lymph nodes particularly the pre-scapular ones, some cases with diarrhea, pale or icteric mucus membrane of eyes, bulging eyes, lacrimation, ecchymotic hemorrhages on the sclera, incoordination, nervous signs (Dullness, depression, lethargy), salivation, and bloated young calves. The data observed from the present inspecting work may reveal genetic evolution in the local strains with others recorded in the GeneBank. This means that our local strains might have close relationships with some global strains.

Molecular detection of Hammondia heydorni in dogs in Mosul city

Wasan A. Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 329-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126052.1219

Through this study 122 individual fecal samples were collected from dogs, with different ages, sexes, and breeding management (stray and pet house hold). Some dogs were with healthy appearances while others were suffered from diarrhea, anorexia, depression, dehydration. Infection was investigated by light microscope after flotation technique by using Sheather's sugar solution. if the sample gives positive to oocyst (H. heydorni or other relative group), were mixed with potassium dichromate solution a rate of 2.5% for the stimulation of sporulation. DNA extraction was done using 2% sarcosyl, pronase E followed by phenol/chloroform extraction then precipitation attempt using ethanol. DNA amplification was attempt using H. heydorni primers JS4 and JS5 n microscope examination give 78 sample positives to the presence of oocyst, while polymerase chain reaction showed total percentage of infection with H. heydorni was 34.6% (27 case give positive reaction to PCR). Dogs less than 6 months of age show high infective rate 17.9%, dogs which suffer from gastrointestinal tract troubles (diarrhea, anorexia and dehydration) gave high infective rate 24.4%. Stray dogs gave high prevalence of infection to H. heydorni 25.6% when compared with pet house hold dogs which recorded 9% percentage of infection. This study is the first recorded H. heydorni in dogs in Mosul city.

Synergizing the deltamethrin larvicidal activity against Aedes albopictus larvae using cinnamaldehyde in Diwaniyah, Iraq

Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Dhafer R. Al-Fetly; Monyer A. Alfatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 317-320
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126026.1212

The current work on mosquito larvae was performed to evaluate the resistance status of larvae to deltamethrin (DM) and to detect if the larvicidal activity (LA) of this chemical could be synergized after exposing the larvae to cinnamaldehyde (CD). Here, 200 Aedes albopictus larvae were employed for the experiment and were divided randomly into 2 groups (100/each group and placed in petri-dishes (PD), 10 larvae/PD), and they are the DM group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l in 99ml of distilled water (DW) was placed to each PD) and the DM+CD group (1ml of 0.04 mg/l and 1ml of 0.9mg/l respectively were placed with 98ml DW in each PD). The experiment was lasted for 24hrs. Larvae were detected to have resistance against DM as 45% to 60% of the larvae were killed by the DM, 40% to 55% resistance rate. However, when evaluating DM activity with the use of CD, the LA was synergized showing mortality in 87% to 92% of the larvae in which a significant increase in the mortality in DM+CD group was noticed more than that in the DM group. Furthermore, RT-qPCR was run to identify the expression status of the P540 monooxygenase gene, Cyp6p15, and found that the gene expression was significantly inhibited in the DM+CD group when comparing that in the DM group that showed overexpression of this gene. This work results provide viable information about the potential activity of the cinnamaldehyde in synergizing the larvicidal activity of deltamethrin.

Molecular study to detect the Eimeria species in sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Noora M. Majeed; Noaman N. Aaiz; Ahmed J. Neama

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 377-381
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126064.1225

Sheep eimriosis is one of the most important and common disease which infects sheep in all ages but it is more effective in lambs. The diarrhea with or without blood is the main signs of infection. Eimeria protozoan required single host to complete its life cycle which pass in different stages including schizogony, gametogony and sporogony. The study was designed for detection of sheep Eimeria species through the molecular method. This study was conducted in Al-Diwanyah province during the winter months of 2019. In which 200 sheep fecal samples were collected and examined traditionally to investigate the Eimeria oocytsts. Ninety-seven samples of highly intensity infection with Eimeria oocysts were selected to subject for DNA extraction process. The extracted DNAs were tested through amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene by conventional PCR, and then phylogenetic analysis was made to diagnose the sheep Eimeria species. All samples that examined microscopically were showed positive results of infections with Eimeria protozoan. Out of 97 molecularly examined samples, forty-five (46.39%) were given positive result in conventional PCR technique, where Eimeria spp. detected through succeeded amplification of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) gene. Then phylogenetic analysis referred to that there are five species of Eimeria confirmed in sheep in Al-Diwanyah province including 6 (33.33%) samples diagnosed as E. ahsata, 4 (22.22%) samples E. weybridgensis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. ovinoidalis, 3 (16.66%) samples E. bovis and 2 (11.11%) samples E. auburnensis. So, the Eimeria protozoan appears as an endemic parasite and can infect sheep with different species in study area. The sheep can infect with both specific and nonspecific species.

Molecular characterization of fertile hydatid cysts from the liver of the sheep and cows and associated environmental influence factors

Renas G. Abdulla; Sarmad N. Mageed; Chawarwan E. Obed; Jamil A. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 321-327
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126036.1213

The aim of the study is characterizing of hydatid cysts that have been isolated from sheep and cow liver fertile hydatid cysts using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1(cox1) gene. DNA samples of nineteen sheep and one cow were extracted from protoscoleces and germinal layers of the parasites in Koya city-Erbil, Iraq, using specific extraction procedures. Mitochondrial cox1 gene region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the expected gene sizes were confirmed by gel electrophoresis. All DNA isolates were then sequenced. Nucleotide sequence alignments were then performed to verify the sequenced isolated according to the database, which showed that all samples were belonging to the (G1) sheep strain. Phylogenetic analysis was also carried out for the sequenced isolated to find out the highest similarities with closest organisms to E. granulosus’ conserved gene and to reveal sharing common ancestor, which has been confirmed. Electrocatalytic reduction of DNA where detected through applying cyclic-voltammetry technique, which referred to the environmentally strong protection features of these strains against any effects of external factors, such as heavy metals and has revealed the secret behind the potent preservation of the DNA structure of this parasite from being affect by mutations, or alterations, along the different lineages over a long period of time.

Molecular detection and seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province, Iraq

Farhad B. Mikaeel; Adel T. Al-Saeed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 247-252
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125885.1173

Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic parasitic disease of mammals and birds; human infection occurs through consumption of raw or undercooked meat. Little was known about the infection rate of T. gondii among free range local chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Duhok province. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine the infection rate in Duhok province by using ELISA (IgG) and conventional PCR. A total of 368 blood samples were collected from free range local chickens distributed in five different areas of Duhok province during the period from November 2016 to March 2017. The collected blood samples were from different sexes (hens and cocks) and from different age groups (less than 6 months and older than 6 months). The data found that the total infection rate was (84 / 368) 22.8% by ELSIA. The presence of the infection was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequencing. In this study, there were differences from area to area in the infection rates, the highest rate was reported in Semel district at 33.7% which was significantly (p

Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in chicken in Al-Diwaniya province

Noor I. Jarad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 441-445
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126159.1249

This study were conducted in Al-Diwaniya province, in south Iraq during the period from Februaryto July 2019 to determine the rate of infection of Cryptosporidium parvum in domestic chicken, study the effect of some epidemiological factors such as sex and months on the rate of infection, addition to the molecular identification of Cryptococcus parvum by amplification HSP70 gene by conventional PCR. Number of collected fecal sample was 210 from domestic chicken and stained by Ziehl-Neelsen stain. The results of the microscopic examination showed that 108(51.4%) out of 210 fecal samples were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. The statistical analysis founded no marked difference in prevalence of infection between sexes. Significant difference was recorded between infection rate during the months of the study and higher prevalence of infection rate was observed in March 11.9%, while lowest infection rate was observed in July 5.23%. and June 5.23%. Genomic DNA was extracted from 108 fecal samples and HSP70 gene for C. parvum was amplified by PCR. PCR technique is showed that out of 108 fecal samples 21.3% were positive for Cryptosporidium parvum.

Estimation of some biochemical parameters and trace elements in sheep infested with Taenia hydatigena cysts in Sulaymaniyah province/Iraq

Aram A. Mohammed; Mohammed A. Kadir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 39-44
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125543.1065

This study was carried out in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq to estimate the concentration of some biochemical parameters and trace elements in the serum of sheep infected with the metacestodes of Taenia hydatigena. The present study included the measurement of some biochemical parameters as total protein, albumin and globulin and evaluation of trace elements as zinc, copper and iron using automatic analyzer and spectrophotometer respectively. For this purpose, up to 40 serum samples from sheep infected with T. hydatigena cysts and 10 serum samples from non-infected group had been used. The findings of the current study showed significant elevated levels in both total protein and globulin compared to non-infected group, where the total protein and globulin levels were 8.04 ± 0.275 g/dl and 5.90 ± 0.321 g/dl respectively, compared to the non-infected group 6.686 ± 0.409 g/dl and 4.124 ± 0.479 g/dl respectively. While, the mean serum albumin in infected sheep was significantly decreased 2.14 ± 0.224 g/dl compared to non-infected one 2.562 ± 0.152 g/dl. About the results of trace elements, the serum Cu was significantly increased in infected group 1.42 ± 0.466 mg/L compared to non-infected one 0.90 ± 0.171 mg/L, while the mean serum Zn concentration was significantly decreased in infected group 0.37 ± 0.230 mg/L compared to non-infected group 0.70 ± 0.108 mg/L. Although, the mean serum Fe of infected sheep 1.42 ± 0.388 mg/L was slightly lower than non-infected one 1.26 ± 0.490 mg/L, statistically there was no significant difference between them. It was concluded that T. hydatigena cysts had significant effects on serum total protein, globulin, Zn and Cu.

Uses of direct and indirect immuno-fluorescent techniques for demonstration of nematodes infection in sheep in Nineveh government

Enas S. Hussein; Sura S. Aghwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 17-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125482.1027

 This study was conducted for comparison between two different modern methods for the diagnosis of the nematode worms' infection in sheep we used acridine orange fluorochrome and specific staining kit in fecal samples. We examined 50 sheep fecal samples; the total infection rate was about 96% when was used lectin - fluorescein kit while the total infection rate was 74% when we used acridine orange fluorochrome technique. In conclusion of this study indicated that lectin - fluorescein kit is more effective than acridine orange fluorochrome in the diagnosis of nematode worms' eggs. Also, we conclude from this study the importance of using fluorescence - lectin kit technique in the diagnosis of nematodes eggs because they are distinguished by their speed, efficiency and accuracy, as they compare with the fecal culture technique to cultivate the larvae from eggs in order to diagnosed the type of nematodes eggs, the lectin - fluorescein kit technique is the first in Iraq.

Effect of probiotic acidophilus plus against infection with secondary hydatid disease in BALB /c mice

Suhayla Y. Yousif; Asmaa A. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 115-121
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125613.1104

The current study investigated the effect of acidophilus plus probiotic in the immune activities in mice to infestation with the cystic echinococcosis. Two dilutions of the probiotic bacteria 9*106/0.1 ml, 30*103/0.1 ml CFU were used, by intraperitoneally injection in the experimental animals, pre and post infections with protoscoleces of Echinococcus granulosus. Before infection remedy comprised injection by acidophilus plus twice with 72 hours interval, on the seventh day, animals were injected with protoscoleces intraperitoneally, after infection remedy implicated injection of animals with protoscoleces of Echinococcus protoscoleces first, next to 72 hours, probiotics were inoculated intraperitoneally. Many criteria were taken into consideration including, numbers, weights, diameters and percentage reduction of hydatid cysts of treated mice in contrast to the animals infested with only. The study showed a decline in cysts including their diameter, weighting, digit, accompanied by increasing the percentage reduction of hydatid cysts in treated mice, the highest percentage reduction was 98.03%, at both dilutions, 6 months post infection, and the minimum cysts number was 0.8 in comparison with the control group 39.4, with significant difference, in the same experiment. The minimum cysts weight was 0.0104 gm, 6 months post infection at the dilution 9*106/0.1 ml CFU, compared with the control group 0.442 gm. The smallest cysts diameter was 0.057 mm in comparison with the control group 0.882 mm at dilution 9*106/0.1 ml CFU, 6 months post infection. Acidophilus plus it may well be deduced that probiotic bacteria can be used as medicinal and remedial method against infection with hydatidosis.

Some chewing lice (Phthiraptera) species as ectoparasites infested aquatic birds with a new record of three species from Al-Sanaf marsh/ southern Iraq

Zainab A. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 173-180
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125721.1139

The present study was carried out to determine additional chewing lice of aquatic birds and additional data on the prevalence of chewing lice in aquatic birds found on the Southern marshes of Iraq. Sixty-nine of different species of aquatic birds were randomly collected and examined for chewing lice in Al-Sanaf marsh, which is located in Thi-Qar province / Southern Iraq, between October 2016 and February 2017, the lice placed in tubes containing 70% ethanol after that they cleared, mounted and identified according to morphological features. Twenty-five (36.23%) out of 69 aquatic birds were infested with chewing lice, a total of six lice species were identified from birds in the current study included Piagetiella titan and Pectinopygus forficulatus infested White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus, Actornithophilus piceus lari infested Slender-billed Gull Larus geni, Actornithophilus himantopi infested Black-Winged stilt Himantopus himantopus, Rallicola fulicae isolated from coot Fulica atra and Rallicola parani infested moorhen Gallinula chloropus. Three lice species: Pectinopygus forficulatus, Rallicola fulicae and Rallicola parani were recorded in current study for the first time in Iraq. We need further investigations of Phthiraptera fauna are very important, not only to complete the list, but also to provide information about parasite-host vector relationships and phylogenetic relation among species.

Prevalence, morphological and biochemical study of larval stage Coenurus cerebralis of Taenia multiceps in sheep

Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 159-163
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125660.1124

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Coenurus cerebralis of Tenia multiceps in sheep of Nineveh governorate. One handed and thirty-six sheep heads were examined for the presence of coenurus cysts 31 (22.8%) were infected. The younger were more affected than the adults. There were no significant differences between the number of infected males and females. The clinical signs varied from one animal to another which consisted of neurological disorders manifested by depression, bending of the head to one side, walking in a circular movement and paralysis in the hind limbs, while some animals did not give the clinical symptoms despite the existence of cyst. The number of cysts were ranged from 1 to 4 cysts/animal. The size of these cyst was ranged from 0.5 to 4 cm, and the volume of fluid in these cysts were ranged from 1 to 6 ml while the number of protoscolices in the cyst were ranged from 60 - 360 protoscolex, the mean length of large and small hooks was 179.95 µm respectively. The study also considered the identification of some chemical constituents of fluid of coenurus cyst such as glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, sodium, potassium, urea and pH.

Genotyping study of Fasciola gigantica isolated from cattle in Aqrah city, Iraq

Reedha N. Hamoo; Fouad S. Al-Rubaye; Nashaat G. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 123-127
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125621.1108

This study was conducted to investigate the 18S rRNA gene of Fasciola gigantica obtained from the liver of cattle live in Aqrah city, Iraq. Fifty-nine Fasciola flukes were collected through routine investigation from livers of naturally infected local cattle (42 cows), from May to August 2017, at the central slaughterhouse of Aqrah city, Kurdistan region of Iraq, the flukes were washed by PBS and then fixed in ethanol. Genomic DNA was extracted, and a 560 bp fragment was amplified by PCR, subsequent by sequencing of PCR products. A remarkable result of this project was the deposition of our gene isolate in GenBank (Accession No. MG786553). However, it was confirmed by the sequence results that isolate species was F. gigantica, and interestingly our samples sequences have alignment match of 100% with many international isolates, without genetic mutations or variations. It is concluded that molecular study could be utilized for both diagnosis and differential diagnosis of parasites with huge precise. Also, an 18S rRNA gene is a perfect fragment for molecular study and phylogenetic analysis of F. gigantica, also our samples have 100% alignment match with universal isolates.

Study on the blood protozoa in geese

Nadia H. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 23-27
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125499.1028

This study included the investigation of blood parasites in 150 geese. The results showed a high infection rate of 70.7%. The infection rate in the geese with small ages was higher compared to the large ages with 84.2 and 47.3% respectively, with no significant difference in infection rate between males and females. The highest infection rate of the parasite is Aegyptianella sp. 26.4% followed by Haemoproteus sp., Plasmodium sp., Leucocytozoon sp. and Trypanosoma sp. with infection rates of 19.8, 18.9, 14.2 and 2.8% respectively, as well as micro larvae of Microfilariae sp. with an infection rate of 17.9%, the two-type infection was the highest, with 45.3%. Microscopic examination of stained blood samples during laboratory experiments showed microscopic developments of the ookinete, which appeared within five hours after blood exposed to air and the ookinete measurement rate was 19.5 × 2 microns.

Microscopic identification, molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq

Rashaa Ateaa; Mansour Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 251-258
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162882

Babesia is one of hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by arthropod vectors which responsible for causing of Babesiosis disease in bovine worldwide. The present study was designed for microscopic identification, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia species in buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city of Iraq. The study performed in three months of summer season (August into September 2017) and animals ages and sex were included in this study. The direct microscopic prevalence results were show highest prevalence of haemoprotozoa prevalence at Babesia sp. 45.74%. The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to animal sex, were show in male 43.48% and female was 52%, with non-significant differences. The Prevalence of Babesia sp. related to age were show 12.50%, 92.86% and 30% in young, adult and old age respectively with significant differences (P<0.05). The prevalence of Babesia sp. related to month of study were show. 28.57%, 62.50% and 42.86 in August, September and October respectively and with non-significant differences. Molecular study results were based on PCR and DNA sequencing method by phylogenetic tree analysis (MEGA 6.0) and NCBI-BLAST Homology Sequence Identity to differentiation Babesia species typing. The Babesia species prevalence results were show identified two Babesia species, high prevalence of Babesia bovis (38.30%) were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bovis (HQ264126.1) with homology sequence identity 97-100% and Babesia bigemina 7.45% were closed related to NCBI-Blast Babesia bigemina (KU206291.1) with homology sequence identity 95-99%, then 43 Babesia species includes (B. bovis and B. bigemina) were submitted into NCBI-Genbank and provided accession numbers (MH503811-MH503853). In conclusion, this study concluded that Phylogenetic tree and homology sequences identity was show accurate in differentiation of Babesia species, and these species can be isolated at from local water buffalo from slaughter house in Al-Najaf city, of Iraq.

Prevalence of nematodes infestation in Clarias gariepinus from El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, Egypt

Sh.S. Sorour; A.H. Hamouda

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162963

A total number of 400 Clarias gaiepinus were collected alive from several and various locations at El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, to investigate the prevailing nematodes that infect this fish species from the two locations. Nearly all the examined fish were positive for one or more nematodes; four spp. of two families were identified from Clarias gaiepinus at El-Burullus Lake: Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. (recovered from the gall bladder for the first time) and Terranova spp. larvae (recorded for the first time in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate representing new locality record), one nematode from Clarias gaiepinus at Lake Nasser: 3rd stage  larvae (L3) of Contraceacum spp. (has zoonotic importance). The prevalence of Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. and Terranova spp. larva were 37.5%, 44%, 0.5% and 10% respectively, meanwhile the prevalence of L3 larvae of Contraceacum spp. were 100%. This study was planned to compare between the nematodes infecting Clarias gaiepinus from the two lakes evaluating clinical signs, postmortem examinations, parasitological examinations, seasonal prevalence and histopathological investigations of infected fish with different nematodes infestation. Clarias  gaiepinus must be eviscerated as soon as possible after catching to prevent 3rd stage larvae of Contraceacum spp. in the abdominal cavity from liberating from their sheaths and attacking the fish musculature (the edible part in the fish) as well as,prevent Terranova spp. larvae in the gills from attacking another parts of the fish and thus prevent the transmission of the nematodes of zoonotic importance to the consumers.

Prevalence of Parascaris equorum in native horses in West Bank Palestine

R. Othman; I. Alzuheir

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 433-436
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163192

A total number of 435 fecal samples from native horses, aged between 6 months to 10 years of both sexes, were collected from eight cities at West Bank, Palestine during January 2015 to January 2017. The Mc Master egg counting and sedimentation methods were used for the detection of Parascaris equorum eggs in the collected samples. The overall prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum was found to be 15.6% (68 out of 435), and this rate varied significantly depending on the city. The highest prevalence rate was in Jericho 41.1% followed by Hebron 26.3%, Jenin 19.4%, Qalqilya 19.4%, Tulkarm 12.2%, Nablus 11.8% and Ramallah 5.3%. The results revealed also that there was no significant difference in the prevalence rate of Parascaris equorum between male 15% and female 16.5% as well as between young 17.6% and adult 10.9% horses.

Detection on ectoparasites on small ruminants and their impact on the tanning industry in Sulaimani province

Bahzad Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 303-309
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162995

The study was carried out through the clinical examination on the skins of sheep and goats to identify the quality and processed in the tanneries. Parasitic skin diseases caused by ectoparasites such as mange mites, lice, and ticks are among these threats resulting in a serious economic loss to the tanning industry and the country as a whole. Out of 38066 sheep and 9889 goats examined in Sulaimani slaughterhouse in spring season 2017, shows statistically significant P<0.05 between sheep and goats prevalence; 9.35% and 7.43% respectively with one or more ectoparasites. Three different of ectoparasites were infested in both sheep and goats namely; hard tick, lice and mite. Five species of hard tick (Ixodidae) were identified in sheep and goats as follows; Boophilus spp 3.68% and 14.16%, Rhipicephalus sanguineous 12.47% and 28.63%, Rhipicephalus turanicus 7.50% and 15.96%, Hyalomma a. anatolicum 11.90% and 31.30%, Hyalomma marginatum 9.26% and 9.95%) respectively. Two species of lice were identified in sheep namely, Damalinia ovis 17.74% and Linognathus stenopsis 13.63%, and D. caprae 10.97% and L. stenopsis 6.22% on goats. Highly infested were identified with mite on sheep include Psarcoptic scabiei 13.83% and Psoroptic ovies 9.98%, while only one species founded in this study in goats namely, Psarcoptic scabiei 22.79%. The overall number of skins refused to tanning industry 164 (4.61%) in sheep and 116 (15.78%) in goat. The difference in the prevalence of skin disease infestation between refused skin in both sheep and goats were statistically significant in ruminants (P<0.05). This paper deals with major skin defects in occurrence by ectoparasites sheep and goats in Sulaimani province.

Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis by ELISA test using anti- T. canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs compared to PCR

Noor Jarad; A.K. Abbas; N.N. Aἀiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 367-370
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163081

Toxocara (T.) canis is a nematode parasite of canines; belong to the Ascarididae family, which accidentally infected humans. Puppies expel the eggs with the feces from the fourth week of the life cycle. This study is the first study in Iraq for detection seroprevalence in stray dogs and extended from January to September 2017. Our study was aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of T. canis infection in stray dogs from different areas in the Al-Diwaniya province, Iraqto detection of specific IgG antibodies to T. canis compared to Conventional PCR technique with the effect of the risk factor. One hundred of the blood sample and one hundred of a faecal sample of same dogs after shooting were studied usingindirect ELISA test and PCR. The result revealed that 71% of the dogs had a seropositive result for this parasite by ELISA test. Dog age is an important factor and affects seroprevalence, were shown that positive rate in adult dogs was more 83.05% than the young dogs 53.65%, while no significant between dogs according to sex. PCR technique showed 58% of dogs were positive forinternal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) ribosomal RNA. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test was 79 and 40% respectively.

Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in Baghdad province, Iraq

H.H. Alseady; M.H. Kawan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 389-394
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163084

The objective of this study was to record the prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium and to determine the Cryptosporidium spp in cattle in different parts of Baghdad province. A total number of 100 fecal samples from different age groups were collected. Conventional method using modified Ziehl-Neelsen for staining fecal smears and molecular techniques for detection the prevalence and determines the species of Cryptosporidium that cause infection. The overall prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium was 21% (21/100) by conventional method; nested PCR was done that targeting 18S rRNA gene on the same samples in which Cryptosporidium DNA identified in 38 samples (38%). Four species of Cryptosporidium in cattle were detected for the first time in Baghdad province: C. parvum (6/10), C. andersoni (2/10), C. bovis (1/10) and C. ryanae (1/10). The determination and characterization of Cryptosporidium spp in cattle was very important to avoid the infection to other animals and handlers and for applying control programs.

The serological diagnosis of canine Leishmaniasis by using ELISA in Nineveh province

Wasan Amjad Alobaidii

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 111-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163194

This study was to investigate the specific antibodies of Leishmania using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay to detect the specific antibodies of the Leishmania donovani complex (L.infatum, L.chagasi, L. donovani) in 80 dogs of both types (domestic and stray dogs) of different ages and both sexes in the Nineveh Province for the period from May 2018 to October 2018. Some animals suffered from the appearance of skin ulcers in the face and quarters and diarrhea, vomiting, Paw pad fissures, the other animals did not show any clinical finding. The results showed that the total infection rate was 55%, the highest percentage of dogs with skin lesions 80.9% with significant differences with other groups, the stray dog's groups recorded high infective rate when compared with domestic dog group 62.96 and 38.4% respectively with significant differences.

Detection of ectoparasites in different birds

Manal Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 37-41
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162896

The study was conducted to detect the ectoparasites infestation in chickens, Domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica and turkeys in different areas of Mosul city by survey examining of 80 birds of chickens, 85 birds of pigeons and 50 birds of turkeys, of both sexes. Results show the infestation rates with ectoparasites in chickens, pigeons and turkeys, were 41.3%,37.6% and 36% respectively. Results show that the chickens were infested with three types of ectoparasites, two species of lice are Menacanthus stramineus, Gniocotes gallinae and soft ticks Argas persicus the infestation rates were 63.6%, 24.2% and 36.4% respectively. The highest infestation rate with lice in chicken was 70% in Spring season and the lowest rate 5% in Summer season while the infestation rates in Autumn and Winter were convergent, there was 44.4% and 45.5% respectively. The results show that the pigeons were infested with two types of ectoparasites, one species of lice is Columbicola columbae and soft ticks is Argas persicus, the rates were 87.5%,18.8% respectively. The infestations were individual and double. In turkeys the results record one lice species Goniocotes gallinae, the infestation rates were 36%. The male and female were infested with rates 27.3% and 42.9% respectively.

Major helminth parasites of Camelus dromedarius in afar pastoral area of Ethiopia

Angesom Hadush Desta

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125524.1046

Camel internal parasites are among important camel health problems which are often affecting camel production and productivity. A cross-sectional study was carried out in camels to study the major helminth parasites in selected districts of Afar regional state of Ethiopia. Coprological examination and key informants interview were done to collect the required data in the study areas. Fecal sample was collected from a total of 384 camels and about 76.04% (292) were found to harbor at least one helminth parasite. According to the flotation and sedimentation techniques, Trichostrongyle egg (71.6%) was found with higher prevalence followed by coccidia (69.9%). In the mixed infestation, occurrence of two parasites together (31.9%) was with higher prevalence and occurrence of five parasites together (4.4%) was the lowest one. According to the key informants, the occurrence and transmission of these parasites is higher in the study areas due to aggregation of camels in the cross-border salt trade and mixing of camel herds at watering and feeding points. Furthermore, there was no adequate seasonal and programmed treatment due to drug shortage. Therefore, collaborative parasitic control and prevention measure and public education on modern camel husbandry should be delivered.

Inventory of ticks on dogs in rural areas of the northeast of Algeria and its relationship with influences some ecological and climatic parameters

Faouzi M.; Ahmed B. N.; Saida M.

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 175-182
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153846

Research was undertaken to establish an inventory of ticks on dogs in the north east of Algeria. In the first aspect of study, a survey aims to identify of Ixodidae infesting the dogs in bioclimatic different areas and to determine the risk factors. This work took place between 2006 and 2012. The results of the collections show that all the dogs, which were the subject of this survey, are infested by ticks during the period between March and August in different areas of the northeastern of Algeria. Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the predominant tick species. It has been observed with a frequency of 88 % in the area of El-Tarf, 100 % in Souk-Ahras, 95 % in the Tébessa region and 72 % in Guelma, (average of 89 %). Climatic conditions seem to play the essential role for this distribution of ticks. The other tick species collected are: Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Hyalomma anatolicum. The latter were present with very low a proportion, which gives them the appearance of accidental parasitism in dogs. Rhipicephalus sanguineus has significant infestation intensity in spring and summer, peaking in August in the semi-arid region (Souk-Ahras). In humid regions (El-Tarf), the peak of infestation recorded by this arthropod is in April. The second aspect of study of the seasonal dynamics of Rhipicephalus sanguineus shows the seasonal nature (Spring-Summer) of the brown tick of dog.

Molecular identification and sequencing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence genes among different isolates in Al-Diwaneyah hospital

L. J. Shaebth

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 183-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153847

Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa possesses a variety of the virulence factors that may contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxin A (toxA) and exoenzyme S (ExoS). The principal aim of this study was to find out the rapid method for identification of P. aeruginosa and to detect the toxA, exoS and16SrRNAgenes by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Other aim on the other hand, the DNA sequencing was performed for phylogenetic tree analysis of 16SrRNA gene in local pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates in comparison with NCBI-Genbank global P. aeruginosa isolates and finally submission of the present isolates in NCBI-Genbank database. According to the detection of the 16S rRNA gene, the study revealed that 29 (58%) and 32 (64%) of P. aeruginosa out of 50 swabs obtained from each wound and burn areas were positive. whereas in addition, the result of this study showed that the toxA gene was detected in 77% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 51% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. whereas, the exoS gene was detected in 69% of P. aeruginosa isolated from the wound and 49% P. aeruginosa isolated from the burn. BLAST analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene shared more than 99% homology with the sequences of P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that (PA-IQw and PA-IQb) the 16S rRNA gene shared higher homology with other four P. aeruginosa isolates available in the GenBank. The homology of the nucleotides was between 99.9% and 100%.

Rearing and measurements of Oestrus ovis larvae and pupae (Diptera: Oestridae) from slaughtered sheep heads in Mosul abattoir -Iraq

A.B.J. Alani; E.R. Al- kennany; N.H. Al-ubeidi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 21-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153789

Oestrus ovis larvae 142 were collected from the 133 heads of sheep slaughtered at the Mosul abattoir in Nineveh governorate during March-May 2014. In This study, the weight and dimensions Oestrus ovis larvae and pupae were measured and there was a significant difference between larvae of Oestrus ovis. Forty five of the third larval stage were rearing and them pupated until emergence of the adult stage. Sixteen larvae were emerged to adult (35.6%). (4.4%) larvae did not pupariation and 60% were not reached to adult. The puparation period taking (24-30 hours) and the pupal stage taking (23-28) days the average longevity of adult flies was 10 days. This study is regarded as the first one showing that all flies were similar in their external shape and so all were belonging to Oestrus ovis causing myiasis in sheep.

Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of dogs in rural areas of the north east of Algeria

F. Matallah; W. Khelaifia; S. Lamari; S. Matallah

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 93-98
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153829

Canine faeces are an important source of pathogens for the pet population, for dog owners and for the community in general. A total of 100 faecal samples taken from dogs, were examined for helminth eggs. 80 % of dogs examined are parasitized. Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum were the most commonly observed parasites. T. canis was observed with a prevalence of 68 % in the El Kala region, while in the region of Guelma, A. caninum were predominant with a rate of 71%. Dipylidium caninum and Trichuris were present but with low proportions especially in the region of Guelma. The climatic conditions seem to play a role in the excretion of helminth eggs, while the age plays a primordial role in particular for T. canis as well as for A. caninum. The absence of conscience of the owners of dogs and the lack of participation of the veterinarian role increase the risk of the parasitism of these animals and consequently for the public health in particular our children in the Northeast of Algeria.

Prevalence and molecular studies on Echinococcus equinus isolated from necropsied donkeys

A.Y. Desouky; N.M. Helmy; Sh.S. Sorour; M.M. Amer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 101-106
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145605

In the present study, forty donkeys of different ages and sexes at Giza Zoo, Egypt were investigated between October 2015 and September 2016 for the presence of hydatidosis disease. Hydatid cysts were detected in the livers of 10% of the examined donkeys and these cysts had a fertility rate 100%. Female donkeys were infected with cysts more than males and all infected donkeys were old aged with no cases of infection were detected in young or adult donkeys. Using molecular tools, the DNA extracted from cysts that had been isolated was subjected to PCR amplification, using synthesized oligonucleotide primers, and these were constructed to target the 299 bp within the (ND2) gene, which is considered to be specific for the Echinococcus equinus genotype. The sequenced PCR products showed homology to E.equinus (G4 or horse strain genotype). These results can be used in future to pursue the epidemiological status of the causative strain of hydatidosis in equines at the study area.

Detection the some developmental stages of Babesia spp in hemolymph and midgut of adult females of Boophilus microplus naturally on cattle in Mosul city

E.G. Suleiman; A.F. Altaee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 67-75
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145600

This study involved the detection of vermicules of Babesia spp in the hemolymph of Boophilus microplus adult females naturally fed on cattle after their remaining a live for 5 to 8 days under laboratory conditions and the detection of some developmental stages (schizonts, rupture of schizonts, small dark collar bodies and migration of vermicules from the hemolymph to different tissues of tick). Both vermicules of B. bovis and B. bigemina were diagnosed. The vermivules of B. bovis appeared as croissant or club-shaped bodies with a broad anterior ending and pointed posterior one and having a central nucleus and a vacuole in the anterior end with a curved or semi curved tail. The vermicules of B. bigemina had a croissant or club –shaped bodies with a lesser width in their anterior end than in B. bovis with no vacuole and with a straight tail. The average length of B. bovis was 13.92 ±1.34 µ with a range of 11.8-15.8µ and average width of 3.23±0.44 µ with a range of 2.7-4µ. The average length of B. bigemina was 11.39±1.12µ with a range of 9.5-13µ and average width of 2.2±0.51µ with a range of 1.5-3µ. The results of current study revealed that their was a direct and proportional relationship between the parasitemia of B. bovis and B. bigemina in cattle blood smears and the number of vermicules in the hemolymph of female of Boophilus microplus. No significant differences were noticed between (number and percentage of Boophilus microplus females) infected with vermicules of Babesia spp at different aged cattle.

Microscopic study for prevalence of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in cattle in Mosul city

A.F. Altaee; E.G. Suleiman

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 57-66
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145579

The current study included examination of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in 300 blood smears stained with 5% of Giemsa stain which collected from cattle in Mosul city from both sexes with different ages, the total percentage of infection with Babesia spp was 42.33% and the percentage of B. bovis and B. bigemina 30.66% and 24.33%. The blood smears which stained with Giemsa stain contain 0.5% Triton X-100 appeared cleaner and easily recognized the blood cells and parasites. High percentage of infection was appeared with single infection with B. bovis was 42.51% followed by mixed infection with B. bovis and B. bigemina and infection with B. bigemina only was 29.92% and 27.55%. The results of this study showed no significant differences in the percentage of infection between males and females of cattle and different groups of ages at the significant level p<0.05.

Prevalence of Anaplasma ovis infection in Angora goats of Duhok province, Kurdistan region-Iraq

I.A. Naqid

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145599

Acute Anaplasma ovis infections can cause severe clinical symptoms and might lead to significant economic losses in small ruminant flocks. However, little information has been provided related the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Angora goats. The study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma ovis serologically (cELISA) and microscopically (Giemsa stained blood smears) among Angora goats from Duhok districts of the northern part of Iraq. A total of 92 blood samples were randomly collected from three localities of Duhok city; Zakho, Batel and Sumil during the study period from April to October 2009. The infection rate of A. ovis was 38.04% by Giemsa stained blood smear and 66.3% by cELISA. The prevalence of A. ovis in female goats was higher than that in males, but statistically not significant difference (P>0.05) by using both methods. The prevalence was also significantly higher (P<0.05) in goats more than three years old than in younger ones. The highest prevalence of A. ovis was found in Zakho, whereas the lowest was reported in Sumail. Results of hematological parameters indicated microcytic hypochromic type of anemia.It is concluded that A. ovis can infected Angora goats in district Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq and this might be due to high distribution of the disease and its transmitters which were lead to substantial effect followed by high mortalities

Mini Review: Current tick control strategies in Pakistan are possible environmental risks

A. Iqbal; M. Usman; M. Abubakar

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 81-86
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145601

Ticks infestation is the major problem of cattle and buffalo of Pakistan. Tick acts as vectors of many viral, protozoal and bacterial diseases and Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is one of the most lethal in that list. During the last sixteen years, many sporadic outbreaks of CCHF in Pakistan has been reported with 24 percent case fatalities. In Punjab and Sind provinces mass tick control campaigns have been started to control the tick’s population and spread of zoonotic diseases through tick’s. In these tick control campaigns deltamethrin and ivermectin are used extensively. We highlighted that how extensive use of deltamethrin and ivermectin can adversely affect the environment and possible alternative methods for tick control. Extensive use of deltamethrin can damage the kidneys of insect eating birds and disturb the life cycle of many aquatic organisms if deltamethrin solution is mixed with water of streams. Widespread ivermectin use in domestic animals poses some serious threats to dung beetles and other coprophagic insects as almost 60-80 percent of total dose comes in feces without any metabolism in the body of animal. Decrease in dung beetles can result in decreased dung degradation.

Determination of Toxoplasma gondii lineages of sheep in Wasit, Iraq

N.N. A'aiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121379

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that can cause significant morbidity in human beings and animals. Up to our knowledge no data is known of genetic diversity of T. gondii in sheep in Iraq. This study aim to detect the strains (genotypes) of T. gondii isolates from sheep in Wasit province, east of Iraq. A total of 315 samples (blood 300 and placenta's tissue 15) were collected from aborted ewes, which initially had been examined serologically by LAT, then further tested by RT-PCR through B1 gene amplification to confirm the infection with T. gondii. After that, the positive DNA samples were assayed for genetic characterization depending upon nested PCR- RFLP of SAG2 gene. Out of 315 examined samples, 10 were confirmed positive T. gondii DNA. The genotyping assay of them revealed that 60% (6/10), 30% (3/10) and 10% (1/10) of examined isolates represent the genotypes of II, III and I respectively. The type II appeared as dominant in sheep in Wasit province, Iraq.

Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

M.J.A. Alkhaled; N.N. A'aiz; H.H. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121380

Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1) and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1) more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

Molecular characterization of Blastocystis sp. isolates from human, cattle and sheep by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene

Abdul Aziz Jamel Al-Ani; H. S. Albakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 1, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.119164

Blastocystis sp. is an enteric unicellular, anaerobic, protist that could be isolated from humans and many other farm and wild animals, in addition to rodents, reptiles and insects. This study aimed to characterize Blastocystis isolated from fecal samples of human, cattle and sheep using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Pre-determined samples were selected from human, cattle and sheep that showed to be positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU ‑ rRNA) then examined by RFLP analysis using HinfI enzyme to determine the molecular patterns. The results of RFLP analysis revealed the presence of three different patterns of human isolates which were in difference with the other three patterns of cattle isolates. However, sheep isolates showed only one pattern. This study shows that RFLP analysis is a simple and rapid technique that could be used to characterize and differentiate Blastocystis sp. in humans and animals.

The first unequivocal report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116859

The aim of present study was to report spontaneous Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) infection in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (E. intestinalis) infection in cattle in Mosul city - Iraq. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 142 rabbits and 115 cattle during the period from June, 2012 to June, 2013. Thin smears were prepared from the fecal samples and stained with different fecal stains, as well as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. Infected rabbits were necropsied and pathology of the infection was described. The result showed that microsporidiosis was detected in 41 (26.9%) rabbits and in 12 (10.4%) cattle. E. cuniculi spores were identified in 31 out of the 41 rabbits (73.2%) and E. intestinalis in 7 out of the 12 cattle (58.3%). Infected rabbits showed vasculitis, granulomatous encephalitis, chronic interstitial nephritis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholangitis, vasculitis and non – suppurative pneumonia, infiltration of mononuclear cells in most layers of the intestines, and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues. E. cuniculi spores were seen in the liver, kidneys and lungs. This study considered the first one that report microsporidiosis (E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis) in Mosul city - Iraq.

Diagnosis of some blood parasites in cattle and sheep in Mosul, Iraq

Manal H. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 57-61
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168714

Sixty blood smears from cattle and sixty blood smears from sheep were collected from various regions in Mosul city during October 2010 till October 2011. These were examined for parasites (Eperythrozoon, Haemobartonella, and Trypanosoma) and some clinical signs were observed on the affected animals. The percentage of infections in cattle were 28.33%, 10% and 3.33% for Eperythrozoon wenyoni, Haemobartonella bovis and Trypanosoma congolense respectively. Mixed infection with E. wenyori and H. bovis was 18.33%. Percentage of infection with E. ovis was 40% with the mean parasitaemia of 2.29% in sheep. This study is the first report in Mosul city. 

Seroprevalence of piroplasmosis with tick distribution in northern Iraq

L.T. Omer; M.A. Kadir; J.S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 105-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168746

The current study was carried out on blood samples of 299 local breed female cattle in Erbil, Duhok and Suleimania, Northern Iraq, for the period from beginning of January till end of December 2006 for detection of piroplasmosis.  By direct blood smear examination, the rate of Theileria annulata alone was 45.1% while in mixed infections with Babesia was 11.7%. The total rate of Theileria infection was 56.9%. The haematological parameters of cattle infected with Theileria alone were PCV=27%, RBC= 5.6 million/ cm3 and Hb 9.5 g/liter did not vary from non infected ones. While in mixed infections (Theileria +Babesia) the blood picture values were decreased dramatically and were PCV=18%, RBC=4.08 million / cm3 and Hb 5.7 g/l. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA), the seropositivity of Theileria was 77.9%, while Babesia was 12.4%. The overall rate of seropositivity by ELISA was 90.3% for piroplasms while by blood smears examination the rate of infected animals was 56.9%. From 5804 ticks collected from animal body, the constituencies of the ticks were 81.7% H. anatolicum anatolicum, 15.3% H. marginatum marginatum, 2.82% Rhipecephalus appendiculatus and 10 ticks (0.2%) were not identified. The highest rate of ticks was found attached to udder and under tail (77%), followed by ears (20%) and hind limbs and around eyes (3%). The distribution of ticks was highest in spring 96.0%, followed by summer 4.0%. No ticks were detected in winter and autumn. The greatest number of ticks was in March (37.9%) followed by May (32.23%), April (25.85%), June (2.17%), July (1.68%) and August (0.17%).

Incidence of Eimeria spp in broilers in Al-Hamdania region-Ninevah

M.S.S. ALNeema; A.F. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 201-206
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168698

This study was conducted to investigate the incidence and intensity of coccidial species in broilers (type Ross) in Al-Hamdania region, two hundred and forty samples were collected from the intestinal content of the broilers obtained from (20) farms located in the suburban regions: (Karakosh, Manara, Bazgertan, Karkasha, Kaberly,Karamles) within Al-Hamdania region by obtaining (12) birds from each farms. The results revealed the prescience of eight of Eimeria species in broilers these species were: Eimeria tenella; E.necatrix; E.maxima; E.mivati; E.mitis; E.brunetti; E.acervulina; E.praecox. The total percentage of broiler coccidiosis was 45%, the percentage of infection variant in different months, the highest, 80% during March and the lowest during October 11.11%, Eimeria tenella had the highest percentage of isolation in broilers 32.17%, while the lowest percentage of infection were E.maxima1.98%inbroilers.


Detection of microfilaria infection in horses in Mosul city

E. G. Suleiman; S. S. Aghwan; O. M. Al- Iraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.167131

The study was performed on 78 horses in Mosul city were examined from April 2007 to September 2009 for the detection of microfilaria in the blood Twenty five clinically normal animals served as control. The percentage of the infection with microfilaria of Setaria spp was 30.76% they were sheathed, measuring 204-228 µm within a mean of 218.4 µm in length and 4.5-4.8 mµ within a mean of 4.62 µm in width. A high percentage of infection was reported in females 54.28%) with significant differences from that of males. No significant differences were noticed between the healthy and these showing some clinical sings or between these treated with ivermectin or non treated. Haematological changes indicated decrease in level of hemoglobin concentration packed cell volume whereas there was significant increase (P≤0.05) in total leukocytes count, anemia was macrocytic hypochromic type.

A study on epidemiology of hard tick (Ixodidae) in sheep in Sulaimani governorate - Iraq

M.A. Kadir; I.K. Zangana; B.H.S. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 95-103
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168745

This study was carried out for the period from the beginning March 2009 till end of February 2010 in three zones I, II, and III (Mountainous, Semi-mountainous and foothills and plane) regions, respectively in Sulaimani governorate for distribution of ticks (Ixodidae) that infested sheep. The prevalence rate of infested sheep in all zones was 298 (11.8%) in Sulaimani governorate, and the prevalence rate of infestation in zone-I was 85 (10.1%), in zone-II 94 (11.1%), and in zone-III 119 (14.3%). The rate of infestation was high in March, April, May and July in all zones; no infestation was observed in zone-I and zone-II in November to February, but was observed in zone-III. Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, H. marginatum, Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus were found and identified, two species were more predominant among sheep H. a. anatolicum in zone-III (Garmian region) 353 (70.0%) and R. turanicus in zone-I (Pishder region) 177 (59.4%), and H. a. anatolicum was found through March 61 (75.3%), April 89 (69%), May 92 (68.7%), and June 50 (74.6%) in zone-III. Hyalomma a. anatolicum and R. turanicus were found through March 22 (53.6%), 12 (29.3%): April 36 (41.4%), 38 (43.7%): May 46 (46.9%), 33 (33.7%), and June 41 (53.2%), 25 (32.5%) in zone-II respectively. H. marginatum and R. sanguineus were found in April 18 (14%), 11 (8.5%), and May 16 (11.9%), 13 (9.7%) in zone-III respectively, while R. turanicus was highly distributed in April 48 (71.6%) and May 57 (65.5%) in zone-I. According to linear model of the percentage of infested sheep in any zone by number of ticks was recognized and it was high in zone-III [3.1 + 0.23 Number of ticks (X)]. The ratio of male to female tick infested sheep was 1: 2 during the study. The site of attachment of ticks was observed; the highest number was noticed on the ears 492 (42.0%) and under tail 208 (17.7%).

Seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale in domestic animals in Erbil, Iraq

K.A.H. Ameen; B.A. Abdullah; R.A. Abdul-Razaq

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 109-114
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168747

Seroprevalence of Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale in cattle, sheep, goats and wild goats was studied in Erbil district, between January to December 2010. A total of 184 blood samples were collected from 44 cattle, 59 sheep , 70 goats and 11 wild goats for the preparation of blood smears and serum samples which tested against B. bigemina and A. marginale using the SVANOVIR®^ B. bigemina-Abs and A. marginale-Abs ELISA Kit. The overall prevalence of B. bigemina infection was 12 (27.27%), 4 (6.77%), 5 (7.14%) and 1 (9.09%) in cattle, sheep, goats and wild goats and for A. marginale 4 (9.09%), 2 (3.38%), 3 (4.28%) and 1 (9.09%) respectively. The co-infections between B. bigemina and A. marginale were 25% in cattle, 33.33% in sheep, 37.50% in goats and 50% in wild goats.The seasonal prevalence of B.bigemina , A. marginale and co-infection between them peaked in both spring and summer as revealed by blood smear examination and ELISA.

Detection of Cryptosporidium baileyi oocysts in the faeces of domesticated fowls in Ninevah governorate

H.S. Al-Bakri

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 159-163
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.166891

The study was designed to identify Cryptosporidium oocyst with the determination of infection rate in the faeces of local backyard chicken in Ninevah governorate. One hundred and forty freshly voided fecal samples were randomly collected from both sex of local hens aging between 6-12 months old. These samples were taken from ten various regions of the governorate from the 1st Oct. 2010 till 1st Oct. 2011. Two techniques were applied in this study, hot modified acid – fast stain was used to define the parasite species, while iodine stain was followed for determination the infective rates. Using hot modified acid – fast stain, C. baileyi was diagnosed and identified based on the measurements and diameters of the oocyst using ocular micrometer. Such dimensions were (4.6 × 6.2) micron containing four sporozoites. Out of 140 fecal samples, only 59 samples harbored the oocyst parasite in a percentage of 44.5% hens more than 6 month-one year ages and 33.2% for less than 6 months. However, higher infection rates were noticed in the females which were 45% versus 17.9% in the males. The infection rate was variant among different places which ranged between 25% and 55.6 %. There were significant statistical differences (P<0.05) in the infection rates of the geographical regions of the governorate.