Main Subjects : Veterinary Surgery

Chukar partridge in northern Iraq: A review article

Omar Q. Pavel; Bahjat T. Abbas; Hiewa O. Dyary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 495-505
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134951.2423

Iraqi Sulaymaniyah is a treasure land of wildlife, especially avian species. Most of this treasure is not discovered, and even the guidance map is not completed yet. The geographical area of Sulaymaniyah is suitable for many types of wildlife animals, including Chukar partridges, locally known as Khasa Kaw. The Chukar partridge is present in many countries in the Middle East region, but there is a subspecies in the northern of Iraq. The Sulaymaniyah nature is a natural habitat for this fantastic bird, seen in the valleys and around water springs throughout the region. Also, Chukar partridges are used as game birds and raised as pets or for fighting between the males. Unfortunately, there is no detailed scientific study on this bird, even though it is one of the most common and beloved birds. This article provides information on the history of the bird, its life cycle, behavior, taxonomy, distribution, sex, and age determination of Chukar partridges. It also mentions the most common diseases of chukar partridge and its natural predators. 

Comparative efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and dextrose prolotherapy for stifle joint arthritis in a rabbit model

Fawad Khalil; Hamid Akbar; Muhammad A. Hayat; Hamad B. Rasheed; Sadaf Aslam; Ayesha Safdar; Fiaz Ahmad; Hafiz M. Ahmad; Muhammad T. Sajjad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 2, Pages 531-536
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133730.2285

This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of PRP and dextrose PRL in stifle joint arthritis in rabbits.Sixteen healthy adult male rabbits were allocated into groups A (n=8) and B (n=8). After induction of arthritis in all experimental animals, the animals of group A were treated with intra-articular injection of PRP, while the animals of group B were treated with dextrose PRL. Pain scoring was evaluated by the Simple Descriptive Pain scale at 0d, 6d, 13d, and 19d, while radiographic scoring was examined by Kellgren and Lawrence grading system at pre-induction, post-induction, and post-treatment. The hematological parameters, including PLT, HB, WBC, PCV, RBC, monocytes, and lymphocytes, were assessed in blood samples at 0d, 6d, 13d, and 19d. We observed that Pain scoring showed a significantly lower (P<0.05) value in group A than in group B at 13d and 19d. Radiographic scoring was significantly lower (P<0.05) in group A than the group B during post-treatment. However, during the pre- and post-monoiodoacetate (MIA) induction, there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in radiographic scoring between both groups. The PLT concentration was increased, and monocyte was decreased in the group A animals than the group B animals at 13d and 19d (P<0.05), while WBC, RBC, PCV, HB, and lymphocyte concentration showed no significant difference (P>0.05) between both groups. In conclusion, the application of PRP is an effective method for treating stifle joint arthritis compared to the dextrose PRL in the rabbit model.

Dental disorders in dogs and cats: A retrospective study

Fathy D. Elseddawy; Ahmed E. Behery; Eslam A. Hendy; Shimaa A. Ezzeldein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 247-253
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133750.2289

The study was conducted on 289 clinical cases of dogs and cats admitted to the Clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, over 18 months. Thorough oral, dental, and radiographic examinations were performed on all cases. Disorders were recorded in a predesigned survey sheet along with several factors such as breed, age, sex, diet, and body condition score. Cases were categorized into four groups according to age. The results revealed that 138 (47.75%) of the total cases have dental disorders, 81 (58.7%) males and 57 (41.3%) females. Periodontal diseases were the most recorded affection 128 cases. Among animals admitted to the department clinic, then dental plaque (111 cases). Animals on soft food diet among total affected cases recorded, 89 cases (64.5%), then mixed diet (soft and hard food) 40 cases 29% and the last group dry or hard diet, 9 cases only 6.5%. The most affected breeds were German shepherd dogs 5.797% and Shirazy cats 57.97%. Data statistical analysis showed that age and diet had (P<0.05), which means that these two factors impacted the occurrence of dental disorders, in contrast, sex had (P= 0.143), which indicates that sex statistically did not affect the occurrence of dental disorders, moreover a spearman correlation test was performed between age and dental disorders (P<0.05) and revealed that, with an increase in age, there is an increase in dental disorders.

Histopathological study of the effect of using repeated doses of platelets-rich plasma on articular cartilage repair in Rabbits

Mustafa A. Khaleefa; Hasanain A. Emran

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 203-210
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135928.2543

The present study was performed on platelet-rich plasma compound from animals engaged in this work, to be directly injected in the joint space of the affected stifle joint 5mm diameter full-thickness articular cartilage removal in the knee joint manually using the same instrument 5 mm drill to remove the cartilage, by different doses to evaluate its influence on articular cartilage repair. In this experiment, 28 adult rabbits were used. The same defect is created on the lateral condyle of the distal end of the femur. Three identical groups of animals were formed randomly. Group I was untreated. Group II was treated with a single dose of PRP (which was administered immediately after the creation of the defect), and group III was treated with two doses of PRP (the first dose was given immediately after the creation of the defect, and the second doses after 15 days of the first one. The histological examinations were recorded of four rabbits of each group, which were euthanized one and two months after treatment, and the assessment of cartilage tissue repair was checked. The control group showed destruction of articular cartilage at the site of the lesion with involvement of subchondral bone in both periods 30 and 60 days of examination, while specimens taken from groups II and III after 30 days showed a new tissue formation which is characterized as the homogenous extracellular matrix, with the proliferation of active chondrocytes. At the same time, slides on day 60 of treatment showed an increased number of newly formed chondrocytes and a clear line of demarcation between articular cartilage and subchondral bone, representing the tissue filling the gap had been created at the beginning of the experiment. 

An evaluation of Aloe vera leaves gel with polypropylene mesh to repair of ventro -lateral abdominal hernia in rams

Ibraheem A. Zedan; Layth M. Alkattan; Osamah M. Aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 19-25
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134989.2430

The presented article was designed to evaluate using polypropylene mesh alone and using Aloe vera gel for hernioplasty in rams. Under the protocol of sedations, local anesthesia, and strict surgical preparations, the 10 cm of experimental ventrolateral abdominal hernias were surgically induced in twenty-four rams. The animals were divided into two equal groups. Hernioplasty was done with polypropylene mesh in both groups. The first group remained without treatment and was considered the control group. In the second group, after hernioplasty the Aloe vera leaf gel spread equally along the repaired area, then the skin and subcutaneous tissues closed routinely. Clinical, Ultrasonographic, and Laparoscopic examinations were done. Clinically, all operative animals completely subsided the hernia ring. Laparoscopically, the results indicated less degree of adhesion and inflammatory reaction were occurs in the treated group at 45 days post-surgery. Ultrasonographic investigation in the control group at 30 days post-surgery exhibited Wavy echogenic representing inflammatory effusion. It represented Hypoechoic at muscle mass and mesh at 45 days, whereas in the treated group, the subcutaneous tissue appeared normal echotexture with a clear mesh at 45 days post-treatment. In conclusion, compatibility occurs between the implant and the edges of the hernia ring without signs of rejection, less degree of adhesion, and the hernia opening completely closed. The Aloe vera gel had a beneficial effect during hernioplasty in the ram. 

Histopathological study about the effect of nano magnesium oxide and platelets rich fibrin on the healing of induced radial fracture in dogs

Yassir F. Abdulmawjood; Moyaser Gh. Thanoon; Sahar M. Ibrahim; Janan H. Alsofy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 123-130
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135761.2516

The aim of this study was a histopathological evaluation of the effects of nano magnesium oxide and platelets-rich fibrin on induced radial fracture bone healing in local stray dogs. We used 18 adult animals weighing 17.5±0.6 kg and aged 2.0±0.1 years; these experimental animals were divided into three main equal groups. In the first group (Control), the fracture was left without treatment of any bioactive materials; in the second group (nano magnesium oxide), the fracture line was injected with 20µg of nano magnesium oxide, the third group (platelets rich fibrin) the fracture line was surrounded by platelet-rich fibrin. The bone specimens were taken from all experimental animals 6 and 10 weeks after the surgical operation. A Colorimetric method was used for measuring the alkaline phosphatase enzyme and calcium concentrations in all trial animals. The histopathological results at the 6th and 10th weeks showed that the best response was in the platelets-rich fibrin group, then the nano magnesium oxide group, and lastly, the control group according to the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, trabeculae, and woven bone. The concentration rates of alkaline phosphatase enzyme and calcium were increased in the weeks that followed the surgical operation. In conclusion of this study, platelets-rich fibrin and nano-magnesium oxide accelerated the healing of the radial fracture.

Histopathological and serological assessment of using rib lamb xenograft reinforced with and without hydroxyapatite nano gel for reconstruction tibial bone defect in dogs

Fouad M. Albaroudy; Layth M. Alkattan; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 69-76
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135366.2473

This work aimed to assess repairing tibial bone defects using histopathological and serological examinations. Eighteen stray adult dogs of both sexes were used. The experiment was allocated into two equal groups, 9 of each. An experimental tibia defect of 2.5*0.7 cm was induced at the proxomedial aspect of the tibia. Deproteinized lamb's rib xenograft was used to reconstitute the defective area. The tissue and blood samples were collected for histopathological and serological investigations at different periods. On day seven post-surgery, the serological assessment indicated a significant increase in the level of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) of both the first and second groups, 0.2±0.03, 0.3±0.02 ng/ml, respectively; however, after 14 days, the levels were significantly reduced in both groups 0.08±0.03, 0.2±0.02 ng/ml, respectively. On day 7, the serum alkaline phosphatase level in the first group was lower, 31.6±3 u/l, than in the treated group, 54.2±1.86 u/l. However, at 14 days post-surgery, the serum alkaline phosphatase level in the first group slightly increased by 35.7±2.1 u/l; nevertheless, the treated group manifested a constant level of 54.1±5.24 u/l. At 60 days post-operation, the histopathological examination presented more organized tissue maturation in the second group. The histochemical results of all specimens of the hydroxyapatite group revealed an increase in calcified bone by showing a red reaction which indicates the formation of thick calcified compact bone at 60 days post defects. In conclusion, the hydroxyapatite Nano gel contributed to ossification across the bone defect and hastened the healing process; the serological investigations indicated an increase in the activity of bone tissue.

Experimental study of the effect of Plantago major leaves extract on contaminated excisional wound healing in rabbits

Mustafa M. Mahmood; Areeg K. Mahdi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 31-39
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134991.2432

The current study was performed to estimate the influence of topical application of 10% of Plantago major leaves extract (PMLE) on a healing process of contaminated excisional wound in local breed rabbits. Twenty adult local breed male rabbits were used. After the animals have generally anesthetized, two 2×2 cm full thickness wounds were created in thoracic region on right and left side (1wound/side) for each animal. Wounds on right side of animal were treated by topical irrigation with normal saline/daily, this consider as control (group A). While, left side wounds were treated by topical application of 10% PMLE ointment (once/day) that consider as treated (group B) dressing was used after each treatment for both groups. Wound healing was evaluated through macroscopic examination, wound contraction rate (WCR) assessment and histopathological examination. Results of macroscopic examination confirmed that PMLE has a role in acceleration healing when compared to control group. These outcomes were parallel with WCR results in which reflect the mean rate of wound contraction on days 7th, 14th, and 21st ‎in PMLE-treated group was ‎significantly higher (P<0.001) than that of ‎the normal saline-treated group. Histopathological examination results confirmed early increased in new blood vessels formation, fibroblasts proliferation, marked collagen precipitation and early epithelization in group PMLE compared to group A. This study confirmed that topical application of 10% of PMLE (once/a day) has an effective role in accelerate contaminated wound healing through its phenolic and flavonoid contents as recorded by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assessment that act as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substance which help in the enhancement the WCR through encourage early and additional fibroblast proliferation and angiogenesis when compared to control group.

The role of DMSO and MSM in treatment of tendinopathies affection in equine: A comparative study

Hamid Akbar; Fiaz Ahmad; Muhammad Abid Hayat; Muhammad Arif Khan; Muhammad Yasin Tipu; Muhammad Talha Sajjad; Hafiz Manzoor Ahmad; Fawad Khalil

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 861-868
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132428.2088

Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury is a main cause of lameness in polo and racehorses inciting long-term lameness and recovery. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of topical dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on bowed tendons in horses. Ten client-owned injured horses, aged between 5-15 years with an average age of 8.5 years and weighing approximately 400-500 kg, suffering from chronic tendinitis were selected and allocated into two groups: group A (DMSO) and group B (MSM). The group A animals (n=5) were treated with 60 mL of topical 90% DMSO aqueous solution, while Group B animals (n=5) received 60 mL of topical 90% MSM aqueous solution on the bowed tendon at days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and day 42. Clinical examinations were performed to evaluate the severity of pain and lameness grade. Ultrasound scans of the superficial digital flexor tendon were taken at days 0, 21, and day 42. Images were placed in numerical form, and the fiber alignment score of the fibers (FS) and the echogenicity score (ES) of the superficial digital flexor tendon at the maximum injury zone (MIZ) were recorded. Results showed that pain reduction and lameness significantly (P<0.05) reduced from 21d to 42d in the DMSO animals compared with the MSM animals. The echogenicity score didn’t differ between the two groups at 0d, 21d, and 42d (P>0.05) however, it was significantly declined in group A at 42d than 0d (P<0.05). Fiber alignment in group A was (P<0.01) reduced at 42d compared with group B. This study concluded that group A horses showed very effective and long-term improvements compared to the group B horses.

Comparing efficacy of the platelet rich plasma and advanced platelet rich fibrin on tibial bone defect regeneration in dogs

Sarah A. El-shafey; Abd El-mageed F. El-Mezyen; Ahmed S. Behery; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 973-980
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132765.2129

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) and advanced platelet rich fibrin(A-PRF) on regeneration of induced tibial bone defects in dogs. A 7mm circular and 10mm deep tibial defect was made at upper end of the right and left tibiae of 12 adult clinically-proven healthy male mongrel dogs. The animals were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, PRP group and A-PRF group. Regeneration of the tibial defect was evaluated by radiography, computed tomography (CT), and histopathological examination at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively (PO). At 6 weeks PO, the tibial defect, in the control group, was partially filled with fibrous tissue and appeared radiolucent under radiography. While in PRP group, the defect was shown to be partially filled with newly formed bone and appeared more radiopaque than it did with the control group. As for A-PRF tibial defect, it was completely closed with newly formed bone and appeared more radiopaque than the PRP group did. At 12 weeks PO, the tibial defect was partially filled with newly formed bone and looked more radiopaque in control group and completely closed with newly formed bone and seemed radiopaque in PRP group. Interestingly, the tibial defect of the A-PRF group was completely closed with newly formed bone and couldn’t have been differentiated from the neighboring normal bone tissue. In conclusion, using of PRP and A-PRF improved bone healing. However, using A-PRF is more likely to heal tibial defect in the early weeks of injury than PRP would.

Clinicopathological and imaging features of hypertrophic osteopathy in dogs

Shimaa A. Ezzeldein; Yasmin Bayoumi; Eslam F. Eisa; Mohamed Metwally; Noura E. Attia; Mustafa Abd El Raouf

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 991-997
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132804.2133

Hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) is a diffuse periosteal reactivity of long bones and of poor prognosis as most cases died after short time or euthanized at the time of diagnosis. Early diagnosis is greatly important. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the clinical and different imaging features of HO in 12 dogs and hematological and biochemical changes. Twenty-two dogs were included in this study; 10 apparently healthy dogs were used as controls, and 12 dogs were diagnosed with HO. Diagnosis of HO-affected cases was based on a range of clinical, laboratory, and histopathological examinations as well as different imaging techniques. Two forms of HO were diagnosed: pulmonary (n=5) and extrapulmonary (n=7) HO. In pulmonary HO, pneumonia was recorded in five dogs. However, in extrapulmonary HO, mammary gland tumors and skin tumors were recorded in five and two dogs, respectively. Symmetrical non-edematous soft tissue swelling at the lower parts of the limbs with intensive bone proliferation and periosteal reactivity in the tubular long bones was observed. Anemia and leukocytosis, mainly lymphocytosis 50% or neutrophilia 45%, and elevated serum globulin, alkaline phosphatase, and C-reactive protein levels were the significant associated laboratory findings. The use of different diagnostic techniques was greatly important in the diagnosis of HO in dogs and provided information on the prognosis of such cases.

The role of adding Hyaluronic Acid in the grafting process for the repair of experimentally induced tibial defect in dogs model

Fouad M. Albaroudy; Layth M Alkattan; Ahmed M Shareef; Hana Kh. Ismail

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 555-561
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130889.1891

The study was designed to determine the role of adding hyaluronic acid as a supportive filling material to improve grafting process of experimentally defective tibial bone in dog model. Eighteen local breed dogs of both sexes weighted 18± 0.4 kg and aged (12± 0.6Months) were randomly allocated in two equal groups. In the first group, twelve dogs underwent experimental tibial bone defect (2.5×0.7 cm ) and replaced with deprotenized lamb ribs. The second group were treated as that for the first, but supported by adding 1% hyaluronic acid, to their grafts. The bone in both groups was firmly fixed by cerclage wire. All dogs were; followed-up clinically, radiologically and macroscopically at (14, 30 and 60 days after the intervention. In all study dogs the systemic infections, signs of seromas, hematoma and sever lameness were not developed along the period of the study . Grossly, dogs in the second group at 60 days showed an increase in the size of the filler of bone at the edges and in the mid of the defect, improvement and acceleration in the bone healing, and formation of bone bridges compared to the first group. Radiological finding exhibited complete healing of the fixated bone segment with the surrounding area; however, some cortical irregularities denoted chronic periosteal reaction and callus formation in the treatment with hyaluronic acid. In conclusion, the study indicated that hyaluronic acid with xenograft materials exhibited remarkable beneficial effects on improvement of the tibial bone defect augmentation

In vivo study of Impact Transplantation Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells on Induced Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rabbits Model

Zahraa K. Zedan; Salah A. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 579-589
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130949.1899

The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells (HSCs) on full-thickness cutaneous wounds healing in rabbits. Twenty clinically healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study; under aseptic technique and general anesthesia full-thickness excisional cutaneous wound; 20 mm x 20 mm were made on the back. The rabbits were randomly partitioned into two. In first group (control group), the wounds were treated with 3ml of saline solution. In second group (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group); wounds were treated with 5x106 (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells). The result of molecular evaluation along the interval of following-up recorded a significant differences (P<0.05) of the level Fibroblasts Growth Factor (FGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) recorded at 7, 14 and 35 day post-surgical operation in (Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group) compare than control group. These outcomes were parallel with the finding of the clinical and histopathological assessment showed that Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells- group reduces inflammation and promotes epithelialization during 3th weeks with increased vasculature than those in untreated wounds. This study confirms that local implantation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells leads to enhance and develop of cutaneous wound healing in rabbit model.

The effects of thyroidectomy on healing fracture in rabbits model

Omar A. Bader; H. Nahi Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 3, Pages 563-570
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130893.1897

This research aims to investigate the fracture healing effects caused by thyroidectomy. The experiment involved sixteen matured male rabbits of local breed which divided into 2 equal groups (control and treated). Rabbits anesthetized by premedicated atropine sulphate, then 15 minutes later, a mixture of Xylazine Ketamine was used. The control group rabbits were induced with mid-shafted femoral fracture, with that, the fixation by intramedullary pinning was considered Meanwhile, the treated group rabbits were induced with same method mentioned above, but fracture were fixed after thyroidectomy and measurement of thyroxin a week after thyroidectomy. Results which were obtained from the clinic revealed signs of severe inflammatory reaction in control group which were higher comparing to treated group. These sings were disappeared within 4-5 days in treated group, while, it took 5-6 days in control animals. Also, radiological results of 2 groups showed that a periosteal reaction was observed towards the end of the 2nd week in the control group, whereas, the treated group showed its reaction at the end of fourth week, there was an invisible fracture line for both control and treated groups at the end of fourth and seventh week, respectively. In addition, bony bridge in the control groups became remodeled into a lamellar bone earlier than treated group. The results of measuring thyroxin hormone before and after the thyroidectomy confirmed the essential role of this hormone in fracture healing. To conclude that the fracture healing maturity was greater in control group than in treated group.

Effect of autologous peritoneum and platelet-rich fibrin graft on healing of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

Nebras M. Raffea; Asmaa H. Allawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 459-470
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130529.1840

In the present study, the effect of autogenous peritoneum graft (PG) with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) was evaluated on intestinal anastomosis healing in dogs. Eighteen local breed adult dogs were anesthetized then jejunal intestinal resection and anastomosis were created on all animals. Animals were divided into 3 equal groups (6 for each). In first group (control): An end-to-end intestinal anastomosis was performed using simple interrupted suture pattern only. In group PG: The anastomosis site was sutured as in control group and was wrapped with PG. Where as in PRF+PG group: The anastomosis site was sutured also as in first group and was wrapped with PRF and PG. Healing process was studied in all above mentioned groups clinically, grossly, histologically and radiographically at 15 and 30 days post operation. Results were revealed that the utilizing of PG caused a valuable influence on anastomosis site healing. This impact was manifested by faster re-epithelization of mucosa, increased collagen deposition, fibroblast proliferation, reduced adhesions, and decreased stenosis degree comparison with control group. Also there was less adhesions, less stenosis degree, increased in epithelization of the mucosa in the group treated with PRF+PG than the group treated with PG alone. In conclusion the current study has shown that autologous peritoneal graft application has a positive and beneficial effect on intestinal anastomosis healing. Also the results highlighted the promising effects of PRF in conjunction with PG on intestinal anastomosis healing. The application of PRF with PG at the intestinal anastomosis site is successful, safe, and highly efficient with no complications.

A comparative study of nano magnesium oxide versus platelets rich fibrin to repair the induced radial fracture in dogs

Yassir F. Abdulmawjood; Moyaser G. Thanoon

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 451-458
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130500.1836

This project evaluated the effects of nano magnesium oxide versus platelets rich fibrin on induced radial fracture bone healing. Eighteen males and nonpregnant females of adult local stray dogs, weighing 17.6±0.85 kg and aged 2.08±0.13 years, were used. These trials animals were randomly divided into three groups of equal numbers. In the first group, Control group (C), a transverse radial fracture was induced then immobilized by external fixation as gypsum. In this group, the fracture line was not treated with any bioactive material. In the second group, platelets rich fibrin group (PRF), the fracture line was treated by adding platelets rich fibrin. In the third group, nano magnesium oxide (NMO), the fracture line was treated by adding a suspension of nano magnesium oxide. The radiographic results showed that the fractured bone healing was faster in the second group than in the first and third groups, while the third group was better than the first group. The concentration rates of serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were increased in the weeks followed the surgical operation. Depending on the radiographic pictures and serial rates of alkaline phosphatase, the second PRF and the third NMO groups were the better-fractured bone healing than the first one. In conclusion, this study revealed that using each platelets rich fibrin and nano magnesium oxide enhanced and improved the healing of the induced radial fracture.

Effect of Aloe vera gel on the healing of cutaneous wounds in donkeys

Durgham M. Al-Sabaawy; Osama Hazim Al-Hyani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 425-432
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130479.1830

The efficiency of fresh Aloe vera gel was tested on the healing of large cutaneous wounds of the forelimbs in donkeys. Twelve adult donkeys from both sexes were used in this experimental study. They were divided into equal groups. A square shape cutaneous wound about 8*8cm, was induced on the lateral aspect of the forelimb exactly between humeral and knee joint. In group one, the induced wound was left without treatment, while in second group the wound was treated by local application of fresh Aloe vera gel. The evaluation of healing process results was based on monitoring the gross signs of wound healing, in addition to the study the histopathological changes at 15th, 30th, 45th postoperative days. In group one, the wound healing process was characterized by infection, congestion, inflammatory exudate, excessive granulation tissue formation, and no decrease in wound size, while in group two, the healing of wound was characterized by absence of granulation tissue overgrowth with decrease in wound size and little occurrence of infection and congestion. The histopathological observations in first group was showed intensive granulation tissue formation with massive infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells and delay of reepithelization, while in second group, overgrowth of granulation tissue was lesser, little infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, rapid reepithelization with more maturation and stretching of collagen fibers. It was concluded that the Aloe vera gel can be used successfully as topical treatment to improve and enhance large cutaneous wound healing in donkeys

3-D nanocomposite scaffolds: Tissue engineering for bone reconstruction

Saffanah Khuder Mahmood; Intan Shameha Binti Abdul Razak; Mohammad Tariq Yaseen; Loqman Mohamed Yusof; Zaid K. Jeber; Fufa Gimba; Md Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 433-444
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130481.1831

A challenge to the orthopedic surgeons in veterinary and human fields is the treatment of delayed union, malunion and nonunion. Apart from renovation of arrangement and constant fixation, in many cases, adjunctive measures such as bone-grafting or the use of bone-graft substitutes, are of dominant significance. In general bone-graft materials comprise one or more components: an osteoconductive matrix, which acts as a scaffold to new bone growth; osteoinductive proteins, backing the mitogenesis of indistinguishable cells; and osteogenic cells, which can form bone in the proper environment. Our review focuses on the currently existing bone graft and graft substitutes for the novel therapeutic approaches in the clinical situation of orthopedic surgery. This review is based on an extensive literature search of different composite scaffolds developed as bone regenerative therapies. The settlement and drawbacks of different composite scaffold developed techniques, the properties of generally used ceramics and polymers, and the properties of presently investigated synthetic composite grafts. To follow, an exhaustive review of in vivo models is used to test composite scaffolds in segmental bone defects (SBDs) to serve as a guide to design suitable translational studies and to recognize the challenges that require to be overcome in scaffold design for successful transformation. This includes the formative of the anatomical position within the animals, selecting the accurate study period, and an overview of scaffold presentation evaluation.

The effect of therankeron D6 on the healing of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Ibraheem A. Zedan; Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Muneer S. Al-Badrany; Ahmed Kh. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 261-265
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129975.1712

To investigate the effects of systemic administration of Theranekron (Tarantula cubensis) extract as homeopathic remedy on anastomosis healing after surgical intestinal resection. Eight healthy stray dogs (age 1-1.5 years, weight 15-20 kgs) were randomly divided into two groups; control (4 animals) and treatment group (4 animals). Intestinal resection and anastomosis were performed in all animals in both groups. Theranekron D6 (3 ml) was administered subcutaneously one week before surgery and at operation time in the treatment group whereas animals of the control group were injected 3 ml of normal saline at the same time points of treatment group. All animals were kept for 15 days following surgery and a segment of intestine was removed for histopathological and press pressure measurement. The results showed that no post-operative complications have been observed in both groups. The gross examination of the anastomosis site revealed sever adhesions with omentum and other intestinal segment of the all animals of the control group in comparison to the treatment group where lesser adhesions with omentum without any adhesion with the other intestinal segment have been noticed. There was slight difference between control and treatment group in relation to histopathological examination. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed that Theranekron was able to improve the healing process of the resected and anastomosed intestinal segment

The role of PLGA/TPGS nanoparticle on xylazine-ketamine anesthetic activity in male albino rabbits

Omar A. Bader; Adnan M. Jasim; Mohammed J. Jawad; Hussein H. Nahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 201-206
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129688.1679

D-ɑ-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (Vitamin E TPGS or TPGS) has been approved by food and drug administration (FDA) as harmless adjuvant and is largely used in drug systems delivery. Physicochemical and biological possessions of TPGS provide many advantages for its usage in drug delivery, such as high bio-compatibility, increased drug solubility, improved drug penetration and selective anti-tumor action. The aim of the study was to use the TPGS polymer as a drug release model to regulate the release of the anesthetic xylazine-ketamine in order to minimize therapeutically reference dose, avoid side effects, and improve efficacy. The study performed on 15 adult local breed male rabbits, divided into 3 groups with same number which injected intramuscularly with single dose of suggested anesthetics. Group 1 injected with ketamine and xylazine. Group 2 injected with ketamine and xylazine as same dose of group 1 loaded by PLGA-TPGS. Group 3 injected with Ketamine and xylazine loaded by PLGA-TPGS with half dose of Group 1 and 2. The following physiological parameters were evaluated: heart rate, respiratory rate, degree of muscle relaxation, onset of action and stages of anesthesia before administration the drug at time zero then at 10, 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration, also induction of anesthesia, surgical anesthesia and recovery time were recorded. Nanoprecipitation technique was optimal method for preparing small particle size as well as reduce dose for therapeutic effect. Small and large dose was showed perfect analgesic and muscle relaxant activity of xylazine-ketamine drugs. Ketamine 30 mg and xylazine 10 mg loaded PLGA showed elevation of conciseness period as well as increase muscle relaxant. Ketamine 30 mg and xylazine 10 mg loaded PLGA reduce heart rate but onset of action delayed when compared with reference drug. The process of nanoprecipitation was ideal for forming small particle sizes and reducing the dosage for therapeutic effects. PLGA loaded with ketamine-xylazine demonstrated improved cycle concentration (walk time) as well as improved muscle relaxant, finally the protocol created an excellent anesthetic combination for induction of general anesthesia. 

Trypsin dose optimization for glaucoma induction in rabbit model

Nour M. Muharib; Hameed A. Altmeme

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 107-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131748.2001

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease identified by optic nerve damage and loss of retinal ganglionic cells. The aim of the study was to test the precise dose of trypsin to induce glaucoma in a rabbit model. Nine White New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group one (G1) normal animals as control, group two (G2) the animals were injected with 0.2 ml of 0.04% trypsin and group three (G3) injected with 0.2 ml of 0.05% trypsin into posterior chamber of eye. A schiotz tonometer was used to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) before the injection, two days after injection and once a week until the end of the second week. At the end of the second week, the histology of the retina and optic nerve was studied. G3's intraocular pressure increased by 43.7%, while G2's intraocular pressure increased by 0.7% compared to G1. Retinal ganglionic cells (RGCs) decreased in G3 by 91.5% and G2 by 43.8% in comparison with G1. Optic nerve histology in G3 displayed decreased Schwann cell quantity with vacuolation and low orientation of nerve fibers compared with G1 and G2. Group three had the highest increase in IOP due to obstruction of drainage canal and preventing outflow of aqueous humor. This resulted in mechanical compression on the retina, ending with loss of RGC and degeneration of the optic nerve. The conclusion is that 0.2ml of 0.05% trypsin is the proper dose for the induction of glaucoma.

Control of stray dog population by single intratesticular injection of tannic acid

Ibraheem A. Zedan; Muneer S. Taha Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 33-36
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130454.1826

The present study was aimed to perform the alternative technique of chemical castration for controlling the increasing population of stray dogs. Eight adult male dogs were used in the current study. The dogs were Experimentally divided randomly into two groups. The first group included four dogs that were injected intratesticular with tannic acid while the second group which includes four dogs were injected intratesticular with normal saline and considered as a control group. The clinical examination, hormonal assay, and histopathological changes were detected. The result of the current study shown testicular tissue swelling in both treated and control groups this swelling subsided gradually within 48 hours, but without any serious complications. There were no significant changes in testosterone levels in both the control and treated groups. The histopathological results of the treated group after 30 days post-surgery showed focal necrosis and desquamation of germinal cells and Sertoli cells. We can conclude that chemical neutralization is a simple technique, can be used for controlling the increasing population of stray dogs. 

Development of experimentally-induced periodontitis in a Sprague Dawley rat model

Hana H. Mustafa; Ahmed Kh. Ali; Chen Cheng; Rozanaliza Radzi; Lau Fong; Noordin Mustapha; Hewa O. Dyary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 765-769
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128422.1573

Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease that leads to the degradation of periodontium and results in alveolar bone loss. The development of a suitable animal model of periodontitis is a prerequisite to understanding better the mechanisms that underly this disease. This study evaluated periodontal disease induction via retentive ligature, intragingival injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and their combination in a rat model.Seventy-two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The first group (control) did not receive any treatment. The second group underwent the application of 4/0 nylon ligature around the second maxillary molars. The third group was treated with an intragingival injection of Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS into the palatal mucosa of the second maxilla molars, and the fourth group was treated with a combination of ligature and LPS injection (ligature-LPS). Morphological changes in the gingival tissues were evaluated after 7, 14, and 30 days of treatment.Significant degenerative changes were observed in the periodontal tissues and alveolar bone in the third and fourth groups, which were evident as early as seven days. The lesions remained until 14 days and declined with time in the third and fourth groups. The changes induced by ligature and ligature-LPS were not different. Injection with LPS alone resulted in minimal increases in the Gingival and Plaque Indices.The ligature technique induced periodontal disease successfully, more effective than the injection of LPS. The combination of ligature with LPS injection added no significant effect compared to ligature alone.

Effect of nano-magnesium oxide and harmonic scalpel on lung lobectomy healing in dogs: Clinical and cytokine study

Omar A. Bader; Mohammad J. Eesa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 649-656
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127611.1514

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the role of the harmonic scalpel in lung tissue healing at the site of a middle lobe resection of the right lung. Twenty-four adult domestic dogs were used. They were randomly divided into two equal groups (control and treated group). The middle lobe of the right lung was excised by harmonic scalpel with titanium clamps to control bleeding and infiltration of air bubbles. The clinical and physiological condition of the animals was studied in the two-week period after surgery and molecular evaluation at time of zero, first, third, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, twenty-first, twenty-eighth, and thirty-fifth days after operation by interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The result of clinical observation showed that dogs in both groups took 2-4 days after the operation to gain full activity. The heart and respiratory rate were within the normal level before and during the operation, and when the animal began to recover, the heartbeat and respiratory rate began to rise with irregularity and the irregularity continued for 3-5 hours after the completion of the operation and then returned to its normal level within 24 hours after the operation. These changes in heart rate and respiratory system were observed in all treated animals, while heart rhythm and respiratory rates persisted in the control group until several days after the operation. In the molecular evaluation, the results for interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α showed a significant difference in the mean values ​​of these two factors between control and treated.

Surgical treatment of omphalocele with intestinal evisceration in cow calf of Sahiwal: A case report

muhammad Kashif; Mazhar Abbas; Amar Nasir; Farah Ijaz; Majid Ali Nasir; muhammad Qaiser Riaz; Jawad Zahoor

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 745-748
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128322.1569

Omphalocele is a rare type of congenital abdominal wall defect that allows intestines (and sometimes a portion of liver) covered by a paper-thin membrane (amnion) to protrude from the abdominal wall at the navel area. The aim of the current study is to report the first successful rectification of a congenital omphalocele in a day old neonatal cow calf using a basic suture pattern in laparotomy at cattle populous area of Jhang (Punjab). The case was presented at College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Jhang. The calf after surgery manifested a steady and progressive growth rate without any complication suggesting the success of the surgical remedy. At the same time this approach is quite economical to the farmer in the context of saving the life of his farm. It is concluded that this surgery can instituted with success in cases with fair body condition, less contaminated in the absence of predominant necrosis of the tissues.

Immunolocalization of decorin, a small leucin-rich proteoglycan, in the normal and injured horse tendon

Othman J. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 465-471
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127017.1436

The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of decorin in normal and the injured equine cadaver limbs. The study was carried out using superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) samples harvested from equine cadaver limbs. Randomly assigned left or right equine distal forelimbs were collected in normal (7 - 14 years old ± 2.86 SD) and injured (6 - 16 years old ± 3.64 SD) SDFT. Small pieces of approximately 5 x 5 x 3 mm were collected from normal and the injured areas at the mid-most metacarpal regions and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde at room temperature. They were routinely prepared for H&E staining in order to confirm whether they were normal or injured. Then they were prepared for immunological assay, the primary and the secondary antibodies were prepared in a standard ratio. The results showed that the distribution of decorin was varied between fascicles and the interfascicular matrix (IFM), and the latter showed greater intensity than the fascicles. The injured tendons showed up-regulation of decorin, it was intensively expressed in all the cases of injured tendon, particularly fascicles showed significant up-regulation when compared to the normal tendon. It was concluded that decorin was varied regionally, and the injured tendons presented a significant up-regulation.

Study the beneficial activity of low level laser in experimentally induced pain in mice

Shaymaa K. Noor; Ahmed K. Munahi; Abbas A. Allban; Muthana H. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 569-573
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127228.1487

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied to alleviate pain with minimal adverse effects. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of low-level laser therapy for pain control to help in surgical and emergency cases. The present study has demonstrated these effects experimentally on forty-five male albino mice weighing 45±5 grams. Creation of pain in animals was done by injection of 50µl of 5% formalin into the left posterior paw. Lifting of the paw was considered as an indicator of the pain. All animals were divided into 3 groups 15 mice in each group. In group A the LLLT 820nm.200mw, 48J/cm2 was focused on the affected paw for 1 min. In group B a diode laser with same dose in group A and different time used to irradiate the injected paw continuously for 30 seconds. The group C (control group); the laser probe was placed over the affected paw for concurrent but the apparatus was switched off. The results demonstrated that there were significant differences between group A and B when compared with group C during the 5 minutes as well as in 10 minutes and 15 minutes. Group A also registered a superior analgesic effect when compared with group B. Groups of LLLT were better than those found for control one and the irradiation continuous for one minute was better than 30 seconds at 5,10 and 15 minutes after the creation of pain.

A retrospective study of fracture cases managed in the veterinary teaching hospital; 181 cases (2014-2018)

Sozan Ali Muhamad; Othman Jalal Ali; Bahjat Taifor Abbas; Hardi Fattah Marif; Rizgar Rahim Sleman; Brwa Mhamed Ali; Dekan Ali Raza; Harem Habeel Hama Ali; Gashaw Mustafa Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126228.1266

The aim of the study to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in age and sex of the different breeds that were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From cases, dogs represented 49.72% (90/181), whereas cats represent 18.23% (33/181) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology of the fractures multifactorial, but car accidents represented the main cause of fractures particularly in dogs. Femoral fractures were reported as the most prevalent types of fractures that represented 26.51% (48/181), followed by fractures in radius-ulna 19.33% (35/181), tibia-fibula 13.81% (25/181) and the pelvis 9.94% (18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of case history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered an excellent scope and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical internal fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found to be very convenient and without any difficulties, on the contrary to the cases with external cooptation were not. We recorded postoperative inflammation in 4 cases, as well as mal-union was recorded in 5 cases and incomplete alignment in 2 cases was found. We concluded that fractures in pet animals are common in Sulaimani province, which must be considered, and the best-employed methods of fracture repair were the internal fixation techniques, particularly intramedullary pinning.

The aim of the study to evaluate 181 cases of different types of fractures in age and sex of the different breeds that were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, over the years 2014 -2018. From a total of 734 clinical cases, 181 were diagnosed as fractures. From cases, dogs represented 49.72% (90/181), whereas cats represent 18.23% (33/181) and birds represented 22.09% (40/ 181). The etiology of the fractures multifactorial, but car accidents represented the main cause of fractures particularly in dogs. Femoral fractures were reported as the most prevalent types of fractures that represented 26.51% (48/181), followed by fractures in radius-ulna 19.33% (35/181), tibia-fibula 13.81% (25/181) and the pelvis 9.94% (18/181). All the cases were diagnosed on the bases of case history, clinical signs, physical examination and finally confirmed by using digital X-ray which offered an excellent scope and contrast than the traditional method. From a total of 181 cases, 6 cases were found hopeless, 45 cases underwent surgical internal fixation and the remaining 130 cases were fixed by external coaptation. Internal fixations were found to be very convenient and without any difficulties, on the contrary to the cases with external cooptation were not. We recorded postoperative inflammation in 4 cases, as well as mal-union was recorded in 5 cases and incomplete alignment in 2 cases was found. We concluded that fractures in pet animals are common in Sulaimani province, which must be considered, and the best-employed methods of fracture repair were the internal fixation techniques, particularly intramedullary pinning.


Using acupuncture and electroacupuncture in the treatment of laminitis in racing horses: a comparative study

Abdulmuniem Ibrahim Aljobory; Shaheen Jaafar; Aydin Siddiq Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 15-21
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126217.1263

This study was designed to compare the efficiency of using conventional acupuncture (CA) and electroacupuncture (EA) in the laminitis therapy in race horses, twenty adult race horses with laminitis were randomly selected. Clinical examination was carried out and acupuncture points were determined according to the results of diagnostic palpation of acupuncture. The horses were grouped into two equal groups; the 1st group was treated daily for 6 consecutive weeks, with CA and the 2nd group with EA. evaluation of lameness was depended on the visual and objective examination using the “American Association of Equine Practitioners” (AAEP) lameness scale and confidence stride lengths criterion for forelimbs which performed by the force plate indices. The lameness level was statistically analyzed applying t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis and p-value (P<0.05) was significant. Both visual and objective lameness examinations showed gradual statistical significant reduction (P<0.05) in the severity of lameness and improvement in the gait of the horses after CA and EA treatment. It is also showed that the lameness level was significantly (P<0.05) decreased after every weekly session of EA treatment in comparison with CA treatment. It is concluded that continued EA treatment by current study pattern showed a marked improvement in the movement of the laminitic horses when compared with CA treatment.

Pathological study of neoplasms surgically excised from animals attended the veterinary teaching hospital

Radhwan R. Al-Ajeli; Ahmed S. Al-Qadhi; Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Layth M. Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 9-14
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126188.1260

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and histopathological features of neoplastic conditions in different species of animals that attending the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Mosul. Samples had been collected from animals with variable neoplastic lesions. The results of this study showed that the total number of the excised tumours was 36, those were noticed in cattle 30.6%, sheep 22.2%, dog 10.4%, poultry 13.9%, cat 11.1%, and goat 2.8%. The tumours were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma 22.22%, fibroma 19.44%, adenoma 13.89%, pulmonary adenomatosis and fibrosarcoma 11.11%, leucosis and lymphoma 8.33%, thymoma, and transmissible venereal tumour 2.78%. We concluded from the current study occurrence a different type of tumours which was malignant or benign in different species of animals.

Histological evaluation of the possible role of Na+/ H+ entiporter and anion exchanger in endochondral ossification activities of secondary bone healing in rats

Sahar Mohammed Ibrahim; Thana’a M Ibrahim; Kareem Obayes Handool; Abubakar Adamu Abdul; jalila abu; Sabri Mohd Yusof; Mehdi Ibrahimmi; Loqman Yusof

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 233-240
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125832.1165

In secondary fracture healing, callus proliferate, undergo hypertrophy and the extracellular matrix becomes calcified. This step to some extent, recapitulates the embryological bone development with a combination of cellular proliferation and differentiation, increasing cellular volume and matrix deposition. The causes of the chondrocytes volume increase in secondary bone healing are poorly known, but cell membrane transporters perhaps could be implicated. We hypothesize that NHE-1 and AE-2 are among plasma membrane transporters that have a role in cellular differentiation and regulation of endochondral ossification for secondary bone fracture healing. Study of closed tibia fracture healing in 2 groups of 25 of 8-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were undertaken and histological evaluation were made at 5 different time points at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 weeks after induction of the fracture. Histological evaluation of proliferative and hypertrophic chondrocyte zone area showed a significant difference in week 1 compared to other weeks. Immunohistochemistry study revealed a significant high level of labeling intensity of NHE-1 at the first four weeks. While labeling intensity of AE-2 showed moderate reaction at 1 and 2 weeks, that increased and reached the highest level at 3 and 4 weeks. These results suggested that NHE-1 and AE-2 had role in the endochondral ossification of secondary bone healing.

Levels of some biochemical markers in sera of pregnant and non-pregnant lactating dairy cows in Baghdad, Iraq

Masar Kadhim; Basim Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 353-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163027

This study aimed to measure the biochemical markers including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin / globulin (A/G) ratio, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total bilirubin in sera of dairy cows from the period of February-2016 to March-2018. For this purpose, 78 dairy cows of >3 years old reared at some areas of Baghdad province were subjected to blood sampling from the jugular vein. Study values (mean ± standard error) of ALT, AST, GGT, A/G ratio and total bilirubin markers were found outside the normal ranges of international reference values. Conversely, ALP, CK, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and BUN were found within the normal ranges of international reference values. To investigate changes that occur during late stage of pregnancy, study animals were dividedinto two groups (non-pregnant lactating and pregnant dairy cows). Statistically, significant decrease (P<0.05) was encountered in values (M ± SE) of ALT, AST, and GGT enzymes; and significant increase (P<0.05) in ALP and CK values of pregnant compared to non-pregnant dairy cows. Data concerning the serum proteins, results also indicated a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of total protein, whereas there no significant differences (P>0.05) were showed in values of albumin, globulin and A/G ratio. Pregnant dairy cows were showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of BUN and total bilirubin; however, glucose appeared without significant differences (P>0.05). It has been concluded that the lactation and gestation periods have a great impact on activity of biochemical indices in blood of dairy cows; therefore, there is a need for constant periodic monitoring for the described indices in this study to maintenance on animal’s health status.

A comparison between two different biomaterials for treatment of tracheal defect in dogs

Osama Al-Hyani; Abd Al-Haleem Al-Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 317-327
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162883

This study was designed to evaluate the healing process of tracheal cartilage defect after implantation of two different biomaterials in dogs. Eighteen adult dogs from both sexes were used. They were divided into 2 equal groups. A window shape defect of about 3cm x 2cm was induced in the cervical part of three adjacent tracheal rings with their annular ligaments. In group one, the defect was closed with a small strip of ear cartilage (auto graft) from the same animal, while in the second group, calf's pericardium scaffold (xeno graft) was used to close the defect. All the animals were clinically monitored postoperatively, while gross pathological changes and biopsy collections for all animals was performed at 15, 30, 60 postoperative days. No postoperative clinical complications were recorded and all were looking healthy and resuming food and water intake normally. The gross pathological results revealed rapid occlusion to the trachea especially in first group and animals survived without any respiratory complications. The histological features in both groups were represented by newly granulation tissue formation and hyaline cartilage regeneration. The new hyaline cartilage cells formation was showed faster in group 1 rather than group 2. In conclusion, both grafts can be used for closing a tracheal defect in dogs with the priority of ear cartilage implantation.

A comparative study between kessler suture versus polypropylene mesh implantation to repair tenotomized common calcaneal tendon in rabbits

Saddam Humadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 289-296
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162907

The present study is assigned to throw the light on the benefit of using Kessler suture compared with polypropylene mesh implantation in healing of induced tenotomy of common calcaneal tendon in a rabbit model based on clinico-histopathological evaluation. Twenty adults New Zealand white male rabbits were used for this clinical prospective study divided equally and randomly into two groups. The first group, (suture group n=10) and the second group (mesh group n=10). Under the effect of general anesthesia, longitudinal skin incision over the common calcaneal tendon was made, and the skin flap was reflected. The tendon was isolated by blunt dissection from the surrounding tissue, with small curved forceps. Simulation of a rabbit’s common calcaneal tendon rupture was made by sharp transvers incision with scalpel. The first group repair with (Kessler Suture) using polypropylene suture size 4.0. In contrast, the second group repair with (polypropylene mesh implantation) after initial suturing of the cut ends of tendon by two simple interrupted stitches using polyglyconate suture size 4.0. The surgical skin wounds were re-stitched by simple interrupted pattern with 3-0 silk. After clinical follow-up of the treatment rabbits, certain secondary health problems were encountered represented by swelling of operative site and lameness. Grossly, adhesions were noticed between the tendon and subcutaneous tissue in rabbits of both groups. Microscopical examination reflected presence of inflammatory cells perivascular edema and few capillaries at two months. At the end of experiment there were perfect orientation and organization of collagen fibers in mesh group in comparing with suture group. Based on the results obtain from this study, it seemed that both groups reflected best outcome in healing of operated tendons with superiority of mesh group in comparing with suture group.

Clinical and ultrasonographic study of using autogenous venous graft and platelet-rich plasma for repairing Achilles tendon rupture in dogs

A.H. Allawi; layth mahmoud Alkattan; osama muwaffag aliraqi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 453-460
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163199

The present article was aimed to assess the healing process of experimental entire rupture of Achilles tendon treated with various methods. The study was conducted on twenty-four healthy mature local breed dogs, which were randomly allocated in equal four experimental groups (6 of each). All dogs underwent complete Achilles tendon rupture and reconstructed as following: Group1 (control), animals were treated with tendorrhaphy only; Group 2, tendorrhaphy with platelet-rich plasma; Group 3, tendorrhaphy with a vein graft; and Group 4, the ruptured tendon was repaired with tendorrhaphy and augmented with vein and platelet-rich plasma. Dogs were monitored clinically and sonographically to evaluate tendon healing at 15, 30 and 60 days following the surgery. By comparison with the control group, the utilizing of plasma, with or without vein graft, enhanced the healing process of the induced rapture. Clinically, animals showed a fastest weight bearing and ultrasound imaging revealed increased echogenicity of fibrotic tissue. Clinically, the vein- platelet-rich plasma treated animal’s demonstrated early weight bearing, while animal treated with plasma showed earlier improvement in fiber pattern echogenicity. Furthermore, the using of vein graft for injury repair increased the repair process and the healing was earlier than that in the control group. In conclusions, our results suggested that the using of platelet-rich plasma with or without vein graft could enhance tendon healing and improve its mechanical function, which might be attributed to the synergistic effect of platelet-rich plasma with the vein graft.

Laparoscopic and hand-assisted cystorrhaphy strengthened with omental pedicle in dogs: Radiographic and ultrasonographic study

Mohammed Alhamdany; layth Alkattan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 347-352
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163026

This study was designed to evaluate the using of two laparoscopic techniques for repairing an experimental cystotomy of urinary bladder reinforced with omental pedicle in dogs. Eighteen local breed male dogs were randomly allocated into two equal groups: first group an experimental cystotomy (about 2 cm) was induced laparoscopically at the ventral surface of the urinary bladder, repaired with titanium clips and reinforced with the omental pedicle. In the second group: similar technique was followed; however, the induced was repaired with hand-assisted extracorporeal laparoscopic method. In both groups, several diagnostic parameters were followed including clinical / laparoscopic exploration, radiology, and ultrasonography. Results obtained in the first group shown the titanium clips 4-6 clips freely applicated and whole time consuming for performing operation was 45±2.1 minutes. Clinically, the experimental animals didn't show any abnormal changes in their behavioral activities. Radiographic examination revealed distention of the urinary bladder accompanied by the presence of distances between the titanium clips; however, ultrasonography didn't show any leakage or thickness at the site of operation. Laparoscopic examination demonstrated mild adhesion between urinary bladder and adjacent organ. In the second group, the operation required 36±1.1 minutes to be completed. Postoperatively, no signs of pain were observed, however, animals demonstrated post-operative transient hematuria, lasts for 24 hours, accompanied with severe adhesion between the bladder and abdominal wall. Radiographically, regular distention of the bladder was revealed, while ultrasonographic examination showed hyperechoic dots and thickening of the bladder wall. We concluded that the hand-assisted laparoscopic cystorrhaphy strengthened by omentum is a practical, time saving and mini-invasive surgical technique.

Effects of platelets rich fibrin and bone marrow on the healing of distal radial fracture in local dogs: Comparative study

Moyaser Thanoon; M.J. Eesa; E.R. Abed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 419-425
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163169

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of platelets rich fibrin and bone marrow on distal radial fracture healing in local breed dogs. Twenty four adult animals (males and females), mean aged 2.6 ±0.15 years, and the mean body weight 24.58 ±1.07 kg were used. The experimental animals were randomly divided into three equal groups. First group (Control group), transverse fracture was induced in the distal portion of radial bone and immobilized by Plaster of Paris, the fracture line didn't treated with any material. Second group (platelets rich fibrin group), the fracture line was surrounded by the platelets rich fibrin. Third group (bone marrow group), the fracture line was surrounded by autologous bone marrow. The radiographic results confirmed that the fracture healing was faster and superior in third group compared with first and second groups. The hematological results showed an increasing in concentration rates of alkaline phosphatase enzyme and calcium at the weeks that follows surgical operation. Depending on the serial rates of alkaline phosphatase, the third group and the second group are the better fractured bone healing than the first group. In conclusion, the results revealed that, the using of bone marrow and platelets rich fibrin improved and enhanced the healing of distal radial fracture.

Characterization and In Vitro evaluation of a novel coated nanocomposite porous 3D scaffold for bone repair

Sahar Ibrahim; Saffanah Mahmood; Intan Shameha Binti Abdul Razak; Loqman Mohamed Yusof; Zaid Khudhur Mahmood; Fufa I. Gimba; Md Zuki Abu Bakar Zakaria

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 157-173
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125548.1068

The aim of this study is to tissue engineer a 3D scaffold that can be used for load bearing segmental bone defects (SBDs) repair. Three different scaffolds were fabricated using cockle shell-derived CaCO3 aragonite nanoparticles (CCAN), gelatin, dextran and dextrin with coated framework via Freeze-Drying Method (FDM) labeled as 5211, 5211GTA+Alginate, 5211PLA. Scaffolds were assessed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The cytocompatibility of the organized scaffolds was assessed using cells multiplication and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration via In Vitro cell culture using human Fetal OsteoBlast cells line (hFOB). The results showed a substantial difference in ALP concentrations between the cultures of different scaffolds leachable medium during the study period. The biological evaluation also showed that three scaffolds did enhanced the osteoblast proliferation rate and improved the osteoblast function as demonstrated by the significant increase in ALP concentration. Engineering analyses showed that scaffolds possessed 3D interconnected homogenous porous structure with a porosity ranging 6%-49%, pore sizes ranging 8-345 µm, mechanical strength ranging 20-65 MPa, young’s modulus ranging 166-296 MPa and enzymatic degradation rate between 16%-38% within 2-10 weeks. The in vitro evaluation revealed that the scaffold 5211, 5211GTA+Alginate and 5211PLA fulfill all the main requirements to be considered as an ideal bone replacement.

Different methods for laparoscopic castration in dogs

Tarek Mahmood Al-Ukidi; Muneer S. Al-Badrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 25-36
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.160177

The aim of this study was to evaluate the different methods of performing a Laparoscopic castration in dogs and to determine the efficiency and disadvantages of each of these methods. The study was conducted on 20 locally healthy dogs aged between 10-20 months and weights between 17-33 kg. The animals were randomly divided into four groups each group consisted of 5 dogs. In the first group, the castration was done by closed the ducts deferens with titanium clips, 4 clips were used, the average time for complete this surgery is (11.06± 1.19 Minute). The disadvantages of this method the possibility of failure to apply the clips. In the second group, laparoscopic castration was done by using Monopolar electrocautery, time requires for doing this operation is (34.85 ± 10.15 min.) the disadvantages of this technique bleeding may occur during cutting the spermatic cord, and the smoke of Monopolar electrocautery which impedes the vision of the surgeon. In the third group, extracorporeal ligation technique was used. This method proved highly efficient and prevented any bleeding because we did not need to cut the blood vessels, as well as the low material cost of this method compared to the other three groups. However, the time required to perform this procedure in this way was rather long compared to the remaining three groups where the time required to conduct the surgery is (36.82 ± 7.18) minutes and the disadvantages of this method is the tightening and twisting the blood vessels during pushing the knot to put her in the place as well as the length of the surgery time. While in the fourth group the laparoscopic castration was done by thermal cautery in which the clotting and cutting of blood vessels in the spermatic cord were done in the same tool, the time required to complete this surgery is (11.91±3.73 min). All the operations were performed under general anesthesia using Ketamine HCl 5% in dose 15mg/kg B.w and Xylazine 2% and 5 mg/kg B.W) as bolus i.m injection. Blood was collected from each animal before the surgery and 14, 30 days after the surgery to measure the level of testosterone hormone in the serum. The results showed there is no significant decrease before and after the surgery in the testosterone serum level. The testis was removed one month after the surgery to observe changes in testicular tissue and epididymis, there were hemorrhagic areas, necrotic regions, glomerulosclerosis and adhesions between the tunica vaginalis and the tunica albuginea. As well as the spermatozoa was stopped. Absences of the sperm in the epididymis (spermatogenia), also there are degenerative and necrotic changes in the epithelium of the epididymis and absence of the cavities of these nuclei in the sperm. We conclude from this study that laparoscopic castration in dogs can be performed in all methods which are mentions above, however, the thermal cautery method was the best method in terms of time, safety and economic cost.

Femur fractures and treatment options in 20 dogs admitted to our clinic from January 2013 to December 2015

M. Abd El Raouf; N.H.M. Mekkawy; A.M. AbdEl-Aal

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2017, Volume 31, Issue 2, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2017.145608

The aim of the present study was to evaluate treatment of 20 dogs with femur fractures. Twenty (20) dogs with different ages, breeds, and gender admitted to the clinic of Department of Surgery, Anesthesiology and Radiology-Faculty of Veterinary Medicine-Zagazig University from January 2013 to December 2015 with a complaint of hind limb lameness and were diagnosed as femur fractures through clinical and radiographic examination. German shepherd dogs (85%) and immature dogs (70%) were more susceptible to femur fractures. The most common site of the fracture was the femoral diaphysis (65%) followed by metaphysis (20%). Open reduction and internal fixation techniques were applied using intramedullary (IM) pins with or without cerclage wire (40%) and bone plate (15%) for treatment of diaphyseal fractures, and two cross pins (30%) for treatment of metaphyseal and distal physeal fractures. Pin migration after complete healing (1 case) and bone re-fracture due to jumping (1 case) was the postoperative complications. It was concluded that open reduction and internal fixation methods are the proper treatment for femur fractures if the proper surgical techniques were applied.

Biochemical changes induced by general anesthesia with romifidine as a premedication, midazolam and ketamine induction and maintenance by infusion in donkeys

A.A. Amin; A.F. Ali; E.A. Al-Mutheffer

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 19-22
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.167130

 The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the general anesthesia on same biochemical changes in donkeys. The anesthesia was induced by intravenous (IV) injection of romifidine 0.1 mg/kg as a premedication, after 5 minutes induction of general anesthesia by (IV) of mixture midazolam 0.1 mg/kg and ketamine hydrochloride 2.2 mg/kg in the same syringe. The maintenance of anesthesia was performed by (IV) infusion of a mixture of the midazolam 0.065 mg/kg/hr. and ketamine 6.6 mg/kg/hr. The biochemical parameters changes in serum levels of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity as liver enzymes and serum glucose were estimated in zero, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480 minutes. The results revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in the means of AST (U/L) between zero 199.6 with 30 min 192.5 and 60 min 191.5. No significant differences (P>0.05) in mean enzyme activity of the ALT and ALP. Serum glucose results were shown no significant differences (P>0.05) in the (control, 15, 30 minutes) and (60,120 and 240) respectively and significant differences in between and within 480 minutes. The general anesthesia in this protocol was good and had little effect on the liver function and showed increase in serum blood glucose in donkeys.

Diagnosis and surgical treatment of the congenital defects in animals

F.M. Mohammed; R.M. Salih; R.I. Shiker; S.M. Hamoshy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 207-212
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168700

 A survey study was performed to record congenital defects in animals that brought to the veterinary teaching hospital of the veterinary medical college in MosulUniversity from July 1/7/2010 to March 1/3/2011. A total (15) cases of congenital defects were diagnosed and treated in this study including Atrasia ani 5 cases in ratio 33.33%, Atrasia ani et recti 2 cases in ratio 13.33%, Atrasia ani with rectovaginal fistula 1 case in ratio 6.66%, Umbilical hernia 3 cases in ratio 20%, Urethral diverticulum 1 case in ratio 6.66%, Ocular dermoid cyst 1 case in ratio 6.66%, Evisceratrion 1 case in ratio 6.66% and Contracted flexor tendon 1 case in ratio 6.66%. The most congenital defects recorded were in males 11 cases in ratio 73.33% more than the females 4 cases in ratio 26.66%. All of the surgical techniques used for treatment of congenital defects in this study were efficient and successful and performed under local analgesia by lidocaine 2%.

Effect of different suture materials on healing of blood vessels in dogs

O.H. Al-Hyani; A.Kh. Al-Jobory; A.M. Al-Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 77-82
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168742

The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of 3 types of non absorbable suture materials in arteries and veins suturing. Twelve adult dogs of both sexes was used, the animals was divided into three groups of four animals in each. The right common carotid artery and left jugular vein of each animal was used for application of suture materials. In group one the blood vessels (common carotid artery and jugular vein) sutured with polypropylene suture after inducing about 2cm longitudinal incision on the vessel, in group two polyester suture was used in the same manner of group one, while in group three myo-steel suture was used in the same way of group one and two. The macroscopic and microscopic changes associated with each suture material were studied at 15 and 30 postoperative days. The gross pathological changes associated with polypropylene was that of very mild adhesion and very mild shrinkage and stenosis at the suture line with smooth blood flow, while the groups of polyester and myo-steel suture associated with severe adhesions, shrinkage at the suture line with poor blood flow. The histopathological changes showed that polypropylene suture lead to formation of very few amount granulation tissue at the line of incision, no signs of organized thrombus formation or significant changes of the blood vessels wall, but the polyester suture cause arterial organized thrombus formation and hypertrophy of endothelial wall, while the myo-steel suture lead to formation intense amount granulation tissue which cause to the thickening in the wall of blood vessels with subsequent changes in the normal shape of vessels. In conclusion the polypropylene suture was regarded better and superior than polyester and myo-steel suture materials in blood vesselssurgery.

Laparoscopic versus open total splenectomy in dogs

B. H. Jumaa; A. M. Al-hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 179-186
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168690

 Theobjective of this study was to evaluate a two total splenectomy laparoscopic techniquesand compare it with the conventional method.18 local breed dogs of both sexes was usedthey were divided randomly into 3 groups (A-C) of 6 dogs in each.In group A the dogs underwent laparoscopic total splenectomy with the application of titanium clips to close the splenic vessels in group B the dogs underwent total laparoscopic splenectomy by using the thermocautery while in group C the total splenectomy was performed by laparotomy. Blood samples were collected before and after operations to estimate the haptoglobin level in the serum. In group A the time needed for splenectomy was (47±5 min)in group Ba shortest time was consumed 2min) while in group C the operation time was (30±5min). The haptoglobin estimation revealed an increased level at the 1st postoperative day, and reached the peak at 3rd postoperative day, the started to decline at the 5th postoperative day and returned about the normal level in the7th postoperative day.

Surgical correction of congenital anomalies in a neonatal lamb: a case report

Z.T. Abd-Almaseeh; A.H. Allawi; F.M. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. II, Pages 43-46
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168683

A newborn male lamb 2 days age brought at surgical Department of Veterinary Teaching Hospital – University of Mosul with a history of no defecation and urination. Depend on the clinical, physical and ultrasonographic examinations, the condition was diagnosed as different congenital anomaliesof urogenital system (absence of penis, urethra and the scrotal raphae was abnormally prominent, dividing the scrotal sac into two halves, each one with a testicle) associated with atresia ani et recti. Surgical corrections of these different congenital anomalies performed with colostomy and cystostomy operation as emergency case. The animal dies after the second operative day. This paper report a new type of different congenital anomaliesina newborn lamb did not mentioned in other literature yet and the surgical correction adopted for the anomalies.

Modified rumen fixation technique during rumenotomy in sheep

L.M. Alkattan; T.M. Salih

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 197-200
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168696

 The present study aimed to take an idea about the efficiency of modified using ruminal ring for rumine fixation in sheep. Five awasi ewes underwent digestive disorders according to its signs and case history these cases diagnosed as foreign body syndrome. Rumenotomy was performed, rumen fixed with modified winghart ruminal ring, time consuming and degree of contamination this criteria used as index to estimate the efficiency of this method of fixation during operation. Blood picture, physical criteria and clinical inspection include postoperative complications was recorded during one week to evaluate the activity, efficiency, its prognosis and postoperative complications of current method of rumen fixation.  The results exhibited bloat, loss of appetite signs accompanied with foreign bodies in most of operative animals, so fixation of rumen with such modified ring suitable for laparorumeotomy in sheep because of less postoperative complications. In spite of that there is some difficulty with using this technique as large volume of ring which some time led to slipping of ruminal hocks and the ruminal content may enter to the abdominal cavity.  There were no significant changes in physical and blood criteria. Data suggest hat rumenotomy can be easily done in sheep with a modified winghart ring.

A comparative study of laparoscopic partial hepatectomy by clamp-crush and ultrasurgical techniques in rams

A.A. Ajeel; M.J. Eesa; R.N. Al-Asadi; M.A. Alkhilani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. IV, Pages 131-139
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168751

The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic partial hepatectomy via two techniques in rams. Twenty-four adult local breed rams were used, which divided randomly and equally into two groups. All animals subjected to laparoscopic partial hepatectomy. operations were performed under the effect of general anesthesia by using 5% thiopental sodium at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg B.W., intravenously and maintenance was done by inhalation (halothane) (2- 2.5%). Animals placed in a reverse Trendelenburg (30º) and left lateral position. Pneumoperitoneum was achieved under (10 - 12mmHg). Four (10 mm) ports were made on ventral abdominal wall. Liver parenchyma was controlled with modified liver clamp. In first group, partial hepatectomy was done by Clamp-crush forceps. While in second group, Ultra- surgical device was used. Following operations, certain parameters such as rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, food intake, and secondary health problemes had been recorded. Also the operative and resection times and blood loss were estimated. Liver enzymes (alinine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphate, total serum bilirubin and total serum proteinswere measured. Histopathological examination of liver biobsies was performed at 3rd, 7th, 15th days and four months post-surgery. The main intra-operative complication was the bleeding. Result indicated that the vital parameters were within the normal rang. Shorter operative and resection times were noticed in second group when compared with first group. There were no significant differences in the mean values of blood loss in both groups. Also no bile collection were seen in the abdominal cavity or subphrinic region during the exploratory laparoscopy at (3, 7, and 15 days) and four months post-surgery. There were no significant differences in the mean values of the liver function test (liver enzymes) in two groups. Macroscopic examination revealed the presence of adhestion between liver and adjcent structures with varing degree. The normal structures of the liver which consist of hepatocytes and central vein returned within 4 months post operations in second group. We can conclude that the laparoscopic partial hepatectomy in rams can be safely performed under Ultra-surgical technique with a modified liver clamp which reflected minor secondary complications and early liver regeneration.

Biometry of genital organs in Iraqi female buffalo

Dhyea J. Khammas; Hnee E. Al-Saffar; Ali F. Alwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37421

Ninety-three of grossly normal buffalo genital tracts were under taken in this study. The mean length, width, thickness, and weight of the ovary devoicing functional Corpus Luteum (CL) were 2.39±0.77 cm, 1.55±0.46 cm, 1.19±0.31 cm and 3.12±2.11 gm, respectively, and 2.139±0.65 cm, 1.23±0.3 cm and 3.14±1.86 gm, for the left one respectively. The mean length, width, thickness and weight of right ovary containing functional CL were 2.61±0.52 cm, 1.59±0.45 cm, 1.53±0.24 cm and 4.79±1.59 gm respectively, and 2.88±0.60 cm, 2.34±0.38 cm, 1.48±0.15 cm and 5.54±1.23 gm for the left one respectively. The mean diameter of the largest six follicles located on the right ovary was 1.42±0.19 cm, and 1.41±0.1 cm of six follicles on left ovary. The mean length of prominent part of the 15 functional CL found on the right ovary was 0.57±0.17 cm and it was 0.57±0.21 cm on the left one, while the mean length and weight of those 15 functional CL of the right ovary were 1.151±0.18 cm and 1.31±0.52 gm, and on the left ovary they were 1.73±0.93 cm and 1.7±0.57 gm. The mean length, diameter and number of caruncles of the right uterine horns were 23.76±8.14 cm, 2.12±0.6 cm and 84.63±13.62 respectively, and they were 23.34±7.96 cm, 2.10±0.58 cm and 84.12±13.27 of the left horns respectively. The mean length and numbers of uterine body caruncles were 1.37±0.75 cm and 6.27±1.92 the mean length, diameter and number of annular rings of cervix were 5.33±0.96 cm, 2.58±0.64 cm and 4.7±0.61, respectively.