Main Subjects : Fish Diseases

Use of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae amino acids as anti Aeromonas hydrophila enterotoxin in vivo

Dahliatul Qosimah; Sanarto Santosa; Maftuch Maftuch; Husnul Khotimah; Loeki Enggar Fitri; Aulanni am Aulanni am

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133332.2205

Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic freshwater. These bacteria cause gastroenteritis and septicemia in animals and humans. Hemolysin and aerolysin, are important in the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila. Prepupae Black soldier fly (BSF) can be used as an antibacterial using its active substance against hemolysin and aerolysin. This study aimed to determine how the interaction of prepupae BSF amino acids with A. hydrophila enterotoxin in silico and protein level in various substrates in vivo. The study consisted of BSF larva of T1 (fed fruit waste), T2 (fed fermented fruit waste), T3 (fed tofu waste), T4 (fed fermented tofu waste), and T5 (fed fermented fruit waste and tofu waste). Data on the difference of protein level of prepupae among groups were analyzed statistically using the ANOVA test. The study showed that the highest protein content of BSF prepupae was found in treatment T3 dan T4. Protein docking analysis showed that L-arginine had the most hydrogen interaction (11 H-bonds) with aerolysin and 10 H-bonds against hemolysin, indicating an antibacterial role. The most favorable interacting residues of 17 amino acids against hemolysin were ARG73, ASP74, THR541, ALA523, and ASN483, while the residues of the active site against aerolysin were ASP92, ARG394, SER354, TYR348, ARG356, VAL396, PRO395, and ASP350. Amino could inhibit the hemolytic toxin of Aeromonas by interacting with binding site residues. The better the nutritional value of the substrate given to BSF larvae, the higher the protein content of BSF prepupae. Proteins from BSF prepupae can be antibacterial candidates against A. hydrophila

Fecal and gastric fluid microbiome profiles in the indopacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus)

Agustin Indrawati; Safika Safika; Siti Gusti Ningrum; Kurnia Tiara Aulia; Hera Maheshwari; Sapto Andriyono

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023, Volume 37, Issue 1, Pages 151-159
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135058.2440

The microbiota of the gastrointestinal system of dolphins has received significant interest recently. Moreover, little is understood about the microbiomes found in the stomachs of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). This study aimed to evaluate the biodiversity of bacterial microbiota in the digestive system of T. aduncus. In the present study, 18 samples were obtained from an ex-situ conservation area, Wersut Seguni Indonesia, Kendal, Indonesia, and processed for bacterial DNA extraction. A total of 7 samples were qualified as representative samples for the 16S metagenomic sequencing. The bacterial composition revealed that the Shewanellaceae was significantly higher in the stomach than in the gut. As a result, the abundance of the microbiome in gastric and stool samples showed significant differences. In contrast, the Peptostreptococcaceae was found in greater abundance in the gut than in the stomach. At the species level, we successfully found emerging zoonotic pathogens involving Shewanella algae and Shewanella xiamenensis. This report is the first study to explore the bacterial diversity in gastro of T. aduncus.

Effect of adding blue-green algae, probiotic and antibiotic to the diet on the productive performance of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Mahmoud A. Mohammad; Nidhal T. Al-Taee; Shahbaa K. Al-Taee; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 11-17
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.134963.2425

This current study aimed to study the effect of adding blue-green algae (Spirulina), symbiotic (poultry star®me) at a ratio of 1 to 2% and colistin antibiotic to the control diet of common carp fish reared in glass aquariums for 56 days terms of three replicates for each treatment. The growth results showed that the fish fed on the third diet was significantly superior to the fish fed on the other experimental diets in the rate of total and daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, feeding efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio criteria over all other experimental diets except for the second diet, 1% spirulina. The fish fed on the second diet significantly outperformed in the precipitated protein criterion and the protein productive value of all the experimental diets under study. The value of crude protein in the edible portion increased significantly when fish were fed on spirulina, symbiotic and antibiotic diets, compared to the control diet, while the percentage of fats in the fish fed on diets containing the food additives under test decreased significantly compared to the control diet. No significant differences were recorded in the percentage of ash. It is evident from what was mentioned above that the best results of the studied criteria were when adding spirulina at had positive effects on growth criteria and food utilization.

Quantification histopathological analysis in the gills of carp fish exposed to sub lethal concentration of nano zinc oxide

Shahbaa Kh. Al-Taee; Alaa H. Alhamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 61-68
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135365.2471

Nano-zinc oxide ranks third in the world in production, as it is used in many industries, enters the aquatic environment directly or indirectly, and is considered one of the most toxic substances for aquatic organisms. Therefore, these studies aimed to determine the toxic effect of the sublethal concentration of N-ZnO on the gills of carp fish that were treated for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days and using a semi-quantitative evaluation protocol for histopathological alteration. The histopathological alteration involved circulatory changes, cell growth disturbances, and morphological changes, the most severe lesion occurred on day 35 of treatment, and the occurrence of necrosis and death of the gill tissue at day 42 of the treatment, which was more significant for morphological changes when compared with the other lesion and period. The results showed that the histopathological changes on the seventh day of treatment were severe lesions, while in the rest of the treatments, they were irreversible lesions. It is concluded from this study that the gills are a good bio-indicator for evaluating the pollution status of the aquatic environment and that the sub-lethal concentration of N-ZnO leads to pathological changes in the gills and the possibility of using semi-quantitative assessment and statistical analysis to give significance for the most severe pathological lesions.

Effect of adding Eruca sativa in common carp on growth criteria, feed utilization and chemical composition

Saud D. Al-Rawe; Mahmoud A. Mohammad; Abd Al-Bar A. Al-Farha

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue Supplement I, Pages 107-113
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135758.2514

To examine the effects of adding seeds powder and rocket Eruca sativa leaves to the diets of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fish with percentages of 1, 2, and 3% of the total diet (the first, second, and third treatments), as well as the addition of rocket leaf powder to the fourth, fifth, and sixth diets, respectively, While the control diet, was empty of these additions (the seventh diet). Each treatment was replicated three times. These diets were used to feed common carp for 56 days. According to the statistical analysis's research results, the fish fed the fourth diet significantly superior surpassed the control diet and all other experimental diets in terms of growth criteria represented by the final weight, total weight gain, daily growth rate, relative, specific growth rate, and in terms of feed utilization: feed conversion ratio, feeding efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio. Except for the sixth treatment, the fed fish outperformed all other experimental treatments, and the second and fourth treatments regarding retained protein and protein production value. Fish were fed as the fifth treatment, significantly superior to the control diet. These results in the highest percentage of dry matter and crude protein for the edible portion of the body. Feeding fish on the fourth treatment resulted in the lowest proportion of ether extract, much lower than all the experimental diets. 

Morphohistopathological alteration in the gills and central nervous system in Cyprinus carpio exposed to lethal concentration of copper sulfate

Adeeb F. Saied; Shahbaa K. Al-Taee; Nidhal T. Al-Taee

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 981-989
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132781.2131

Copper Sulfate (CuSO4) is the most used in aquaculture as chemotherapeutic bath against bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases but it is very toxic for fish so the goal of this study was to determine the lethal concentration of CuSO4 and evaluate it is toxicity in the gill and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) in Cyprinus carpio. Fish exposed to 0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/L for 24 hours, each concentration with three replication each have six fish. The mortality rate was 100% at concentration 10 mg/L, which represented lethal concentration, while medium lethal concentration (LC50) was determined by Trevan method and it is 5mg/L. The fish with LC100 concentration exhibit abnormal respiration with gasping swimming, nervous sings with up down and stay at basin then die at 2-3 hours. The histopathological examination of the gills revealed circulatory disturbances, cellularity reaction, progressive and regressive alteration, this microscopic alteration was evaluated as semi-quantities analysis and there was variable significant (P≤0.05) in the pathological alteration and gill indexes between two treatments. In the brain and spinal cord, the lesions are represented by vasogenic edema, infiltration of inflammatory cells with atrophy in the neuronal body cells and hemorrhage. It is concluded from this study that the use of copper sulfate is within limited concentrations because increasing its concentration leads to fish toxicity, and it was observed that the gill tissue is more sensitive to toxicity than the central nervous system

Detection of endoparasites in mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in north Sumatra province, Indonesia

Eri Yusni; Agung Batubara; Cahya Frantika

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 519-524
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130703.1867

The purpose of this study was to determine the species and the prevalence value of endoparasites that infect male and female mackerel tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in Tanjung Balai Port, North Sumatra Province. This research was conducted from August to September 2020. Research on endoparasite identification was carried out at the Laboratory of the Technical Implementation Unit for the Implementation of Fishery Product Quality (UPT PMHP), Medan. The method used in this study is a survey method with direct collection at the research location. The sample was taken using random sampling techniques. Endoparasite research was conducted on 30 fish samples, divided into 15 samples of male mackerel tuna with an average size of 26.92 cm and an average weight of 258.451 g, and 15 samples of female mackerel tuna with an average size of 29.50 cm and an average weight of 352.249 g. Four genera of endoparasites were found that infect male and female mackerel tuna, namely Rhadinorhynchus sp., Echinorhynchus sp., Acanthocephalus sp., and Neoechinorhynchus sp. with the highest prevalence value, namely the type of Rhadinorhynchus sp. 6.66% in the stomach and 76.66% in the intestine, the type of Echinorhynchus sp. 3.33% in the stomach and 33.33% in the intestine, as well as Acanthocephalus sp 26.66% and Neoechinorhynchus sp 13.33% only in the intestine.

Effect addition of Cinnamomum cassia on treatment of pathological infections in Cyprinus carpio L. fingerlings

Mahmoud A Mohammad; Shahbaa AL-Taee; Zahraa M. Al-Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 733-738
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128258.1564

The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the causative agents that causes death in Yankee Hatch / Erbil fingerling Cyprinus carpio and to investigate the effect of Cinnamon on the infected fish handled. Both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are strongly isolate followed by Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated from liver, kidney and intestine which cause histopathological changes in these organs, characterized by fibrosis in liver, coagulative necrosis in renal tubules in the kidney and sever enteritis. Cinnamomum cassia added to the ration of infected fish at concentration 0.75, 1 and 1.5 %for eight weeks. The histopathological examination reveals that the 1.5% is best the percentage used as food additive for repair and regenerative tissue damage in the liver, kidney and intestine. These study conclude that C. cassia have been used as additive food in fish feed ration at 1.5% and have important role in regenerative tissue damage and keep fish in health status.

Biochemical and behavioral responses in carp fish exposed to tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222) as anesthetic drug under transport conditions

Shahbaa AL-Taee; May Thanoon Anaz; Muneer S. Taha Al-Badrany; Alla Hussein ALHamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 719-723
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.128035.1552

This study aims to determine the effects of Tricaine methane‐sulfonate (MS-222) at concentration 150mg/l for one hour as an anesthetic agent to reduce the stress conditions during transfer the fish. Forty fish (Cyprinus carpio) were divide in to four groups: the 1st is control group (fish without both transfer and anesthesia), the 2nd group (fish transfer without anesthesia), the 3rd group (fish anesthesia without transfer) and the 4th group (fish transfer with anesthesia). The induction time reached to 3 minutes while the recovery time take at lasted for 7 to 10 minutes. Furthermore, the cortisol was significantly decreased in fish serum in both anesthetized groups that were transferred or that were left in the pond without transmission in compare to control groups (both transfer and without transfer fish). The glucose level rose significantly (P <0.05) in the serum of fish in both 3rd and 4th groups in compare to control groups. There was no difference in hematological parameters (hemoglobin and packed cell volume), blood sodium ion concentration, and enzyme activity represented by Alanine amino transferase in all groups while level of creatinine phosphate was decrease significantly in both groups 2nd and 3ed in compare to 1st group. It can be concluded that tricaine methane‐sulfonate stimulates the recovery and shortens the time of induction and reduces the stress condition caused by fish transport.

Potential of probiotics Bacillus subtilis to reduce ammonia levels, Vibrio sp abundance, and increased production performance of Seaworm (Nereis sp) under laboratory scale

Aditya Kamaruddin; Moch Nurhudah; Djumbuh Rukmono; Angga Wiradana

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 757-763
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128408.1572

This study aims to determine the potential of Bacillus subtilis probiotic in reducing levels of ammonia, Vibrio sp, and increased production performance in seaworm cultivation (Nereis sp.) under laboratory scale. Observation of the performance of seaworms (Nereis sp.) was carried out every 10 days which included weight gain (gr), length (cm), total biomass (gr), total bacteria (CFU/mL), total Vibrio sp. (CFU/mL), and total Bacillus subtilis (CFU/mL). Water quality measurements include temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, ammonia, and total organic matter (TOM). Application of probiotics Bacillus subtilis has the potential to reduce ammonia concentration, increase growth, and reduce the abundance of Vibrio sp under laboratory-scale seaworm cultivation. P3 treatment (0.01 mL with a probiotic density of 106 CFU/mL) gave the best results by being able to reduce the ammonia concentration by 47.5%. In summary, the probiotic application using the bacteria Bacillus subtilis with different densities able to provide good results in supporting production performance, maintaining the abundance of Vibrio sp., and reducing ammonia concentration in seaworm cultivation. This is the first study to report the performance of seaworm production using probiotic agent, research is still needed to determine the digestive enzyme activity of seaworms given probiotics.

Pathological lesions of acute sodium chloride toxicity in common carp: Case report

Saevan S. Al-Mahmood; Asseel M. Rahawi; Hadil B. Al-Sabaawy; Ahmed M. Farhan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 417-419
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126917.1417

Sodium chloride (NaCl) have a major impact on fish farming, as it used to disinfect fish and their eggs, in contrast using NaCl in high dose can cause life threating toxicity with high mortalities in Cyprinus carpio. We aimed in current report to introduce for specialist in fish culturing and farmers a typical acute NaCl toxicity by presenting pathological lesions. The histopathological lesions composed from sever degenerative and necrotic changes in gill filaments with destruction in blood vessels and hyperplasia in secondary gill lamella. In conclusion, using NaCl in high uncalculated doses can cause significant pathological changes that lead to 100% mortalities in Cyprinus carpio.

The role of clove (Sygnium aromaticum) oil as anaesthetics compound for abalone (Haliotis squamata)

Norma Fanni; Fuquh Shaleh; Muhammad Santanumurti

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 335-342
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126824.1396

Abalone is one of aquaculture commodity that has a high value including in Indonesia due to its price, taste and nutrition content. Unfortunately there is problem in abalone’s transportation process which caused stress and even death. Clove oil can be used as anesthetic agent for abalone to obtain a high survival rate because of its eugenol content. This research tried to evaluate the the effect of clove oil as anesthesia agent to determined induction time, survival rate and oxygen cosumption in H squamata. This study used an experimental method and used a completely randomized design with treatment concentration of clove oil solution were 0.5 ml/L (A), 0.7 ml/L (B), 0.9 ml/L (C), and 1.1 ml/L (D) which each treatment was repeated three times, and calculated the value of the abalone (H. Squamata) survival rate after maintenance for 14 days. The results of the study showed that the survival rate of abalone seeds obtained in the treatment with the concentration of 1.1 ml/L (D). In the treatment also showed the fastest induction time with 96.67 seconds. The lowest oxygen comsumption rate in this study was treatment D with concentration of 1,1 ml/L. It could be concluded that using clove oil with concentration of 1.1 ml/L as anasthesic compound for abalone showed effectiveness in induction time, survival rate, and oxygen consumption rate.

The effect of stocking density and the application of Nitrobacter as ammonia decomposer in aquaponics system of Clarias gariepinus with water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica)

Adinda Septyasari Taragusti; Prayogo Prayogo; Boedi Setya Rahardja

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 217-222
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.126116.1243

This study aimed to determine the effect of Nitrobacter bacteria on specific growth rate (SGR), survival rate (SR), and feed convertion ratio (FCR) of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in aquaponics systems. The sample used was African catfish with a size of 5-7 cm as many as 720 individuals. The research method used was experimental design in the form of Completely Randomized Design (CRD). This study used 5 types of treatments with 4 repetitions. The P0 and P1 contain of 30 fish in each aquarium; 35 fish in P2; 40 fish in P3; and 45 fish in P4. The control group (P0) were treated without Nitrobacter administration and the other 4 intervention groups were given Nitrobacter 1 ml with a density of 1x108 CFU ml-1. The main parameters studied were SGR, SR and FCR of African catfish in different aquarium with different stocking densities. This research also studied the growth of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) also water quality conditions in aquaponics systems. The administration of Nitrobacter in aquaponics systems gave a significant effect on the SGR, SR, and FCR of catfish. The administration of Nitrobacter in an aquaponics system can give maximum effect if there are 45 fish stocking densities and 1 ml Nitrobacter with a concentration of 1x108 CFU ml-1.

Effect of probiotic (Poultrystar®) and heat stress on some blood parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Rawnaq Ismail; Alaa Alhamdani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 221-225
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125539.1061

This study was conducted to determine the effect of the heat stress on some blood parameters and role of probiotics (Poultrystar®) to reduce these effects, 120 common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with mean weight 150±10g were obtained from collage of Agriculture and forestry /University of Mosul. Fish were acclimated for at least 7 day in the laboratory and fed daily, the water temperature was maintained at 25 ±2°C. Three experiments have been done, each of 40 fish which have been divided randomly into four groups 10 for each. First experiment the four groups exposed to different water temperature (control 25, 30, 32, 34 °C), second experiment the four groups treated with (Poultrystar®) in a dose 1 g/ kg body weight by using stomach tube with exposed to heat stress (control 25, 30, 32 and 34 °C). In the third experiment the four groups have been treated with (Poultrystar®) in the same dose of the previous experiment for 7 days then exposed to heat stress. The results show there were significantly increase in hemoglobin concentration in three experiments, and also the Packed cell volume was significantly increase in three experiments, but the stress index was significantly decrease in three experiments, and the probiotics (Poultrystar®) improved the blood picture especially in the second and third experiment because no probiotic used in the first experiment.

Prevalence of nematodes infestation in Clarias gariepinus from El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, Egypt

Sh.S. Sorour; A.H. Hamouda

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 181-188
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162963

A total number of 400 Clarias gaiepinus were collected alive from several and various locations at El-Burullus Lake and Lake Nasser, to investigate the prevailing nematodes that infect this fish species from the two locations. Nearly all the examined fish were positive for one or more nematodes; four spp. of two families were identified from Clarias gaiepinus at El-Burullus Lake: Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. (recovered from the gall bladder for the first time) and Terranova spp. larvae (recorded for the first time in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate representing new locality record), one nematode from Clarias gaiepinus at Lake Nasser: 3rd stage  larvae (L3) of Contraceacum spp. (has zoonotic importance). The prevalence of Procamallanus laeviconchus, Paracamallanus cyathopharynx, Neocamallanus spp. and Terranova spp. larva were 37.5%, 44%, 0.5% and 10% respectively, meanwhile the prevalence of L3 larvae of Contraceacum spp. were 100%. This study was planned to compare between the nematodes infecting Clarias gaiepinus from the two lakes evaluating clinical signs, postmortem examinations, parasitological examinations, seasonal prevalence and histopathological investigations of infected fish with different nematodes infestation. Clarias  gaiepinus must be eviscerated as soon as possible after catching to prevent 3rd stage larvae of Contraceacum spp. in the abdominal cavity from liberating from their sheaths and attacking the fish musculature (the edible part in the fish) as well as,prevent Terranova spp. larvae in the gills from attacking another parts of the fish and thus prevent the transmission of the nematodes of zoonotic importance to the consumers.

Effect of microalgae Spirulina spp. as food additive on some biological and blood parameters of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Nasreen Muhialddin Abdulrahman; Hawkar Jaafar Hama Ameen; Shamal Rasul Hama; Bakhan Rafiq Hassan; Pola Jalal Nader

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 27-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125527.1049

This study was carried out to study the effect of adding different levels of the microalgae Spirulina spp. in fish laboratory of Animal Sciences Department, College of Agricultural Sciences of Sulaimani University, Sulaimani, Iraq. A total of 72 common carp fingerling weight 45±2 gm used to detect the effect of three different levels of the algae Spirulina spp. The control treatment T1 with 0%., T2 with 3 gm /kg diet and T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet. Each treatment in three replicates in which six fingerlings common carp were stocked in each aquarium. Results indicated no significant differences at PSpirulina) in T3 was higher significantly at PSpirulina was higher significantly at PSpirulina to common carp diets in different levels leads to significant differences in differential WBC counts, T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet was higher in WBC counts. Lymphocytes were higher in each of control and T3. Monocytes were higher in control, granulocytes in T2 with 3 gm Spirulina /kg diet. Adding of Spirulina affected significantly in cholesterol as compared to the control. Triglyceride was higher in control and T2. T3 with 5 gm Spirulina /kg diet leads to higher and lower significantly in HDL and LDL respectively. T1 and T3 were higher significantly in spleenosomatic index. Inclusion of S. platensis in fish diet as a feed additive or as a partial replacer of the expensive fishmeal imposes significant promotions in fish growth, coloration, reproduction and flesh quality.

Histopathological changes in diseased and treated catfish (Clarias gariepinus) by ciprofloxacin and clove oil

S.S. Abd El-Salam; M.F. Ghaly; D.M. Baraka; S.H. Mahmoud; A.A. El-Makhzangy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 13-19
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153788

Bacteria pathogens may cause a serious loss in aquaculture and also health hazards to humans. On the basis of biochemical characteristics and API-20E system, all isolates of pathogens from diseased fish were identified as Aeromonas spp, the most predominant bacterial species were A. sobria 46.7%, A. caviae 19.03%, A. jandaei 8.6 % and A. veronii 8.6 %. One hundred and twenty Nile catfish Clarias gariepinus were divided into four equal groups (1,2,3 and 4) were challenged with Aeromonas sobria which predominant isolates, Gp. (1) was challenged only, while Gps. (2, 3 and 4) were treated after challenged with ciprofloxacin, clove extract and ciprofloxacin and clove extract in combination, respectively. The antibacterial activity of antibiotic and clove extract in their therapeutic doses decrease the mortality rate as (20, 16 and 13%) respectively compared with non-medicated Gp. (1) which recorded mortality 83%. Internal signs of infection with Aeromonas sobria in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) include congestion of the hepatic blood vessels, areas of coagulative necrosis in the liver and hydropic degeneration of renal tubules according to the histopathological examination. In-vivo the combination of ciprofloxacin and clove extract was the choice as alternative bacterial therapeutic agent in infected Clarias gariepinus with Aeromonas sobria. Moreover histopathological changes have been widely used as biomarkers in the evaluation of the health of fish exposed to contaminants.

Effect of some mycotoxin on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

F. I. Magouz; M.S. Salem; M.A. Hashad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153830

The present study was conducted in the fish lab, Sakha Aquaculture Research Unit, Central laboratory for Aquaculture Research-Abbassa, during season 2015, Feeding experiment was conducted for 16 weeks to study the effect of dietary contamination with aflatoxin B1 (150 ppb, AFB1) with and without the dietary supplementation of (1gm/kg) of Liquorice (medicinal plants), (2g) of MTB-100 (chemicals) and (0.5g) of Gromin-plus (chemicals) on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. A group of 150 Nile Tilapia fingerlings (O. niloticus) with an average initial body weight 13.50 gm were randomly allotted into 5 treatments in 10 glasses aquaria (80x35x40cm). Each treatment was applied in two aquaria. Fresh tap water was stored in fiberglass tanks for 24h under aeration for dechlorination. Prior to the start of the experiment, the fishes were adapted to a basal commercial diet (control diet) containing 31% crude protein and consisted of herring fish meal, soybean meal, yellow corn, wheat bran, sunflower oil and vitamins and minerals mixture for two weeks. These ingredients were pressed by manufactured machine (pellets size 1mm), milled and toxin AFB1 was added at a concentration of 150 ppb except the control. Fish in all treatments were daily fed the experimental diets at level of 3% of the fish biomass. The feed amount was given at two times daily, six days a week for 16 weeks. Fish were weighed weekly and the feed amounts were adjusted on the basis of the new weight. The aflatoxic dite has adversely affected the growth performance and survival rate, feed utilization and carcass composition in fish and residues of AFB1 in the whole body of fish and indices organs and blood biochemistry of the experimented fish. Dietary MTB-100, Liquorice and Gromin-plus inclusion alleviated aflatoxiccosis semptoms by fish, since it improved all the above tested parameters of aflatoxicated fish. Generally, obtained results in the present study indicated that the additives all the above could be used as detoxifying agents for aflatoxins.

Effects of feeding frequency on common carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) growth rate

S.A. Hama Amin; N.M. Abdulrahman; V.M. Ahmed; P.B. Ibrahim; R.R. Ismail; M.B. Ahmed; N.M. HamaGareeb

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153786

In present study the effect of feeding frequency on growth performance, food efficiency and survival rate of common carp fingerlings were investigated. Three groups of common carp fingerlings (average weight 22.88±1 gm) designed with three feeding frequencies one meal a day (D1), two meals a day (D2) and three meals a day (D3) with three replicates of each treatment. Fish in experimental treatments were fed by 4% of body weight. Feeding frequencies had significant effect on growth performance (P<0.05). The final body weight and specific growth rate (SGR) were significantly higher in group D3 (P<0.05) in this comparison. Similar responses were observed for body weight increased (BWI) and daily growth rate (DGR) and the best BWI and DGR were obtained in D3 group, that showed significantly different to other groups (P<0.05). The best feed conversion ratio (FCR) was obtained from three daily feeding (D3), however there were no significant different between D2 and D3 (P>0.05). Also feeding frequencies had positive effect on fish survival rate (P<0.05). The best results in growth performance and survival rate were obtained by feeding threemeals a day (D3).