Keywords : bacteria

Assessment of multiplex PCR for detection of FMDV, BVDV, BTV, and possible coinfection with Pasteurella multocida in cattle

Gawhara J. Abdelmonem; Ali M. Amer; Elsayed A. Hussein; Zeinab R. Aboezz; Ahmed R. Habashi; Saad S. Sharawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1053-1059
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132983.2158

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay is a nucleic acid amplification method that is considered reliable and practical means for several pathogen detections in a single reaction, especially when multiple pathogens are suspected. In this study, a novel mPCR assay was validated for the detection of four notifiable diseases in cattle, including foot and mouth disease (FMD), Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), Bluetongue (BT), and Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS). The assay was operated in a two-step procedure. The first one was a reverse transcription of viral RNA, then mPCR of viral cDNA and bacterial DNA. The optimized mPCR was applied on blood (26) and vesicular epithelium (10) samples collected from 26 clinically infected animals from three governorates (Qalubia, Sharkia, and Gharbia). mPCR detected at least 10 pg of microbial nucleic acid extracted from the local isolates. The mPCR results showed that 22/26 (84.6%) of clinically infected animals were positively infected by single or dual infection. Mixed infection of FMDV and Pasteurella multocida was recorded in 11 animals (42.3%), while single FMDV infection was recorded in 5 animals (19.2 %). Single BVDV infection was detected in 5 animals (19. 2 %) and dual infection with FMDV in 1 animal (3.8%). Notably, BTV was not detected in any of the clinical samples. The assessed mPCR was a rapid, accurate, and sensitive test for diagnosing single and mixed infections in cattle and could be used to screen the notifiable diseases affecting cattle.

Molecular characterization and microbial resistance of different bacterial isolates in some dairy products

Waleed K. Alkhafaje; Zakia A. Olama; Safaa M. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 333-339
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130206.1764

Bacterial contamination of milk and dairy products is a common problem. In the last two years, the foodborne diseases caused by the intake of milk and dairy products have been mostly disturbed with Salmonella entertica, Listeria monocytogenes Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Campylobacter jejune. The study aims to isolate multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria in dairy products and study of the molecular characterization of that isolates. MDR bacteria were found in 30 out of the 131 bacterial isolates. The incidence of MDR bacterial isolates revealed the abundance of Staphylococcus sp. with 43.3%, Bacillus sp 16.7%, Salmonella 13.3%, E. coli 10 %, Enterococcus 6.7 % Psedoumonas 3.3 %, Shegella 3.3 % and Proteous 3.3 %. Molecular studies of genes presence or absence for class A contain TEM, CTX and BSHV, class B contain VIM, IMP, KPC and NDM, class C contain FOX and class D contain OXA-10, OXA-24 and OXA-58 were tested. NDM, TEM, CITM and OXA -10 genes were the most abundant the selected bacterial isolates. The results of this study indicate that cheese made from unpasteurized milk can pose a significant risk to consumers. Product manufacturing processes should be subject to health control-to-control pathogens. The novelty in this work depend on screening of gene responsible of the resistance from the bacteria isolated from dairy product using the molecular technique.

Evaluation of bacterial contaminants and heavy metals in cow and buffalo raw milk sold in Baghdad governorate

Aseel M. Al-Rudha; Nuha K. Khalil; Noor A. Altaai

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 101-105
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131744.1999

The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial contamination and heavy metal concentrations in 80 samples of raw milk (cow:40 and buffalo:40) gathered from local markets in Baghdad, Iraq. The culture results were classified into ten categories: E. coli was 100% in each cows and buffaloes, Enterobacter Spp 23.75% (25% cow, 22.5% buffalo), Pseudomonas Spp 13.75% (15% cow,12.5% buffalo), Klebsiella Spp 15% (17.5% cow, 12.5% buffalo), Staphylococcus aureus 12.5% (15% cow, 10% buffalo), Staph. epidermidis 5% (for each cow and buffalo), Proteus spp. 10% (12.5% cows, 7.5% buffaloes), E. coli O157 15% (25% cow, 5% buffalo), Yersinia enterocolitica 3.75% (5% cow, 2.5% buffalo) and Salmonella 13.75% (25% cow 2.5% buffalo). The averages of heavy metals concentrations in cow milk samples were (0.62±0.25), (0.25±0.22), (0.31±0.20) and (21±2) mg/kg and in buffalo milk samples were (0.60±0.3), (0.33±0.15), (0.27±0.11) and (18±2.5) mg/kg for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) respectively. The high concentrations of pathogenic bacteria and metals found in the milk products is a sign of inadequate hygiene and sanitation during milking and post-milking operations, as well as excessive levels of heavy metal pollution in the environment which will affect meat and milk produced by these animals.

A cytopathological study of the role of liver impression as a diagnostic tool in pigeons

Zahra A. Al-Noayme; Ayman A. Al-Alhially

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 555-560
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127170.1477

The aim of the current study is to investigate any pathological changes which affect local pigeon liver by using liver impression and providing data base for the results of cytological and morphological features of hepatic impressions of local pigeon also to Study the relation between cellular contents and bacterial profiles at those impressions for that purpose about 20 birds of local pigeon were used in current study. the result showed presence of including heterophil 21.53% monocyte 1.52%, eosinophil 1.04%, basophil 0.01%, macrophage 4.01%. RBC 31.9% and vacuolated hepatocyte 4.94%. We also recorded presence of undifferentiated cells0.19% bacterial infection and parasite infestation of blood protozoa represented by presence of plasmodium parasite inside red blood cell in 4 samples out of 20 samples, G+ Staphylococcus and streptococcus and G- Bacteria coccobacilli as a bacterial. Bacteria including Staphylococci, Streptococci and Coccobacilli were noticed with in different densities between sections, the protozoal parasite as Plasmodium infestation were also detected in 20% of samples We concluded that, the hepatic impression give a diagnostic tool to aim in final diagnosis for inflammatory diseases in pigeons, in addition this impression give a primary idea about bacteria and parasitic infection that can be present in infected pigeons

Effect of the natural serum (non-immunized) on the bacteria isolated from pneumonic lung in sheep

Attar; M. Y. AL; M. A. Hamad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2006, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 59-64
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2006.45784

Normal serum bactericidal activity study were carried out against nine bacterial species (Mannheimia haemolytica, Staphelococcus aureus, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Moraxella ovis) isolated from pneumonial lungs in sheep by the use of a normal non immunized serum collected from normally healthy sheep, cattle, horses. All species of bacteria were resistant for serum effect except B. subtilis and Pseudo. aeruginosa which were sensitive for all types of serum, while Moraxella ovis was sensitive for horse serum only, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis were resistant to complement free serum.