Keywords : Escherichia coli

Molecular detection of ESBL/AmpC ß-Lactamase Escherichia coli isolated from sheep in Mosul city

Fatma R. Rafee Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 387-392
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130380.1810

Globally, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/Ampicillin ß-lactamase (AmpC) producing Escherichia coli has become the greatest threat for distributing antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, this study was designed to detect and screen the genes that confer resistance in E. coli isolated from sheep as main livestock in Mosul city. Forty E. coli isolates previously recovered from milk and fecal samples were included in this study. These isolates were obtained from healthy ewes, their lambs, and also from ewes with clinical mastitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the E. coli isolates targeting the 16sRNA gene. Furthermore, screening of different genotypes of ESBL/AmpC was conducted using specific primers. The results showed that the CTX-M gene was predominant among ESBL genotypes and recorded 40/40 (100%). While, SHV and TEM genes recorded 7/40 (17.5%) and 5/40 (12.5%), respectively. Moreover, fecal carriage of resistance genes was more than that obtained from milk in both healthy and diseased animals. However, none of the 40 isolates showed positive results for AmpC genes. The presence of different genotypes of ESBL E. coli isolated from feces or milk origin may act as a potential source for transferring antibiotic resistance to humans, other animals, and the environment.

The effect of lipopolysaccharide extracted from Escherichia coli on total WBCs, granulocytes and on phagocytic activity in female rats

Aziz T. Koro; Adeba Y. Sharif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 285-289
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130030.1721

The present study was conducted to compare the total white blood cells count, granulocytes and phagocytic activity in female rats immunized with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from two different isolates of Escherichia coli, one normal isolate from the gut of healthy adult and the other was pathogenic strain isolated from patients suffering from urinary tract infection. The study was included 35 female albino rats divided randomly into seven groups, three groups injected with different concentrations of LPS of normal flora of E.coli 90, 120 and 150 microgram/kilogram body weight respectively and the other three groups were injected with the same concentrations of LPS extracted from pathogenic strain of E.coli, the last group (7th) represented the control group which given normal saline only. The results showed that the LPS from normal isolate causes a significant increase in the total number of leukocytes, granulocytes and phagocytic activity in animals immunized with the concentration of 120 µg/kg compared with the control group, and the concentration of 150 µg/kg of the same extract resulted in a high significant increase in phagocytic activity and the concentration of 90 µg/kg did not stimulate any significant differences in all the variables, while immunization with the extract of pathogenic strain increases the total leukocytes at a concentration of 90 µg/kg only with a significant increases in phagocytic activity at all concentration, and it also did not cause any significant differences in the granulocytes count.

Phenotypic characterization and antibiogram of extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli isolated from sheep

Fatma R. Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 303-307
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130112.1732

This study aimed to isolate and characterize extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC producing E. coli in sheep in Mosul city. A total of 260 milk and fecal samples were collected aseptically from healthy ewes (n=60), their respective lambs (n=60), and ewes with clinical mastitis (n=40). Standard bacterial isolation and identification on special culture media were performed to isolate ESBL/AmpC producing E. coli. While special antibiotic discs D68C MASTDISCS® Combi AmpC and ESBL ID set were used to characterize positive ESBL/AmpC E. coli. The results showed that 99/260 (38.1%) of tested samples were ESBL-E. coli positive and distributed as follows, 7/60 (11.7%) and 39/60 (65%) from milk and feces of clinically healthy ewes, respectively, and 37/60 (61.7%) from feces of clinically healthy lambs, while 4/40 (10%) and 12/40 (30%) from the milk and feces of ewes with clinical mastitis, respectively. However, we could not obtain any AmpC positive isolate from all tested samples. The high recovery percentages of ESBL from feces or milk of sheep reflect the arbitrary use of the antibiotic in sheep farming. This could significantly increase the resistance of the bacterial population that might represent a potential source for transmission of antibiotic resistance to humans.

Multi-drug resistance profile of extended spectrum β-Lactamases producing Escherichia coli isolated from sheep in Mosul city

Fatma R. Mahmood; Ihsan M. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 37-40
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130475.1829

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) Escherichia coli have become a major threat due to their ability to overcome different types of antibiotics. However, Extended Spectrum β-lactamase E. coli (ESBLE) imposes an additional threat due to their ability to resist the 3rd generation cephalosporins. Accordingly, our study aimed to investigate the antibiogram profile of ESBLE isolates obtained from sheep. A Total of 40 ESBLE isolates were included in this study which represents sheep fecal and milk samples. Twelve antibiotics were selected to perform antibiotic sensitivity tests following standard microbiological methods. The results of the study showed that the highest resistance percentages were recorded for tetracycline 97.5%, ciprofloxacin 80%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 65%, and streptomycin 57.5%. While other antibiotics recorded lesser values. On the other hand, all isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and tobramycin each at 92.5%, followed by chloramphenicol and levofloxacin each at 82.5% and nitrofurantoin 72.5%. While fewer values of sensitivity were recorded for streptomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and, tetracycline. The study concluded that ESBLE of sheep origin that have additional resistance features to other antibiotics could be a major threat for spreading resistance and contaminating the environment and finally impose negative impact for response to antibiotic treatment in humans.

The effect of thyme (Thymus daenensis) supplement on growth and hygienic parameters of broilers meat

Majid Gholami Ahangaran; Niloofar Peimani; Asiye Ahmadi Dastgerdi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 87-92
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125526.1048

The antibacterial effect of Thyme species was relatively approved but the effect of this plant on bacterial population of intestine in chickens and consequently on bacterial load of chicken meat following administration of thyme was not investigated. For evaluation of thyme effect on growth indices, microbial contamination of meat and microbial population of cecal content, 180 broiler chicks were divided into 4 equal groups with 3 replicates and were reared until 42 days. Chickens in different groups were treated with different doses of thyme (0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1 percent) in diets. The weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion rate were calculated weekly. In the end of 42 days old, all chickens were slaughtered. The population of Escherichia coli per gram of cecal contents and contamination of meat with Escherichia coli were assayed. The data showed that supplement of 0. 5 and 1 percent of thyme to diet elevated weight gain and decreased feed conversion rate. Furthermore, addition of 0.5 and 1 percent of thyme to diet can decrease microbial population of cecal content and meat. In conclusion, the addition of thyme to diet may improve growth rate and hygienic parameters in chicken meat.

Detection of Escherichia coli hlyA gene and Staphylococcus aureus Sea gene in raw milk of buffaloes using RT-PCR technique in AL- Qadisiyah province

J.N. Sadeq; Kh.H. Fahed; H.J. Hassan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 1, Pages 87-91
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2018.153815

The aim of this study was to determines the prevalence of virulence gene hemolysin A (hly A) Escherichia coli and Staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea) in Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk buffaloes. In molecular laboratory, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique has been performed for 24 samples which have been taken randomly from Buffaloes milk, using primers of high specificity for Escherichia coli hlyA gene and Staphylococcus aureus Sea genes. The results showed different degrees of the studied genes activities. Four out of 24 samples represented S. aureus Sea gene (16.6%) whereas 16 out of 24 samples represented E. coli hlyA gene (66.6%). this study concluded that buffaloes milk might be a source of contamination with pathogenic bacteria of virulent genes which may have different levels of activities.