Keywords : Ketamine

A Comparison between ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-midazolam or all of them to induce balance anesthesia in rabbits

Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 499-506
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130618.1852

The objective of this projectwas to study the induction of smooth anesthesia characterized by good induction (hypnosis), analgesia and good recovery with mild side effects caused by drugs. The effect of using Ketamine with both xylazine and midazolam KXM was investigated in adult rabbitsand compared with the positive control group that was administered with ketamine alone K at 40 mg/kg i.m, and with ketamine - xylazine group KX at 40 and 4 mg/kg i.m respectively, and with ketamine - midazolam group KM also at 40 and 4 mg/kg i.m respectively. Administration of xylazine and midazolam each one alone at 4 and 2 mg/kg I.M induced analgesia in a dose-dependent manner through a significant elevation of the electrical voltage after injection when compared with its value before injection. A minimum doses of a mixture KXM at 20,2 and 2 mg/kg i.m respectively, induced good hypnosis with rapid induction and long duration with recovery periods without significant variations in vital physiological parameters (respiratory rate, heart rate, and rectal temperature) and some biochemical parameters (GPT and GOT and glucose level) comparing with groups K, KX and KM. The outcomes of this work were revealed to the induction of proficient general anesthesia that was described by effective hypnosis with analgesic efficacy throughout the administration a minimum doses of ketamine/xylazine/midazolam combination in rabbits.

The role of PLGA/TPGS nanoparticle on xylazine-ketamine anesthetic activity in male albino rabbits

Omar A. Bader; Adnan M. Jasim; Mohammed J. Jawad; Hussein H. Nahi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 201-206
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129688.1679

D-ɑ-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (Vitamin E TPGS or TPGS) has been approved by food and drug administration (FDA) as harmless adjuvant and is largely used in drug systems delivery. Physicochemical and biological possessions of TPGS provide many advantages for its usage in drug delivery, such as high bio-compatibility, increased drug solubility, improved drug penetration and selective anti-tumor action. The aim of the study was to use the TPGS polymer as a drug release model to regulate the release of the anesthetic xylazine-ketamine in order to minimize therapeutically reference dose, avoid side effects, and improve efficacy. The study performed on 15 adult local breed male rabbits, divided into 3 groups with same number which injected intramuscularly with single dose of suggested anesthetics. Group 1 injected with ketamine and xylazine. Group 2 injected with ketamine and xylazine as same dose of group 1 loaded by PLGA-TPGS. Group 3 injected with Ketamine and xylazine loaded by PLGA-TPGS with half dose of Group 1 and 2. The following physiological parameters were evaluated: heart rate, respiratory rate, degree of muscle relaxation, onset of action and stages of anesthesia before administration the drug at time zero then at 10, 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration, also induction of anesthesia, surgical anesthesia and recovery time were recorded. Nanoprecipitation technique was optimal method for preparing small particle size as well as reduce dose for therapeutic effect. Small and large dose was showed perfect analgesic and muscle relaxant activity of xylazine-ketamine drugs. Ketamine 30 mg and xylazine 10 mg loaded PLGA showed elevation of conciseness period as well as increase muscle relaxant. Ketamine 30 mg and xylazine 10 mg loaded PLGA reduce heart rate but onset of action delayed when compared with reference drug. The process of nanoprecipitation was ideal for forming small particle sizes and reducing the dosage for therapeutic effects. PLGA loaded with ketamine-xylazine demonstrated improved cycle concentration (walk time) as well as improved muscle relaxant, finally the protocol created an excellent anesthetic combination for induction of general anesthesia. 

Age-related anesthetic effect of ketamine in the chickens

Yaareb J. Mousa; Muna H. Alzubaidy; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 501-506
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127100.1458

Little works of literature studied the anesthetic effect of ketamine in different ages of broiler chickens, hence this study intended to examine these alterations in chickens at different ages. The doses of ketamine that causes hypnosis in 50% of the chickens (hypnotic ED50) were 7.90, 7.90 and 6.80 mg/kg, intramuscular (IM) at 10, 20 and 40-day-old chickens, respectively, whereas the doses that resulted in analgesia in 50% of the chickens (analgesic ED50) were 12.92, 12.92 and 6.50 mg/kg, IM. The onset, duration and recovery from ketamine hypnosis were in an age-dependent manner and significantly longer at 40-day-old, although the depth and sensitivity of chickens to ketamine hypnosis rises as the age advancing forward. Ketamine analgesia is more effective at 40-day-old. There are neurobehavioral deficits, according to the age of chickens when injecting ketamine in a subtle dose of 1 mg/kg, IM. The concentrations related to alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), tested in the serum, reveal that the 40-day-old chicken group differs significantly from 10 and 20-day-old chicken’s groups which all treated with single ketamine dose (25 mg/kg, IM). In conclusion, the present work discovered that ketamine’s efficacy, including hypnosis, analgesia and neurobehavioral activity will be increased as the age is progressing, suggesting that the veterinarians need to take it into account when preparing the dose regimen of ketamine anesthesia for different ages of animals.