Keywords : Chicks


Acute toxicity events of ivermectin in chicks’ model

Tamara K. Al-Najmawi; Muna H. Al-Zubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1119-1124
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133188.2188

Ivermectin is a very safe drug; however, there are many studies on its toxic effects in different animals due to sensitivity, misuse, or accidental overdose. This study aimed to further characterize the neurotoxic effects of ivermectin in chicks and identify possible therapeutic strategies for use in cases of ivermectin toxicity. The LD₅₀ of ivermectin was determined by the Dixon method. The acute toxicity signs of ivermectin were induced at doses of 131.5,2629 and 394.5 mg/kg orally. The therapeutic effect of flumazenil on ivermectin poisoning was also studied. Administration of repeated doses of ivermectin for five consecutive days was recorded to measure the neurobehavioral within the open field and tonic immobility test. The oral LD₅₀ of ivermectin was 525.9mg/kg. The acute signs of poisoning on ivermectin-treated chicks were lethargy, ataxia, tremor, diarrhea, recumbency, and death. Flumazenil at a dose of 0.1mg/kg significantly reduced the toxicity signs induced by the ivermectin in chicks, especially tremor and ataxia, and prevented death. The administration of ivermectin at 26.3, 52.6, and 105.2 mg/kg doses led to a significant decrease in motor activity through a significant increase in the time of starting the movement and a decrease in the number of cross lines. We concluded that ivermectin has a neurotoxic effect in chicks when used in high doses; the results also indicate a potential clinical application of flumazenil for treatment side effects and toxicity of ivermectin, as well as ivermectin, has depressant effect in chicks represented by open-field activity.

Pregabalin potentiates the analgesic effect of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol in chicks: Isobolographic analysis

Qutaiba M. Mohammed; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 931-937
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132586.2108

The study aimed to reveal pregabalin’s median effective analgesic dose (ED50) and determine the type of analgesic interaction with tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks. The electrical stimulator device was used to detect pain before and after treatment, and through ascending and descending in doses and depending on the up and down method, the median effective analgesic doses were determined for all drugs used in the study, and then the interaction experiment was conducted at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of pregabalin with each of tramadol, diclofenac and paracetamol of their individual ED50 values, the results were subjected to the isobolographic analysis to determine the type of interaction. Results showed that ED50s for pregabalin, tramadol, diclofenac, and paracetamol in chicks were 156.5, 0.82, 5.65, and 10.74 mg/kg, respectively. Concomitant administration of drugs pregabalin: tramadol, pregabalin: diclofenac and pregabalin: paracetamol at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 36.2:0.18, 64.3:2.3 and 64.3:4.3 mg/kg respectively. Isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs interaction. The calculated interaction indexes were 0.45, 0.81, and 0.81, respectively. We conclude from the outcomes that the analgesic interaction was synergistic between pregabalin and tramadol significantly, while the analgesic interaction of pregabalin with both diclofenac and paracetamol was also synergistic, but to a lesser extent.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the broiler chicks model

Yaareb J. Mousa; Mahmood B. Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 327-332
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130163.1746

No former studies are dealing with the pharmacological (pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics) interaction between nefopam and tramadol in the chicks' model. The median effective doses (ED50s) for nefopam and tramadol produces analgesia has been estimated each alone as 9.24 and 0.83 mg/kg, IP, respectively. The interaction concerning nefopam and tramadol combination was estimated by isobolographic analysis to be 2.91 and 0.25 mg/kg, IP. The kind of interaction between nefopam and tramadol was synergistic as indicated by the interaction index 0.61. The analgesic efficacy of the combination was significantly different from nefopam and tramadol administered alone. Nefopam plasma concentration 18.48 mg/kg, IP for different measured times 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours 33.25, 27.10, 15.05, 13.61, and 2.45 µg/ml while the concentration was increased once coadministered with tramadol 1.66 mg/kg, IP by 22, 26, 43, 45, and 81% been 40.72, 34.27, 21.53, 19.76, and 4.43 µg/ml, respectively. Nefopam pharmacokinetic profile comprised of area-under-curve (AUC), area-under-moment-curve (AUMC), mean-residence-time (MRT), half-life (t1/2β), maximal concentration (Cmax) amplified after tramadol is coadministered with nefopam by 52, 260, 23, 15, and 22%. The elimination constant (Kel), distribution volume (VD), clearance (Cl) were diminished 13, 25, and 29%, similarly. The sum results suggested a synergistic interaction between nefopam and tramadol along with a modification in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which improve the therapeutic efficacy of nefopam in the chickens besides, advocate using these two drugs as preanesthetics in veterinary medicine.

Effect of boric acid on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabbasi; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 123-131
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129497.1653

The aim of this study to explore the therapeutic effect of boric acid on the neurobehavioral (motor activity) level, and histopathologic changes in the brain, liver and kidneys against fluorosis. In this study rose chicks have been used and determined medium lethal sodium fluoride dose at 346.5 mg/kg orally. The chicks divided into four random groups each one consists of 10 chicks. The first group considered to be a control group, the second received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride, the third group received 10 mg/kg of boric acid and the fourth received 20 mg/kg of sodium fluoride and boric acid at the same previous dosages. After two weeks of daily treatment, neurobehavioral measures were taken, the use of boric acid has a major effect to improve the neurobehavioral measurement and develop complications of ALT, AST, creatinine, Ca, MDA. The results indicate that boric acid may be a therapeutic agent against the fluoride toxicity of the brain, liver and kidney. This result support by histopathological changes which represented by inflammation, congestion of portal vein and dilation of sinusoids in the liver and vacuolation, vasogenic edema and gliosis in the brain and Kidney of showed segmentation of glomeruli, dilation of Bowman’s space, necrosis of epithelial cells renal tubules and hemorrhage of NaF group, while the liver of the NaF with boric acid group showed an improvement the results of histopathological examination of the liver, brain and kidneys compared to the NaF group alone. The results revealed that boric acid has a preventing effects against fluoride after two weeks of treatment with boric acid.

Therapeutic effect of taurine on sodium fluoride toxicity in chicks

Enaam H. Alabsy; Yamama Z. Alabdaly

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 223-238
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129854.1692

The study aimed to investigate if taurine could help reduce sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in chicks. The chicks in this study were divided into four equal groups, each with eight chicks: the control group, sodium fluoride 20 mg/kg group, taurine 3 g/kg group, the fourth group was dosed with each of the sodium fluoride 20 mg/kg and taurine 3 g/kg groups all groups were dosed orally. The dosing was set at 5 days/week for 4 weeks. After 2 and 4 weeks of treatment, the group treated with taurine alone or with sodium fluoride showed an improvement in neurobehavioral and motor activity, as evidenced by a reduction in the duration of chick immobility in the immobility test and an increase in the number of squares cross in the open field test compared to the group treated with sodium fluoride alone. The level of ALT enzyme and calcium in the group treated with sodium fluoride increased significantly compared to the control and taurine group alone, and with sodium fluoride, AST and creatinine levels increased significantly after 4 weeks of sodium fluoride treatment compared to the other groups. When it came to measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione, the sodium fluoride group alone showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde and significant decrease in glutathione after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment when compared to the control and the other groups. The histopathological examination confirmed the previous findings, with the histological sections of the liver, kidney, and brain showing a significant improvement in the group treated with sodium fluoride and taurine after four weeks of treatment. We conclude from this study that taurine has a clear therapeutic effect against oxidative stress, as evidenced by behavioral and motor behavioral effects, as well as levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde, and liver function enzymes, and serum creatinine, as well as histopathological examination of the brain, kidneys, and liver. 

Acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of lambda-cyhalothrin in chicks

Shahaad A. Alrawe; Muna H. ALzubaidy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 191-200
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129674.1678

A Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is classified as a synthetic type II pyrethroids, available in the local market, used to eliminate insects, which is widely used for spraying homes. This study aims to reveal the acute and subacute toxic effects of LTC in chicks as a biological model. The acute (LD50) by up and down method recorded through 24 hrs. The signs and toxicity scores were estimated, the sub-acute toxicity effects of LTC in the open-field activity and tonic immobility test, body-weight and histopathological effects were recorded. The oral LTC LD50 in chicks was 228.5 mg/kg. Oral administration of LTC at doses 57.12, 114.25, and 171.36 mg/kg, which represented 25%, 50%, and 75% of LD50 respectively, caused signs of toxicity such asdepression with wing dropping, feathered by closed eyelids, gasping, and recumbency. LTC causes a significant decrease in chick’s weight, locomotor activity in the open field activity represented by increase latency to move, and decrease the number of lines crossed. The liver and brain show histopathological changes such as congestion, focal infiltration of mononuclear cells, hemorrhage, coagulative necrosis, and vasogenic edema. In the brain, the lesion was represented by shrunken in purkinji, demyelination of axon and hyper atrophy of astrocyte, the lesion was more severe in both organs when exposed to a high concentration and for longer periods. Our results demonstrated that LCT has a moderate toxicity in chicks, and causes behavioral and histological toxic effects, especially with sub-acute toxicity. Therefore, we do not recommend using it, and restricted application in homes and agriculture.

Nefopam and ketorolac: Isobolographic analysis of analgesic effect and pharmacokinetic profile in chicks

Omar Y. Jassim; Yaareb J. Mousa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 145-150
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129540.1660

There are no prior studies on the pharmacological interaction between nefopam and ketorolac and on their pharmacokinetics in the chickens. The median analgesic effective doses (ED50s) of nefopam and ketorolac were estimated individually as 8.39 mg/kg, i.m. for each drug. Thereafter, their values were determined together in combination as 2.63 and 2.63 mg/kg, i.m. after administration at the ratio of 1:1 of their ED50s. The pharmacodynamic interaction between nefopam and ketorolac was designated as synergistic through the interaction index 0.62. Plasma concentrations of nefopam alone 16 mg/kg, i.m. in different measured times 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours were 34.07, 31.34, 22.53, 19.03, 14.81, and 10.37 µg/ml, whereas the plasma concentrations increased to become 44.67, 43.52, 45.71, 32.83, 20.96, and 22.54 µg/ml when administered with ketorolac 16 mg/kg, i.m. by 31, 39, 103, 73, 42, and 117 %, respectively. The changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of nefopam included increases in area under curve (AUC0-∞) 130%, area under moment curve (AUMC0-∞) 210%, mean residence time (MRT) 35%, half-life (t1/2β) 27%, time maximum (Tmax) 300% and concentration maximum (Cmax) 34%, whereas other values were reduced which included elimination rate constant (Kel) 21%, volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) 45% and clearance (Cl) 3%. The net results indicated a synergistic interaction between nefopam and ketorolac in addition to an alteration in nefopam pharmacokinetic parameters which may enhance nefopam therapeutic efficacy in chicks.

Acute toxicity of metronidazole and its interaction with chlorpyrifos in chicks

Douaa H. Alsanjary; Sawsan M. Amin

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 13-18
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127035.1442

Metronidazole is antimicrobial drug for human and animal use, The more characteristic side effect associated with use high dose of metronidazole is neurotoxic signs, some of these signs that recorded in animal represented by ataxia and tremor, there is limited information is available on the pharmacological profile of metronidazole in birds The aim of our study explain some of its neurological effect in chicks by its interaction with one of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos that have well-known excitatory effect on nervous system. Median Lethal Doses (LD50) of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos were determined depending on up and down method. The intraperitoneal and oral LD50 of metronidazole were 516.9 mg/kg, 3061.8 mg/kg respectively. The oral LD50of chlorpyrifos was 13.705 mg/kg, intraperitoneal treatment of metronidazole with Oral treatment of chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:1, 1: 0.5, and 0.5:1, respectively of LD50at the same time increased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the isobolographic analysis showed that the points of interaction occurred above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each; while oral treatment of metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in ratio 1:0.5 LD50at the same time decreased LD50for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos and the point of interaction was above the diagonal line connecting between LD50 of each in conclusion we found that isobolografhic analysis for metronidazole and chlorpyrifos in different percentages and routs of treatment reveal to antagonist effect despite the similarity in the toxic signs.

Study the analgesic effect of diclofenac and silymarin coadministration in chicks

Yasser M. Albadrany; Ahmed S. Naser; Mohammad M. Hasan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127065.1453

The study aimed to investigate the analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory effects of diclofenac and silymarin in chicks. The up and down procedure was used to assess the effective median analgesic dosages (ED50s) of diclofenac and silymarin administered intraperitoneally either alone or at the same time in chicks. Also, Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were measured by using the formalin test. Isobolographically, ED50s of drugs were assessed for the manner of interaction between both. Formalin testing also supervised analgesic and anti-inflammatory coadministration impact of diclofenac and silymarin at doses 5 and 40 mg/kg and 2.5 and 20 mg/kg respectively. Analgesic ED50s for diclofenac and silymarin in chicks were 9.3 and 76.6 mg/kg separately. Concomitant administration of drugs at a fixed ratio 0.5:0.5 and 0.25:0.25 of their individual ED50 values reduced their ED50s to 2.3:18.6 mg/kg and 2.2:16.5 mg/kg separately. ED50s isobolographic analysis showed synergistic analgesic effects of both drugs. Additionally, coadministration of both drugs had effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect, as seen by formalin test, led to a significant rise in latency to lift right foot beside a significant decline in foot lifting frequency when compared with control value, the anti-inflammatory reaction was demonstrated by a significant decrease in foot thickness compared to control value. In conclusion, the data indicate that diclofenac and silymarin coadministration controls acute pain synergistically, and suppress inflammatory reaction.

The neurobehavioral effects of flumazenil in chicks

Ahmed S. Naser; Yasser M. Albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 783-788
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.128443.1577

Flumazenil is choosy and competitive GABA receptor blocker that serves as an antidote to benzodiazepines overdose. Its administration in humans and some animal’s model is connected with nervousness, anxiety responses, or seizures attacks. The objective of this study was to scrutinize the neurobehavioral reaction as well as sedative and anxiolytic actions of flumazenil in chick’s model. The Median effective dose of flumazenil injected chicks was 0.114 mg/kg i.p. Flumazenil at 0.04 and 0.08 mg/kg diminished the locomotors activity, prolonged the period of tonic immobility and have anxiolytic action in chicks. Flumazenil at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg cause mild sedation in chicks. Flumazenil at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg have antagonistic effects in chicks sedated with diazepam at 10mg/kg. Flumazenil demonstrated fairly unexpectedly a depressant effect in the open field test and sedative and anxiolytic bias attention test in the chick’s model. These findings indicate that the impact of flumazenil is indicative of the characteristics of partial agonists when given on its own and antagonist when given after diazepam according to the neurobehavioral tests.

Analgesic effect of silymarin in chicks

Ahmed Salah Naser; yasser albadrany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 273-276
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162906

There were no studies about the analgesic effect of silymarin in the chicken. This study examined antinociceptive effect of silymarin given intraperitonially in 7-9 day-old chicks. The median effective dose of silymarin for the induction of analgesia to electric stimulation in the chicks was 65.3 mg/kg. Silymarin at 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg revealed analgesic effect to electric stimulation in chicks in dose dependent manner in comparison with the control group. The analgesic effect of silymarin at 120 and 240 mg/kg started at 15 min after injection and lasted after over 120 min of injection were as silymarin at 60 mg/kg the analgesic effect started at 15 min after injection and declined before 120 min of injection. The peak of analgesic effect for 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg were at 60 min after injection. These results indicate that silymarin have an analgesic property in the chicks model.

Effects of Newcastle disease vaccine on the liver and antioxidant enzymes of chicks

N. G. Mustafa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 243-247
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153856

Newcastle disease is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild birds result in huge economic losses due to extreme morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility of the harmful impact of Newcastle disease vaccine on certain biochemical profiles regarded to chicken liver. This study conducted during January-April 2014, one day old - 53 chicks were divided into two groups; vaccinated (with Newcastle disease vaccine) group at the age of 1, 3, and 7 days and unvaccinated group. Results show damaging effects of vaccination on the liver glycogen and malondialdehyde concentrations, serum superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase activities. In contrast, studied parameters look to return to their usual range at the age of 30 days. From the convincing outcome of our investigation, it can be concluded that Newcastle disease vaccination has a detrimental influence on the liver of chickens, nonetheless this effect can be overwhelmed by the time.

The antioxidant activity of propofol in chicks

A.S. Naser; F.K. Mohammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 29-34
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116853

The aim of this study was to detect the antioxidant effects of propofol in chicks by estimation of glutathione concentrationin blood plasma, brain and liver as well as total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant effects of propofol in vitro by usinghydrogen peroxide as oxidative stress. Propofol at 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally significantly increased after 4 hours theconcentration of glutathione concentration in plasma and brain compared with the control group and with 5 and 10mg propofolgroups. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p significantly increased glutathione concentration in the liver compared with thecontrol group. Propofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased the efflux rate constant by 882, 1031 and 920 %, increasedglutathione turnover rate by 880, 1028, and 917 % and decreased the turnover time by 89, 91 and 90% in the liver. In the brainpropofol at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p increased efflux rate constant as 26, 600 and 2826 % and increased glutathione turnoverrate by 29, 616 and 2894 % and a decreased in the turnover time by 21, 86 and 96%. Propofol at 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.psignificantly increased after 20 hours the TAC in the serum of the chick by 38 and 48%, respectively compared with thecontrol group. Propofol at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 micromoles / liter decreased erythrocyte hemolysis induced byhydrogen peroxide in vitro 10 micromoles / liter in a concentration depended manner by 25, 49 and 64 % respectively. In conclusion, Propofol have antioxidant effect in vivo and in vitro in the chicks. Propofol have a protection against oxidativestress.