Keywords : Iraq


Molecular analysis of Cryptosporidium species in domestic goat in central Iraq

Akeel M. Al-Musawi; Abdul Hussein H. Awad; Mansoor J. Alkhaled

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1041-1045
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132974.2155

Cryptosporidium spp. is a significant parasitic disease that results in diarrhea and gastroenteritis in humans and animals worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular diversity of Cryptosporidium species in domestic goats. A total of a hundred feces samples were collected from four locations in Babylon city in central Iraq. All the samples were investigated phenotypically using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain method and genotypically using conventional and nested PCR methods based on a partial sequence of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes, and finally, phylogenetic analysis method. The molecular results showed five species of Cryptosporidium, including C. parvum, C. hominis, C. ryana, C. xiaoi, and C. bovis. The phylogenetic results of partial sequence of gp60 gene for C. parvum and C. hominis isolate two subtypes were established IIdA21G1 and IIdA19G1 belong to C. parvum. For C. hominis, three subtypes were detected: IbA21G2, IbA13G3, and IbA19G2. This study showed that Cryptosporidium parvum (zoonotic) is more prevalent than other Cryptosporidium species in goats from this area. This suggests that zoonotic transmission is the primary mode of transmission of Cryptosporidium infection in Babylon province.

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs at Basrah, Iraq

Jihad A. Ahmed; Hassanin H. Al-Autaish; Kamal M. AlSaad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 471-477
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.130539.1841

Acute enzootic muscular dystrophy of adult lambs due to vitamin E and/or selenium deficiency was suspected in local adult lambs of Basrah, Iraq. The study was conducted on 82 adults local breed lambs 8-11 months of age. Suspected animals show panting with increase abdominal respiration and mouth breathing, recumbence and unable to stand with acute death within 24-48 h. Fifteen clinically healthy lambs were considered as controls. The hematological changes indicated a significant decrease in RBC, Hb, and PCV reflected macrocytic hypochromic type of anemia. Indices of clotting factors show significant changes in diseased adult lambs. Results of the biochemical changes indicated a significant decrease of vitamin E, and the glutathione peroxidase, in diseased animals, whereas, a significant increase indicated in the values of AST, CK and troponin I. Results of the post-mortem examinations showed enlargement of the heart with a white-colored irregular patch. Furthermore, results of histopathological changes indicated an acute cellular degeneration of myocardial fibers associated with diffuse interstitial edematous fluid in the myocardial parenchyma and acute cellular degenerative myocardial fibers with a marked degree of degeneration in the myocardial parenchyma. It has been concluded that, acute enzootic muscular dystrophy has an adverse harmful clinical effect on adult diseased lambs which could always be terminated with death.

COX1 gene and ITS-2 region: A comparative study of molecular diagnosis of Parabronema skrjabini in camels (Camelus dromedaries), Al-Najaf Province, Iraq

Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Haider H. A-Fatlawy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 77-84
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129228.1634

The current study was contributed to the analysis of the nucleotide sequence pattern of the nucleotide sequence of the tissue DNA isolates based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer ribosomal DNA (ITS2rDNA) gene and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial DNA (COX1 mtDNA) using the traditional polymerase chain reaction (150 samples of abomasum collected directly from camel carcasses after working in Al-Najaf slaughterhouse from 1/10/2019 to 1/2/2020). ITS2rDNA were well suited for the prepared primer with size783 bp and identical ratio ranged 81.17-99.73% of the same species, as indicated a high similarity of the isolates taken from two-humped camels in China or less related to Parabronema skrjabini in sheep and goat. In addition, the study identified the number of the mutations within the four COX1 gene and ITS-2 region, which were the most conservative region of the host's species, supporting the concept of host specificity with Parabronema skrjabini. The COX1 gene and ITS-2 region applied to confirm the diagnosis using a universal primer, as it included eight isolates with a size of 689 bp, identical values were ranged from 84.99-98.02% depending on the multiple sequence alignment and showed an increase in the substitution level among isolates at an upper taxonomic level. Studying of the COX1 gene and ITS-2 region in Parabronema skrjabini demonstrated a significant relation in the cluster and an early common ancestor with isolates of the two-humped camel (China). As for the COX1 gene and ITS-2 region, the phylogenetic relationship supported the ribosomal gene results, especially with Habronema muscae or related species such as Habronema majus, Dirofilaria repens, Dipetalonema evansi, Setaria tundra, Cercopithifilaria sp towards the root node. Therefore, considering COX1 gene and ITS-2 region as an ideal tool in determining the phylogenetic history of the sequence maps, but less conservative mode than the ITS2 ribosome gene based to a taxonomic species level.

Major-surface-protein-4-gene-based detection of Anaplasma marginale isolated from sheep in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq

Saba F. Klaif; Asaad J. Abid; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi; Mansoor J. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 85-88
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129230.1635

This study was purposed for confirming detection and typing of Anaplasma spp in infected sheep from Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq. Sampling of 50 blood specimens was performed from clinically-identified infection of anaplasmosis. The samples of the blood were subjected to DNA extraction followed by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based detection of the Anaplasma marginale using major surface protein (MSP4) gene. The results have shown that 8 blood samples were infected with A. marginale. The PCR-based identification has revealed a confirmative identification of the Anaplasma marginale in the infected sheep. The study identifies Anaplasma marginale as a member of infectious agents that affect sheep in the study city. 

Molecular characterization and phylogenic analysis of Anaplasma spp. in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah governorate, Iraq

Shadan H. Abdullah; Hiewa O. Dyary

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 15-20
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.128475.1581

Anaplasma spp. are significant arthropod-borne bacteria globally, but documented information about anaplasmosis in small ruminants in the north of Iraq is insufficient. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. and identify sheep and goat tick vector populations in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, north Iraq. The study population consisted of 470 sheep and 145 goats from 45 livestock farms in 10 geographical locations of Sulaymaniyah Governorate. The study was accomplished from April to December 2017. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein and used for DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using primers based on the 16S rRNA of Anaplasma spp. Fragments of PCR products were sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. The prevalence of Anaplasma spp. was 58.9% based on the PCR results. Furthermore, 58.9% of sheep and 57.9% of goats were positive for anaplasmosis. The sequences represented 100% identity with previously documented GenBank isolates of A. ovis from Iran, the Netherlands, China, and Mongolia. Altogether, 150 Ixodid ticks were picked from small ruminants within the same flocks and were identified based on morphological features. Various infestation rates were observed; about 40% of the Ixodid ticks belonged to Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 34% belonged to Rhipicephalus turanicus, 18% were Hyalomma anatolicum, and 8% were Boophilus microplus (Rhipicephalus microplus). The present report is the first molecular study of Anaplasma species in small ruminants from Sulaymaniyah Governorate in northern Iraq to the best of our knowledge. The study concluded that anaplasmosis was endemic in small ruminants from the investigated areas. 

Genotyping of avian infectious bronchitis virus in broiler farms in Duhok province, north of Iraq

Renas H. Isa; Jassim M. Abdo; Yousif M. AL-Barzinji

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 171-175
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129635.1670

Infectious bronchitis disease is becoming the most challenging disease in broiler fields in Iraq. This disease leads to massive economic loss every round of production. Three vaccine strains H120, Ma5, and 4/91 are used to combat the disease during the production period while outbreaks occur continuously. This study aimed to investigates the prevalence and circulation of Mass and 4/91 IBV strains in the broiler fields in Duhok province which is the first record in the area. Positive samples were obtained from suspected flocks to this disease during 2018-2020. A specific region of S1 was amplified using specific pairs of primers. Genotyping was performed by nested PCR using specified primers for detecting both Mass and 4/91 strains. In the results, all of the positive flocks were infected with nephropathogenic strain 793/B or 4/91. Two of the positive flocks had an infection with both Mass and 4/91. These results indicate that more than one strain circulates in the area as well as shows the weakness of vaccines used in broiler fields. 

Evaluation of bacterial contaminants and heavy metals in cow and buffalo raw milk sold in Baghdad governorate

Aseel M. Al-Rudha; Nuha K. Khalil; Noor A. Altaai

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue Supplement I-III, Pages 101-105
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.131744.1999

The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial contamination and heavy metal concentrations in 80 samples of raw milk (cow:40 and buffalo:40) gathered from local markets in Baghdad, Iraq. The culture results were classified into ten categories: E. coli was 100% in each cows and buffaloes, Enterobacter Spp 23.75% (25% cow, 22.5% buffalo), Pseudomonas Spp 13.75% (15% cow,12.5% buffalo), Klebsiella Spp 15% (17.5% cow, 12.5% buffalo), Staphylococcus aureus 12.5% (15% cow, 10% buffalo), Staph. epidermidis 5% (for each cow and buffalo), Proteus spp. 10% (12.5% cows, 7.5% buffaloes), E. coli O157 15% (25% cow, 5% buffalo), Yersinia enterocolitica 3.75% (5% cow, 2.5% buffalo) and Salmonella 13.75% (25% cow 2.5% buffalo). The averages of heavy metals concentrations in cow milk samples were (0.62±0.25), (0.25±0.22), (0.31±0.20) and (21±2) mg/kg and in buffalo milk samples were (0.60±0.3), (0.33±0.15), (0.27±0.11) and (18±2.5) mg/kg for Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu) and Nickel (Ni) respectively. The high concentrations of pathogenic bacteria and metals found in the milk products is a sign of inadequate hygiene and sanitation during milking and post-milking operations, as well as excessive levels of heavy metal pollution in the environment which will affect meat and milk produced by these animals.

A cross sectional study on the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in Al-Najaf province in Iraq

Khaleel Z. Al-Alo; Ahmed J. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 617-620
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127143.1471

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in many countries of the middle east including Iraq, despite the high attempts to control the disease in animals using vaccination programs. The study was conducted from January - March 2012, to determine the prevalence of bovine brucellosis in the Al-Najaf province in Iraq, which represent risk factors associated with brucellosis in cattle. Blood samples were collected from 172 cows and 15 bulls of 20 dual-purpose cattle herds. Serological examinations are the most useful and widely used tool for the diagnosis of brucellosis in man and animals. All animal serum samples were tested by the Rose Bengal plate test (RBT), and the positive cases were confirmed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). The overall prevalence of brucellosis was 5.81% divided between 5.81% in females and 0% in males, and 40% as herd numbers level. Females showed a higher seropositive reaction to the disease than males. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the presence of the disease and detected the seropositive reactions in animal samples in different farms of the province, with a difference in infection rate regarding the risk factor. Sanitary measures must be taken to avoid the occurrence and spread of the disease in humans and animals.

Diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep and goats raw milk by fast and reliable techniques

Dhary A. Almashhadany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 663-668
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.127697.1523

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of brucellosis in sheep and goats’ raw milk samples by detecting anti-Brucella antibodies and Brucella species at Erbil governorate. A total of 320 raw milk samples (150 sheep milk and 170 goats milk) were irregularly collected from dairy females. The overall occurrence of Brucella antibodies in samples of sheep and goats raw milk was 11.6% and 9.7% according to MRT and indirect ELISA, respectively. Isolation of Brucella (B.) species from samples of raw milk was 7.8%. The isolated species of Brucella were B. melitensis and B. abortus. A noticeable increase in frequency during September to November was observed. In conclusion, brucellosis is still a considerable public health threat in the Erbil. Based on the tests performance, the study recommends MRT in standard observing of brucellosis in milk aggregate farms, centers, and dairy manufactories. Customers are also recommended to adequately pasteurize the milk in order to damage this milk-borne pathogen before ingestion or saleable handling.

A study of the gastrointestinal parasites in awassi sheep and surrounding environment

Dhyaa M. Jwher; Maan T. Jarjees; Aqeel M. Alshater

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 561-567
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127174.1478

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence gastrointestinal parasites in Awassi sheep and the contamination of surrounding environment in ten different locations of Nineveh governorate, during March up to June/2018. A total of 781 of different samples including 231 fecal, 192 soil, 188 feed and 170 water samples were investigated for the detection of ova and oocysts. Traditional parasitic techniques were followed in the study. The results showed that fecal samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts 30.63, 9.09, 14.28% respectively. Soil samples were positive for eggs of nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts at 21.35, 10.93, 44.79% respectively. Feed samples declared that contamination with nematodes, trematodes, and protozoal oocysts were 22.34, 26.06, 51.59%, respectively. Examination of water troughs examined, showed that nematodes, trematodes and protozoal oocysts were occurred at 14.11, 8.82, 31.76%, respectively. It concluded that parasitic infection in sheep could attain from different sources, and every effort should be applied to reduce the contamination.

Seroprevelance of schmallenberg virus infection as emerging disease in cattle in Iraq

Safwan Y. Al-Baroodi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 495-499
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127071.1454

Schmallenberg virus is an emergent disease which infect cattle, sheep and goats which cause loss of condition, diarrhea, and abortion in pregnant animals, so this study was conducted to detect the antibodies in imported calves by using cELISA, so 400 blood samples was collected calves in different ages and healthy status in a period between October 2018 to September 2019 in Nineveh province, the investigation of specific antibodies was done by competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay, the results showed that the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus in imported calves was 21% (84 positive from 400 samples), high prevalence of infection in the animals more than 6 months to 1 year old 11.5% when compare with animals less than 6 months of age 9.5%, high incidence of infection in animals suffer from various clinical signs 17% and the healthy apparent animals recorded low prevalence of infection 4%, samples which collected in spring months recorded high prevalence of infection 7.5% while the lowest prevalence of infection with the virus recorded in winter months 2%, with significant variance in spring and summer months compared with other seasons, in conclusion this study was conducted that schmallenberg virus is newly emerge in Iraq and this study is firstly recorded this virus in cattle in Iraq.

Morphological and molecular identification of Parabronema skrjabini of camels (Camelus dromedary) in Najaf province

Haider H. A-Fatlawy; Monyer A. Al-Fatlawi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 507-512
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.127101.1459

The current study was conducted during the period from September 2019 to December 2019, the number of examined samples 150 abomasums isolated from males 127 and females 23 to identify the species of Parabronema skrjabini that infected one-humped camel slaughtered in Al-Ashraf Najaf slaughterhouse. The microscopic examination of the worms was properties compared to other worms of the digestive system, and then confirmed using genetic markers with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Finally, the use of sequencing and phylogenetic analysis technologies relative to those that are predominant in world regions registered in the Gene bank. The results of the microscopic examination showed that Parabronema skrjabini distinguished by a red color, females are curved dorsally and longer than males with a vertically curved and head features that resemble a horseshoe for both sexes. The number of infected samples is 53 (35.33%) and the non-infected samples 97 (64.64%). The highest rate of infection during December month 63.41%. On the other hand, the prevalence rate has been reported 65.21% females and 29.92% males with significant differences. In this research, PCR technique was used the molecular examination with the selection of the highest DNA samples, which were 10 samples to determine the alignment range according to the ITS2 gene, all samples were well suited to primer in length 783 bp and confirmed the diagnosis of these nematodes.

A survey of chewing lice of some raptors in southern Iraq, with remarks on prevalence and occurrence

Alaa Hatem; Mufid Abou Turab; H.K. Abdul-Zahra; Muhammad Muhammad

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 239-244
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126717.1365

This study was conducted to isolate and identify the chewing lice from some raptors in Basrah, Thi-Qar, and Missan provinces located in south of Iraq. Samples of birds were collected from January to December 2018. The survey was accomplished with a total of 87 raptors belonging to five species, sparrow hawk Accipiter nisus, marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, lesser kestrel Falco naumani, kestrel Falco tinnuculus, and black kite Milvus migrans. Totally 58 of 87 birds were infested with chewing lice, the overall prevalence was 66.67%. Five chewing lice species were identified: Craspedorrhynchus platystomus, Degeeriella fulva, Degeeriella fusca, Degeeriella rufa, and Laemobothrion maximum. All these specieswere identified in Iraq for the first time. D. rufa was recorded the highest prevalence in all raptors with 28.74%, whereas C. platystomus was the lowest 10.34%. As for the prevalence of bird’s species, the highest percentage was recorded in kestrels and black kite with 71.43%, while sparrow hawk was the lowest 53.85%. Some notes about ecology and occurrence of the chewing lice were reported.

Molecular differentiation of Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species based on 18s rRNA gene in small ruminants

Monyer A. Alfatlawi; Yahia Kh. Ismail; Mansour J. Ali; Azhar C. Karawan; Israa N. Ibadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 105-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126407.1313

This study was conducted to investigate Anoplocephalidia Cestoda in sheep and goat and evaluate the 18s rRNA to genetically differentiate the genera of this family. Sixty sample tapeworms were collected from small intestines of 30 sheep and 30 goats from different slaughterhouses in Al-Najaf and Al-Qadisiyah provinces, during September, 2016 to February, 2017. Based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 18s rRNA gene partial sequencing (18sGPS) methods used, tapeworm infection of sheep and goat’s intestines was 32.9% and 31.4%, respectively. The partial gene sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene showed two closely related isolates of M. benedeni which are aligned distinctly to an NCBI isolate of the same species from China. For T. giardia, the outcomes of the phylogenetic analysis unveiled three distinct local isolates which were similar to an NCBI database isolate from China. The current data ensure the importance of the molecular techniques in differentiating between Thysaniezia (Helictometra) giardi and Moniezia species that were identified for their presence in the small intestines of sheep and goats.

Evaluation of the heavy metal content in the muscle tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) reared in groundwater in Basrah province, Iraq

Arafat Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2021, Volume 35, Issue 1, Pages 157-161
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.126491.1336

The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Cd) in the muscles of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in groundwater in Khor Al-Zubair, Basrah province (in the south of Iraq) were assessed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. XRF is a powerful technique for element analysis in different environmental samples with many advantages compared with conventional laboratory methods. The mean concentration of the studied metals in the edible parts of the fish (Cr= 11.42, Ni= 2.75, Hg=1.53, Pb= 1.93, and Cd=4.42 mg/ kg dry weight) exceeded the recommended maximum acceptable levels proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), The commission of the European Communities (EC), and Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The results suggest that the tested fish muscle tissue was not safe for human consumption and that the groundwater in the Khor al-Zubair area is possibly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly owing to industrial activity.

Clinical, serological and antigenic study of feline panleukopenia virus in cats in Baghdad, Iraq

Mohammad M. Zenad; Amanee M. Radhy

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 435-439
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125960.1201

 (FPL) is a common contagious disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. This study was performed in the Baghdad capital city of Iraq from January 2018 -to- February 2019. Fecal and blood samples were collected from both diarrheic and non-diarrheic 180 cats, of both sexes. Hundred pet and eighty stray cats were divided into 2 groups according to their ages: > 1-year and < 1-year. Fecal samples were checked for presence of FPL virus antigens by rapid antigen test kit (immunochromatography assay) and blood samples were tested for presence of FPL virus specific antibodies by ELISA test as well as the study of blood parameters of cats. Forty cats 22.2% were infected with FPL virus by ICG assay, while a high percentage of total seropositive rate 65 (36.1%) was founded by ELISA test. Significant higher infection 27.5% and seropositive 36.7% rates were observed in cats less than one-year age. Clinically the infected cats showed multi-systemic signs and the vomiting was the more frequent sign 87.5%, hematological changes showed significant decrease in hemogram values and prolonged clotting time, the total leukocytic count was lowered in infected cats and this owing to significant decrease in absolute numbers of lymphocytes and neutrophils. In conclusion FPL virus was widely spread in Baghdad and higher infection rate was recorded in a stray cat.

Investigate the Toxoplasma gondii infection in the consumed beef in Al-Diwaniyah province

Farah M. Sakban; Noman N. A’aiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 95-99
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.164336

Toxoplasmosis is very important zoonotic disease in the world cause by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite called Toxoplasma gondii can infect human and all warm-blood animals, beef consider from most important source for infection with T. gondii and there is no really data and study about the rate of the infection in beef in Al-Diwaniyah province, so for this reason the aim of this work was designed. A total of 300 samples which collected from heart, tongue, muscles, of 100 slaughtered beef of local and imported cattle, throughout the period from September 2017 to May 2018, initially examined microscopically for searching on T. gondii bradyzoites then all suspected samples was subjected to conventional PCR technique through B1gene amplification to confirm the infection, in addition to analyzed the recorded data for each sample to determine the effect of some factors on prevalence of infection like organ, season and animal age. Out of 300 tested samples only 53 were confirm positive T. gondii DNA. The infection in local beef was higher (22%) than in imported (13.5%), while there is no difference in infection among different examined organs. Regarding to effect of some factors, the autumn season recorded highest rate of infection with significant differences rather than others seasons in both local and imported beef, whereas, age appears with no effect on infection. The local cattle meat is riskier than the imported due to the higher rate of infection with T. gondii, and the animal age cannot affect on the infection rate, in comparing with the season which play role in this rate.

Levels of some biochemical markers in sera of pregnant and non-pregnant lactating dairy cows in Baghdad, Iraq

Masar Kadhim; Basim Ali

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 353-358
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163027

This study aimed to measure the biochemical markers including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine kinase (CK), total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin / globulin (A/G) ratio, glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total bilirubin in sera of dairy cows from the period of February-2016 to March-2018. For this purpose, 78 dairy cows of >3 years old reared at some areas of Baghdad province were subjected to blood sampling from the jugular vein. Study values (mean ± standard error) of ALT, AST, GGT, A/G ratio and total bilirubin markers were found outside the normal ranges of international reference values. Conversely, ALP, CK, total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and BUN were found within the normal ranges of international reference values. To investigate changes that occur during late stage of pregnancy, study animals were dividedinto two groups (non-pregnant lactating and pregnant dairy cows). Statistically, significant decrease (P<0.05) was encountered in values (M ± SE) of ALT, AST, and GGT enzymes; and significant increase (P<0.05) in ALP and CK values of pregnant compared to non-pregnant dairy cows. Data concerning the serum proteins, results also indicated a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of total protein, whereas there no significant differences (P>0.05) were showed in values of albumin, globulin and A/G ratio. Pregnant dairy cows were showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in values of BUN and total bilirubin; however, glucose appeared without significant differences (P>0.05). It has been concluded that the lactation and gestation periods have a great impact on activity of biochemical indices in blood of dairy cows; therefore, there is a need for constant periodic monitoring for the described indices in this study to maintenance on animal’s health status.

Serotyping, virulence gene expression and phenotypic characterization of E. coli O157:H7 in colibacillosis affecting buffalo calves in Basra governorate

H.A. Naji; Wessam Monther Mohammed Saleh; M. Hanoon; I. Imad; Y. Salim

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 445-451
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163198

The objective of the current study was to detect the clinical signs of colibacillosis in buffalo calves, isolate E. coli O157:H7, detect its virulence gene eaeA using PCR and estimate its prevalence.The current study sampled 120 buffalo calves aged 1day to 5 months from the Al- Basra veterinary Hospital and Private veterinary clinic within the Basra province between October 2017 and July 2018. A total of 100 calves were naturally diarrheic and the other 20 calves served as controls. The clinical sings in the diarrheic subjects included a significant increase in body temperature, heart rates, respiration rates and capillary refill time as compared to control group. Other clinical signs included whitish to yellowish watery diarrhea with tincture of blood, anorexia, weakness, depression, weak suck reflex, dry oral mucous membranes, cold extremities, weak peripheral pulse, dehydration and death. Using phenotypic characterization tools like MacConky agar, EMB agar, biochemical tests and Viteck, 83 out 100 diarrhea samples confirmed E. coli. Using CT- SMACT agar, 31 out of 83 E. coli isolates were E. coli O157:H7 positive. The PCR result indicated that 47 out of the 83 isolated E. coli samples were positive for eaeA virulence gene. In conclusion, this study is a debut in the report of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 isolation and genes identification in buffalo calves in Iraq. Therefore, proper prevention and control measures are requisite to curtail the mortality and morbidity rate caused by Colibacillosis.

Prevalence and some risk factors of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma in Nineveh province - Iraq

Salam Abd Esmaeel; Basima albadrani

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 427-431
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163170

The objective of current study was to determine the prevalence of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma in cattle using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in Nineveh province/ Iraq, to investigate some of the epidemiological risk factors associated with occurrence of the disease. From September 2017 - September 2018, four hundred blood samples were obtained from cattle both sexes, different ages, origin, different management systems and from different regions in Nineveh province, ten milliliter blood were collected from the jugular vein for PCR test, whatever epidemiological data were collected through interview with the farms owners. The results of this study appear that the prevalence of bovine heamotropic mycoplasma was 75%. The risk factors associated with increased prevalence of disease include age, increased prevalence was at >3 years, females, imported animals, indoor animals which were 86.8, 80, 91.7, 77.5% respectively. The significantly increased prevalence of the disease 93.7% in the western regions of Nineveh province. In spring and summer months a significantly increased prevalence of disease which were 79.6 and 78.95 respectively. In conclusions, this study detected that bovine heamotropic mycoplasma was widely distributed in Nineveh province associated with several risk factors.

Phylogenetic analysis of ovine herpes virus-2 (OHV-2) in malignant catarrhal fever infected cattle in AL-Qadisiyah of Iraq

Yahia Khudhair; Hayder N. Aeyyz; Muthanna H. Hussain

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 51-58
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125522.1044

Ovine herpesvirus-2 is a member of the gammaherpesviruses of the herpeseviridae, which is the etiologic agent of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a significant fatal disease of cattle. MCF disease was diagnosed in native Iraqi cattle of AL-Qadisiyah governorate of Iraq, during the period from April 2014 and August 2016. Twenty three blood samples were collected from clinically suspected cattle. The presence of the virus in samples was ascertained based on clinical pictures, postmortem examination and molecular assays. Pansystemic involvement included respiratory, digestive, urinary, nervous systems and ocular lesions were described. A molecular analysis based on a tegument protein gene by specific semi-nested-PCR, DNA sequence and multiple alignments of all PCR products confirmed the Ovine herpesvirus-2 (OHV-2) infection, and revealed a single and double nucleotide deletion, insertion and substitutions,. Some of these mutations were non-silent, resulting in changes at the predicted amino acids level into viral tegument protein. The phylogenetic analysis showed the disease was caused by two genovariants of OHV-2 including at one cluster and were related to other sequences from others countries was analysed. MCF is sporadically occurring in cattle in Iraq, the head and eye form is more pronounced form. It has been concluded that study is provides valuable information about the genetic variation among the OHV-2 genotypes in Iraqi cattle. Based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of tegument protein gene, this paper elucidated genetic relationship between identified Iraqi OHV-2 with other strains detected in other geographical regions. These results provide new information on the epidemiological and genetically of OHV-2 in Iraq.

Morphological and phylogenetic study of Hyalomma anatolicum in Al-Najaf, Iraq

M. A. AL-Fatlawi; M. J. Ali; H. H. Albayati

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2018, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 261-266
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.153860

Studies had been previously conducted to genetically identify species of ticks in Iraq. Therefore, the current investigational study was conducted to recognize the species of 50 ticks collected from infested skin of cattle. The current study defined the ticks to be from Hyalomma genus depending on theirmorphological features. Using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CoxI) gene, 16 ticks were further confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two PCR products were subjected to DNA sequencing to name the species of the ticks and compare them to some other known ticks in neighbor and world countries. The sequencing results identified the ticks to be Hyalomma anatolicum. One isolate is closely similar to Indian and Iranian isolates, and the other isolate is clustered alone by itself. The results indicated that H. anatolicum is one of the wide-spread ticks that affect cattle in Al Najaf province, Iraq.

Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

M.J.A. Alkhaled; N.N. A'aiz; H.H. Naser

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121380

Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1) and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1) more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

Determination of Toxoplasma gondii lineages of sheep in Wasit, Iraq

N.N. A'aiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 23-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121379

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that can cause significant morbidity in human beings and animals. Up to our knowledge no data is known of genetic diversity of T. gondii in sheep in Iraq. This study aim to detect the strains (genotypes) of T. gondii isolates from sheep in Wasit province, east of Iraq. A total of 315 samples (blood 300 and placenta's tissue 15) were collected from aborted ewes, which initially had been examined serologically by LAT, then further tested by RT-PCR through B1 gene amplification to confirm the infection with T. gondii. After that, the positive DNA samples were assayed for genetic characterization depending upon nested PCR- RFLP of SAG2 gene. Out of 315 examined samples, 10 were confirmed positive T. gondii DNA. The genotyping assay of them revealed that 60% (6/10), 30% (3/10) and 10% (1/10) of examined isolates represent the genotypes of II, III and I respectively. The type II appeared as dominant in sheep in Wasit province, Iraq.

Genotyping of cystic echinococcosis isolates from clinical samples of human and domestic animals

S.A. Fadhil; N.N. A'aiz

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2016, Volume 30, Issue 2, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2016.121381

Cystic hydatid disease is a cosmopolitan important disease in both human and animals. Many strains were investigated in this parasite. The aim of study was to characterize genotype variations of Echinococcus granulosus isolates collected from human and domestic animals in Al-Qadisiyah province/ Iraq based on sequencing of nad1 mitochondrial gene. Eighty hydatid cysts of human (12), sheep (15), cattle (36), and camels (17) were collected from hospital and slaughter house of the province, during October 2014 to June 2015; microscopic examination was made for cysts fluid to determine the fertility. DNAs extraction was done for each sample in addition to purify and concentrate of extracted DNA samples was performed to determine nad1 (400bp) gene used conventional PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using NCBI-Blast Alignment identification and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean. Twenty five (10 from human and 5 from each studied animals) samples were chosen due to their fertility and high DNA purity, in which three strains (genotypes) were investigated including sheep strain (G1) 40%, buffalo strain (G3) 48% and camel strain (G6) 12%, where human samples related to G1(20%) and G3(80%); sheep samples related to G1(80%) and G3(20%); cattle samples related to G1(60%), G3 (20%) and G6 (20%); camels samples related to G1(20%), G3(40%) and G6(40%). The dominant strain is a buffalo strain (G3); both of buffalo strain (G3) and sheep strain (G1) represented the actual source of human infection. There is no host specificity of detected genotypes.

The first unequivocal report of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis in cattle in Mosul city-Iraq

Saevan Saad Al-Mahmood; Hafidh I. Al-Sadi

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2015, Volume 29, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2015.116859

The aim of present study was to report spontaneous Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) infection in rabbits and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (E. intestinalis) infection in cattle in Mosul city - Iraq. Fecal samples were collected randomly from 142 rabbits and 115 cattle during the period from June, 2012 to June, 2013. Thin smears were prepared from the fecal samples and stained with different fecal stains, as well as the indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique. Infected rabbits were necropsied and pathology of the infection was described. The result showed that microsporidiosis was detected in 41 (26.9%) rabbits and in 12 (10.4%) cattle. E. cuniculi spores were identified in 31 out of the 41 rabbits (73.2%) and E. intestinalis in 7 out of the 12 cattle (58.3%). Infected rabbits showed vasculitis, granulomatous encephalitis, chronic interstitial nephritis, granulomatous hepatitis, cholangitis, vasculitis and non – suppurative pneumonia, infiltration of mononuclear cells in most layers of the intestines, and hyperplasia of lymphoid tissues. E. cuniculi spores were seen in the liver, kidneys and lungs. This study considered the first one that report microsporidiosis (E. cuniculi, E. intestinalis) in Mosul city - Iraq.

Seroprevalence of piroplasmosis with tick distribution in northern Iraq

L.T. Omer; M.A. Kadir; J.S. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2012, Volume 26, Issue Suppl. III, Pages 105-108
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2012.168746

The current study was carried out on blood samples of 299 local breed female cattle in Erbil, Duhok and Suleimania, Northern Iraq, for the period from beginning of January till end of December 2006 for detection of piroplasmosis.  By direct blood smear examination, the rate of Theileria annulata alone was 45.1% while in mixed infections with Babesia was 11.7%. The total rate of Theileria infection was 56.9%. The haematological parameters of cattle infected with Theileria alone were PCV=27%, RBC= 5.6 million/ cm3 and Hb 9.5 g/liter did not vary from non infected ones. While in mixed infections (Theileria +Babesia) the blood picture values were decreased dramatically and were PCV=18%, RBC=4.08 million / cm3 and Hb 5.7 g/l. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA), the seropositivity of Theileria was 77.9%, while Babesia was 12.4%. The overall rate of seropositivity by ELISA was 90.3% for piroplasms while by blood smears examination the rate of infected animals was 56.9%. From 5804 ticks collected from animal body, the constituencies of the ticks were 81.7% H. anatolicum anatolicum, 15.3% H. marginatum marginatum, 2.82% Rhipecephalus appendiculatus and 10 ticks (0.2%) were not identified. The highest rate of ticks was found attached to udder and under tail (77%), followed by ears (20%) and hind limbs and around eyes (3%). The distribution of ticks was highest in spring 96.0%, followed by summer 4.0%. No ticks were detected in winter and autumn. The greatest number of ticks was in March (37.9%) followed by May (32.23%), April (25.85%), June (2.17%), July (1.68%) and August (0.17%).

Biometry of genital organs in Iraqi female buffalo

Dhyea J. Khammas; Hnee E. Al-Saffar; Ali F. Alwan

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2005, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 77-81
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2005.37421

Ninety-three of grossly normal buffalo genital tracts were under taken in this study. The mean length, width, thickness, and weight of the ovary devoicing functional Corpus Luteum (CL) were 2.39±0.77 cm, 1.55±0.46 cm, 1.19±0.31 cm and 3.12±2.11 gm, respectively, and 2.139±0.65 cm, 1.23±0.3 cm and 3.14±1.86 gm, for the left one respectively. The mean length, width, thickness and weight of right ovary containing functional CL were 2.61±0.52 cm, 1.59±0.45 cm, 1.53±0.24 cm and 4.79±1.59 gm respectively, and 2.88±0.60 cm, 2.34±0.38 cm, 1.48±0.15 cm and 5.54±1.23 gm for the left one respectively. The mean diameter of the largest six follicles located on the right ovary was 1.42±0.19 cm, and 1.41±0.1 cm of six follicles on left ovary. The mean length of prominent part of the 15 functional CL found on the right ovary was 0.57±0.17 cm and it was 0.57±0.21 cm on the left one, while the mean length and weight of those 15 functional CL of the right ovary were 1.151±0.18 cm and 1.31±0.52 gm, and on the left ovary they were 1.73±0.93 cm and 1.7±0.57 gm. The mean length, diameter and number of caruncles of the right uterine horns were 23.76±8.14 cm, 2.12±0.6 cm and 84.63±13.62 respectively, and they were 23.34±7.96 cm, 2.10±0.58 cm and 84.12±13.27 of the left horns respectively. The mean length and numbers of uterine body caruncles were 1.37±0.75 cm and 6.27±1.92 the mean length, diameter and number of annular rings of cervix were 5.33±0.96 cm, 2.58±0.64 cm and 4.7±0.61, respectively.