Keywords : Pancreas

Histomorphometrical and histochemical study of the pancreas on the local dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)

Samyan L. Mostafa; Yahya Ahmed Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 913-922
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.132567.2105

In the current study, ten adult healthy local dogs of both sexes were used to perform histomorphometrical study on their pancreases. The dog pancreas had an inverted V-shape consisting of left and right lobes joined by a body. The pancreas possesses both exocrine and endocrine parts. The exocrine portion was composed of numerous acini and fewer tubules as well as the duct system. The number, total diameter and cellular height of acini were significantly abundant, larger and taller in the right lobe compared those of the body and left lobe. Furthermore, the number and total diameter of large pancreatic islets were significantly abundant and larger in the left lobe despite with those of the body and right lobe. This result leads to consider the right lobe was a target region for enzymatic secretion, while the left lobe has a specific function for hormonal secretion. According to available literature, no such result and thus conclusion had been reported on dog pancreas previously. In all parts of the pancreas and with aldehyde fuchsin stain, only the large pancreatic islets contained α-, β-, δ-cells as well as non-staining cells. Only, the β-cells occurred as single cells between the pancreatic acini or even within the connective tissue septa. These single cells were more numerous in the left lobe, but they were infrequently located in the body and right lobe.

Histomorphological and carbohydrate histochemical study of the pancreas in native ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos)

Saffanah K. Mahmood; Naziha S. Ahmed; Ghada A. Sultan; Mowaffak J. Yousif

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 1103-1110
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133156.2183

In the current study, the histomorphological and histochemical characteristics of the pancreas in native ducks are examined with a particular emphasis on the structure of pancreatic acini and Langerhans islets (LI). Five adult male native ducks (Anas Platyrhynchos) are examined from the local market of Mosul. All samples are processed routinely for histological and histochemical analyses. Hematoxylin & Eosin, PAS-AB (pH 2.5), Toluidine blue, and Masson's Trichrome stains are used. The morphological examination reveals that male ducks’ pancreas is made up of three major lobes (dorsal, ventral, and third lobes). The pancreas is a small, semi-wide structure with a pale to white pinkish tone located between the duodenum branches. The findings show that the pancreas is enveloped in a thin layer of loose connective tissue capsule and mesothelial; septa extend from the capsule into parenchyma dividing it into many lobules. The study concludes that the pancreatic lobules are composed of a large area of exocrine acini and a small amount of LI, with an exocrine component consisting of round or oval acini with zymogen granules. The endocrine component is represented by three distinct LI types and lacks defined boundaries. Alpha islets are formed of alpha cells (ACs) and a few delta cells (DCs); beta islets are composed of peripherally located beta cells (BCs) and a few (DCs); and mixed islets are composed of alpha, beta, and delta cells. The present study sheds light on the morphological, histological, and histochemical characteristics of the indigenous duck pancreas. However, future research should focus on the pancreas of other bird species as well.

Histopathological changes in kidney and pancreas induced by energy drinks in adult male rats

Ahmed H. Qassim; Maha A. Alsammak; Ashraf A. Ayoob

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2022, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 111-116
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2021.129435.1647

The study aims to assess the impact of various doses of red bull on kidney and pancreas of male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were assigned to three groups (10 animals/ group). Control group (1) received standard diet and water, group 2 and group 3 received daily oral doses of 10 ml/kg/rat and 20 ml/kg/rat of the energy drink (red bull) respectively for 30 days. Under light microscope no tissue changes were seen in kidney and pancreas of control group. In group 2 red bull causes vacuolar degeneration as well as coagulative necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, vascular congestion in the glomeruli and in the interstitial space of the kidney, in addition to atrophy of the glomeruli, as regard to pancreas it causes vascular congestion of the islets of Langerhans, increase in the size of the islets, besides, necrosis of Langerhans cells. In group 3 red bull leads to more atrophic glomeruli, massive coagulative necrosis of renal tubular epithelium, marked vascular dilatation and congestion in the interstitial space and degenerative changes of the renal tubular epithelium, whereas the pancreatic tissue revealed reduction in the size of the islets of Langerhans, vacuolation and degeneration of their cells, necrosis of other islets with mononuclear inflammatory cells infiltration and degenerative changes of pancreatic acini. It is concluded that administration of red bull to rats for 30 days will affect the histological structure of kidney as well as pancreas and this effect is a dose dependent.

Protective effect of placental mesenchymal stem cells on histological changes of pancreas experimentally induced by alloxane in mice

Hana Kh. Ismail; Rasha A. Al-Sabawy; Hamad J. Jumaa

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2020, Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2020.163563

In an attempt to find a treatment for diabetes by Placental mesenchymal stem cells, we induced diabetes in albino mice by injected them with the diabetic agent Alloxan intra peritoneal cavity dose 70 mg / kg of body weight for the group 1 and 2, then injection of the diabetic mice with Placental mesenchymal stem cells in the peritoneal cavity for the group 2 then the glucose levels in the blood of these mice were measured by using a GLUCOTREND 2, while group 3 was control injected with normal saline only. Pancreas tissue where tested by studying histopathological effect of Alloxan, the endocrine pancreas histologically showed decreased in the size and number of Langerhans islets with vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of almost all cells in the atrophied islets. Also, there was congestion of blood vessels in the interlobular space and there was distortion of exocrine pancreas. There was vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial cells of the acini, also there was atrophy of acini which lead to edema and dilatation of interacini space. Moreover, there was thickening in the wall of blood vessels, and there was thrombus in some blood vessels. In addition to the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the interlobular septa. Compared with the section of pancreas of control group showed the normal structure of islets notice the normal cells shape surrounding by exocrine pancreas. Then the pancreas studied after injection of Placental mesenchymal stem cells, while there was regeneration of islets and acini which seem to be normal comparing with control group, there was improvement of normal histological appearance of mice treated with alloxan and then injected with placental mesenchymal stem cells. The results of the diabetic mice which treated with placental mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated present of significant differences (P≤0.05). Our conclusion of this study revealed that placental mesenchymal stem cells have a protective role against the histological changes of pancreas induced by alloxan.

Histological and ultrastructural studies of the pancreas of native rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Y.A. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 371-378
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.163082

The pancreas of male adult native rabbit was studied by using light microscope (LM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The pancreas possessed both exocrine and endocrine portions. Exocrine portion included both acinar and ductal cells. The acinar cells were pyramidal in shaped which formed the lining epithelia of secretory units (acini). The apical cytoplasm of acinar cells contained unequal size and variable electron opacity of zymogen granules, while the basal part occupied by well-developed rough endoplasm reticulum (rER). Short microvilli projected from the free surfaces of both acinar and ductal cells. The lateral cell membranes of adjacent acinar and ductal cells adhere apically by junctional complex, which was composed of zonulae occludens and zonulae adherens. There was notable interdigitating between the lateral cell membranes of neighboring ductal cells that were located beneath the junctional complex. The oval or irregular pancreatic islets consisted of β, α and δ endocrine cells. Both β- and α-cells could be demonstrated by using LM and TEM, whereas δ-cells visualized with TEM only. The cytoplasm of β-cells contained purple granules and α-cells showed yellowish granules in their cytoplasm when stained with aldehyde fuchsine method. At ultrastructure level, the cytoplasmic granules of β-cells were identified by homogenous electron dense core with clear hallo zone, the numerous granules of α-cells had very electron dense granules and δ-cells contained few granules similar to those of α-cells.β- or α-cells inserted as a single cell and in a partial manner between the ductal cells of some ducts.

A gross anatomical and histological study of pancreas in adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

Ammar Al-Haaik

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 175-180
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.162960

Fifteen Kestrel were used in this study regardless to their sex. The results study showed that the pancreas of adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) lies under the right side of the peritoneal cavity, and situated between the descending part and ascending part of the duodenum and has pale pinkish to white pinkish colored and consisted of 3 lobes dorsal (lobus pancreatic dorsalis), middle (middle pancreatic lobus) and ventral (lobus pancreatis ventralis) with well-developed interlobar connections made it difficult to distinguish between the 3 lobes. Histologically the pancreas of adult Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) was covered by very thin layer of connective tissue with mesothelial cells, Connective tissue septa extended from capsule into parenchyma of pancreas dividing it in to many lobules. These septa were very thin and some of them carried blood vessels distributed all over the pancreas. The exocrine portion was constituted from serous acini with pyramidal shaped cells which had dark rounded nucleus in the middle part of the cell. Acidophilic granules found in the apices of cells. Centro acinar cells found as one or two nuclei in the center of the pancreatic acini. The endocrine portion (islets of Langerhans) was formed from clusters of endocrine cells in shape of oval or rounded pale structures with different sizes. The small one has mean diameter of 40.02±0.9 µm while the large one has diameter of 126.3±3.8 µm. Few endocrine cells were seen distributed as single cells among the pancreatic acini.

Morphometrical and histochemical foundation of pancreas and ductal system in white-eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis)

Salim Salih Ali Al-Khakani; Isam Mohammed Jaber Zabiba; Kadthem Al-zubaidi; Ekhlas Al-alwany

Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2019, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 99-104
DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2019.125521.1043

The present study was designed to find the macroscopic, microscopic and histocamical properties in pancreas of white-eared bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis) and ductal system, ten healthy adult birds were transferred to the veterinary anatomy laboratory in Al-Qasim green university. Macroscopic study revealed that the pancreas was white in color, formed from two lobes, the ventral lobe navicular in shape while the dorsal lobe was very thin like triangular in appearance but longer than the ventral lobe. The two lobes were not occupy the space between the descending and ascending limbs of duodenum, the mean weight of birds and whole pancreas was (27.6±3.04), (0.07±0.022) gm respectively, the mean weight of dorsal and ventral lobes was (0.034±0.005), (0.036±0.0054) gm respectively and the mean length of dorsal and ventral lobe was (1.3±0.05), (0.88±0.03) cm respectively. The pancreas was a small organs in white-eared bulbul. The result of microscopic study that the pancreas in white-eared bulbul similar to other birds and covered by a thin C.T capsule with mesothelium cells. The pancreas parenchyma was consisted of exocrine and endocrine portions, the Langerhans island appeared in dorsal lobe in all histological sections which composed of different shapes and sizes. The intercalated ducts of ductal system lined by simple to low cuboidal cells then the epithelia changed to simple cuboidal in interlobular duct and become columnar in larger ducts. The main excretory ducts composed of three histological layers mucosa, muscularis and adventitia.